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Technical Paper

Strain Rate Effect on Martensitic Transformation in a TRIP Steel Containing Carbide-Free Bainite

2019-04-02
2019-01-0521
Adiabatic heating during plastic straining can slow the diffusionless shear transformation of austenite to martensite in steels that exhibit transformation induced plasticity (TRIP). However, the extent to which the transformation is affected over a strain rate range of relevance to automotive stamping and vehicle impact events is unclear for most third-generation advanced high strength TRIP steels. In this study, an 1180MPa minimum tensile strength TRIP steel with carbide-free bainite is evaluated by measuring the variation of retained austenite volume fraction (RAVF) in fractured tensile specimens with position and strain. This requires a combination of servo-hydraulic load frame instrumented with high speed stereo digital image correlation for measurement of strains and ex-situ synchrotron x-ray diffraction for determination of RAVF in fractured tensile specimens.
Technical Paper

Knock Thresholds and Stochastic Performance Predictions: An Experimental Validation Study

2019-04-02
2019-01-1168
Knock control systems are fundamentally stochastic, regulating some aspect of the distribution from which observed knock intensities are drawn. Typically a simple threshold is applied, and the controller regulates the resultant knock event rate. Recent work suggests that the choice of threshold can have a significant impact on closed loop performance, but to date such studies have been performed only in simulation. Rigorous assessment of closed loop performance is also a challenging topic in its own right because response trajectories depend on the random arrival of knock events. The results therefore vary from one experiment to the next, even under identical operating conditions. To address this issue, stochastic simulation methods have been developed which aim to predict the expected statistics of the closed loop response, but again these have not been validated experimentally.
Technical Paper

Detection of Presence and Posture of Vehicle Occupants Using a Capacitance Sensing Mat

2019-04-02
2019-01-1232
Capacitance sensing is the technology that detects the presence of nearby objects by measuring the change in capacitance. A change in capacitance is triggered either by a change in dielectric constant, area of overlap or distance of separation between the electrodes of the capacitor. It is a technology that finds wide use in applications such as touch screens, proximity sensing etc. Drawing motivation from such applications, this paper investigates how capacitive sensing can be employed to detect the presence and posture of occupants inside vehicles. Compared to existing solutions, the proposed approach is low-cost, easy to deploy and highly efficient. The sensing system consists of a capacitance-sensing mat that is embedded with copper foils and an associated sensing circuitry. Inside the mat the foils are arranged in rows and columns to form several touch-nodes across the surface of the mat.
Technical Paper

On Enhanced Fuzzy Sliding-Mode Controller and Its Chattering Suppression for Vehicle Semi-Active Suspension System

2018-04-03
2018-01-1403
This paper aims to present an enhanced fuzzy sliding-mode control scheme with variable rate reaching law for semi-active vehicle suspension systems, which can reduce chattering phenomena in high frequency compared with the sliding-mode controller with traditional exponent reaching law. First, an ideal-skyhook damping suspension system is taken as reference model; then the new control law is synthesized by employing the fuzzy logic control while considering the sliding-mode reaching segment characteristics, which can dynamically change the reaching rate to suppress chattering in closed-loop control systems; finally, simulation analysis is conducted under both random road and bump road surface, the results verified the effectiveness and feasibility of the proposed control scheme.
Technical Paper

Integrated Computational Materials Engineering (ICME) Multi-Scale Model Development for Advanced High Strength Steels

2017-03-28
2017-01-0226
This paper presents development of a multi-scale material model for a 980 MPa grade transformation induced plasticity (TRIP) steel, subject to a two-step quenching and partitioning heat treatment (QP980), based on integrated computational materials engineering principles (ICME Model). The model combines micro-scale material properties defined by the crystal plasticity theory with the macro-scale mechanical properties, such as flow curves under different loading paths. For an initial microstructure the flow curves of each of the constituent phases (ferrite, austenite, martensite) are computed based on the crystal plasticity theory and the crystal orientation distribution function. Phase properties are then used as an input to a state variable model that computes macro-scale flow curves while accounting for hardening caused by austenite transformation into martensite under different straining paths.
Technical Paper

Determination of Fracture Strain of Advanced High Strength Steels Using Digital Image Correlation in Combination with Thinning Measurement

2017-03-28
2017-01-0314
Fracture strain data provide essential information for material selection and serve as an important failure criterion in computer simulations of crash events. Traditionally, the fracture strain was measured by evaluating the thinning at fracture using tools such as a microscope or a point micrometer. In the recent decades, digital image correlation (DIC) has evolved as an advanced optical technique to record full-field strain history of materials during deformation. Using this technique, a complete set of the fracture strains (including major, minor, and thickness strains) can be approximated for the material. However, results directly obtained from the DIC can be dependent on the experiment setup and evaluation parameters, which potentially introduce errors to the reported values.
Technical Paper

VoGe: A Voice and Gesture System for Interacting with Autonomous Cars

2017-03-28
2017-01-0068
In the next 20 years fully autonomous vehicles are expected to be in the market. The advance on their development is creating paradigm shifts on different automotive related research areas. Vehicle interiors design and human vehicle interaction are evolving to enable interaction flexibility inside the cars. However, most of today’s vehicle manufacturers’ autonomous car concepts maintain the steering wheel as a control element. While this approach allows the driver to take over the vehicle route if needed, it causes a constraint in the previously mentioned interaction flexibility. Other approaches, such as the one proposed by Google, enable interaction flexibility by removing the steering wheel and accelerator and brake pedals. However, this prevents the users to take control over the vehicle route if needed, not allowing them to make on-route spontaneous decisions, such as stopping at a specific point of interest.
Technical Paper

