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Journal Article

Influence of Test Procedure on Friction Behavior and its Repeatability in Dynamometer Brake Performance Testing

The efforts of the ISO “Test Variability Task Force” have been aimed at improving the understanding and at reducing brake dynamometer test variability during performance testing. In addition, dynamometer test results have been compared and correlated to vehicle testing. Even though there is already a vast amount of anecdotal evidence confirming the fact that different procedures generate different friction coefficients on the same brake corner, the availability of supporting data to the industry has been elusive up to this point. To overcome this issue, this paper focuses on assessing friction levels, friction coefficient sensitivity, and repeatability under ECE, GB, ISO, JASO, and SAE laboratory friction evaluation tests.
Technical Paper

The Psychological and Accident Reconstruction “Thresholds” of Drivers' Detection of Relative Velocity

Relative velocity detection thresholds of drivers are one factor that determines their ability to avoid rear-end crashes. Laboratory, simulator and driving studies show that drivers could scale relative velocity when it exceeded the threshold of about 0.003 rad/sec. Studies using accident reconstruction have suggested that the threshold may be about ten times larger. This paper discusses this divergence and suggests reasons for it and concludes that the lower value should be used as a true measure of the psychological threshold for detection of relative velocity.
Journal Article

Corrosion Behavior of Mixed-Metal Joint of Magnesium to Mild Steel by Ultrasonic Spot Welding with and without Adhesives

Development of reliable magnesium (Mg) to steel joining methods is one of the critical issues in broader applications of Mg in automotive body construction. Ultrasonic spot welding (USW) has been demonstrated successfully to join Mg to steel and to achieve strong joints. In this study, corrosion test of ultrasonic spot welds between 1.6 mm thick Mg AZ31B-H24 and 0.8 mm thick galvanized mild steel, without and with adhesive, was conducted. Adhesive used was a one-component, heat-cured epoxy material, and was applied between overlapped sheets before USW. Corrosion test was conducted with an automotive cyclic corrosion test, which includes cyclic exposures of dipping in the 0.5% sodium chloride (NaCl) bath, a constant humidity environment, and a drying period. Lap shear strength of the joints decreased with the cycles of corrosion exposure. Good joint strengths were retained at the end of 30-cycle test.
Technical Paper

The HCCI Concept and Control, Performed with MultiAir Technology on Gasoline Engines

The introduction of MultiAir technology [8] has had a strong impact on engine performance, fuel consumption, emissions and control. This technology, intended at first for gasoline engines and applied only on intake valves, is aiming at the reduction of engine breathing losses and, as a consequence, reduction of pollutant emissions and fuel consumption, together with an improvement of maximum intake efficiency. Further positive effects of MultiAir technology have been a significant improvement of Low End Torque, engine driveability (“fun-to-drive” index) and other operating conditions (e.g. idle control). Current development of MultiAir technology is focusing on a better management of hot EGR (Exhaust Gas Recirculation), still acting only on the intake side, although with specifically designed valve lift profiles. This application of MultiAir technology is pushing gasoline engines towards new levels of performance improvements.
Technical Paper

Brake Dynamometer Test Variability - Analysis of Root Causes

Modern project management including brake testing includes the exchange of reliable results from different sources and different locations. The ISO TC22/SWG2-Brake Lining Committee established a task force led by Ford Motor Co. to determine and analyze root causes for variability during dynamometer brake performance testing. The overall goal was to provide guidelines on how to reduce variability and how to improve correlation between dynamometer and vehicle test results. This collaborative accuracy study used the ISO 26867 Friction behavior assessment for automotive brake systems. Future efforts of the ISO task force will address NVH and vehicle-level tests. This paper corresponds to the first two phases of the project regarding performance brake dynamometer testing and presents results, findings and conclusions regarding repeatability (within-lab) and reproducibility (between-labs) from different laboratories and different brake dynamometers.
Technical Paper