Teaching Autonomous Vehicles How to Drive under Sensing Exceptions by Human Driving Demonstrations

2017-03-28
2017-01-0070
Autonomous driving technologies can provide better safety, comfort and efficiency for future transportation systems. Most research in this area has mainly been focused on developing sensing and control approaches to achieve various autonomous driving functions. Very little of this research, however, has studied how to efficiently handle sensing exceptions. A simple exception measured by any of the sensors may lead to failures in autonomous driving functions. The autonomous vehicles are then supposed to be sent back to manufacturers for repair, which takes both time and money. This paper introduces an efficient approach to make human drivers able to online teach autonomous vehicles to drive under sensing exceptions. A human-vehicle teaching-and-learning framework for autonomous driving is proposed and the human teaching and vehicle learning processes for handling sensing exceptions in autonomous vehicles are designed in detail.
Technical Paper

Combined Synchrotron X-Ray Diffraction and Digital Image Correlation Technique for Measurement of Austenite Transformation with Strain in TRIP-Assisted Steels

2016-04-05
2016-01-0419
The strain-induced diffusionless shear transformation of retained austenite to martensite during straining of transformation induced plasticity (TRIP) assisted steels increases strain hardening and delays necking and fracture leading to exceptional ductility and strength, which are attractive for automotive applications. A novel technique that provides the retained austenite volume fraction variation with strain with improved precision is presented. Digital images of the gauge section of tensile specimens were first recorded up to selected plastic strains with a stereo digital image correlation (DIC) system. The austenite volume fraction was measured by synchrotron X-ray diffraction from small squares cut from the gage section. Strain fields in the squares were then computed by localizing the strain measurement to the corresponding region of a given square during DIC post-processing of the images recorded during tensile testing.
Journal Article

Fuzzy Logic Approach to Vehicle Stability Control of Oversteer

2011-04-12
2011-01-0268
Traditional Electronic Stability Control (ESC) for automobiles is usually accomplished through the use of estimated vehicle dynamics from simplified models that rely on parameters such as cornering stiffness that can change with the vehicle state and time. This paper proposes a different method for electronic stability control of oversteer by predicting the degree of instability in a vehicle. The algorithm is solely based on measurable response characteristics including lateral acceleration, yaw rate, speed, and driver steering input. These signals are appropriately conditioned and evaluated with fuzzy logic to determine the degree of instability present. When the “degree of instability” passes a certain threshold, the appropriate control action is applied to the vehicle in the form of differential yaw braking. Using only the measured response of the vehicle alleviates the problem of degraded performance when vehicle parameters change.
Journal Article

Numerical Investigation of Phase Change Materials for Thermal

2009-04-20
2009-01-0171
Phase change materials (PCMs) are extensively used in many engineering areas for thermal management purposes. This paper investigated the application of PCMs for vehicular systems, especially for the thermal protection of vehicle lighting systems based on light emitting diodes (LEDs). Lighting systems based on LEDs offer many advantages, however, also pose a smaller margin of error for thermal management. This paper analyzed the combined use of PCMs with metal foam for cooling systems. The cooling performance was studied numerically under different porosity values of the metal foam, and different boundary conditions. The cooling performance was also compared to a solid metal sink system (SMS) and was found to offer several distinct cooling characteristics.
Technical Paper

Lap Time Simulation of Stock Cars on Super Speedways with Random Wind Gusts

2004-11-30
2004-01-3509
This paper describes the development of a simplified model and simulation of a stock car subjected to both steady and random winds on a super speedway. Results indicate how lap times are affected by design and operational parameters and by winds. The simulation models a super speedway such as Talladega or Daytona. Inputs to the simulation include wind speed, wind direction, speed of wind gusts, and the duration and frequency of wind gusts. The program will output both total elapsed time and segregated times per each track section. Also, along with elapsed times, the output will include other characteristics pertaining to the performance of the car that allow the user to obtain a basic understanding of the general performance of the car. This paper will show how the car was modeled. Results for both head winds and crosswinds are shown.
Technical Paper

Ride Dynamics and Pavement Loading of Tractor Semi-Trailers on Randomly Rough Roads

2004-10-26
2004-01-2622
An investigation of the vertical dynamics of a tractor semi-trailer traversing a random road profile was conducted. This paper presents the development of a 14 degree-of-freedom (DOF), dynamic ride model of a tractor semi-trailer. It is based on work previously conducted by Vaduri and Law [1] and Law et al [2]. The DOFs include: (a) vertical displacements of each of the five axles, the tractor frame, the engine on its mounts, the cab on its suspension, and the driver's seat; (b) pitch displacements of the trailer with respect to the tractor, the cab, and the rigid tractor frame; and, (c) the first bending or beaming modes of the tractor and trailer frames. The model also incorporates suspension friction, and tire non-uniformities. The simulation of the model is conducted using MATLAB software.
Technical Paper

A Modified Monte-Carlo Approach to Simulation-Based Vehicle Parameter Design with Multiple Performance Objectives and Multiple Scenarios

2002-03-04
2002-01-1186
Shorter development times in the automotive industry are leading to the increased use of computer simulation in the vehicle design cycle to pre-optimize vehicle concepts. The focus of the work presented in this study is vehicle dynamic performance in different driving maneuvers. More specifically this paper presents a methodology for simulation-based parameter design of vehicles for excellent performance in multiple maneuvers. The model used in the study consists of eight degrees-of-freedom and has been validated previously. The vehicle data used is for a commercially available vehicle. A number of different driving scenarios (maneuvers) based on ISO standards for transient dynamic behavior are implemented and performance indices are calculated for each individual maneuver considered. Vehicle performance is assessed based on the performance indices.
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