Simulation studies concerning a Fuel Cell Hybrid Bus

A hybrid electric vehicle simulation tool (IBZ-Simulator) has been developed at the Fuel Cell Institute of the University of Applied Sciences Esslingen to study the fuel economy potential of a Fuel Cell hybrid urban bus. In this paper, the fundamental architecture of the FC urban buses was described, as well as the control strategy to manage the power flow between the different elements of the drive train. A comparison of the hybrid with the conventional type and ICE-hybrid type is performed, and important factors relating to the vehicle efficiency (accessory loads, vehicle mass, Fuel Cell system ramping rate and battery capacity) were assessed. The using of supercapacitor (or ultracapacitors) as peak power buffer has been investigated.
Technical Paper

Perforation Corrosion Performance of Autobody Steel Sheet in On-Vehicle and Accelerated Tests

The Auto/Steel Partnership Corrosion Project Team has completed a perforation corrosion test program consisting of on-vehicle field exposures and various accelerated tests. Steel sheet products with eight combinations of metallic and organic coatings were tested, utilizing a simple crevice coupon design. On-vehicle exposures were conducted in St. John's and Detroit for up to seven years to establish a real-world performance standard. Identical test specimens were exposed to the various accelerated tests, and the results were compared to the real-world standard. This report documents the results of these tests, and compares the accelerated test results (including SAE J2334, GM9540P, Ford APGE, CCT-I, ASTM B117, South Florida Modified Volvo, and Kure Beach (25-meter) exposures) to the on-vehicle tests. The results are compared in terms of five criteria: extent of corrosion, rank order of material performance, degree of correlation, acceleration factor, and control of test environment.
Technical Paper

The Influence of Residual Stresses on the Susceptibility to Hydrogen Embrittlement in Hardened Steel Components Subjected to Rolling Contact Conditions

A review of many years of published work has shown that hydrogen embrittlement can occur under rolling contact conditions. Breakdown of lubrication and contamination with water have been cited as the probable sources of atomic hydrogen. In this paper, a unique fracture morphology is identified and the mechanism of the fracture progression from initiation to final catastrophic failure is proposed. Development of beneficial residual compressive stress near the contacting surfaces is one approach used to avoid this type of failure. Several alternative methods capable of developing a more desirable stress distribution will be discussed.
Technical Paper

Fatigue Technology in Vehicle Development

Modern approaches to durability assurance in ground vehicle design are reviewed in the context of recent developments in computer-based analytical and experimental tools for use by designers and development engineers. Examples, using an automotive wheel assembly, are presented to illustrate the application of fatigue analysis in product development. Major challenges associated with the linking of various design tools into integrated networks appropriately configured for industrial problem solving are discussed along with an assessment of the potential benefits to be gained from such integration.
Technical Paper

Fatigue Properties of Die Cast Magnesium Alloys

This paper provides a review of the fatigue properties reported in the open literature for die cast magnesium-based alloys. Recently developed fatigue data, in the form of stress versus number of cycles to failure for bending fatigue (R=-1), are presented for die cast AM60B and AZ91D alloy specimens with thicknesses between 1 and 10 mm. The effects of specimen thickness and macrostructural features, such as porosity distributions and surface features (parting line and ejection pin marks), on the fatigue data are discussed.
Technical Paper

Biodegradable Hydraulic Fluids: A Review

There is an ongoing interest in biodegradable hydraulic fluids. Biodegradable fluids are often considered to include only vegetable oils, polyol esters and diester base stocks. However, other fluid base stocks including highly refined mineral oils, poly(alpha olefins) and fire-resistant fluids such as water-glycol hydraulic fluids are also biodegradable fluid alternatives. This paper will provide an overview of the international literature on biodegradable fluids, various international testing protocol, fluid base stocks, effect of oxidative stability, material compatibility and pump performance.
Technical Paper

An On-Line Oil Viscosity Sensor

The timing of lubricating oil changes for passenger vehicles are based on set time or mileage intervals specified by their manufacturers. A few vehicle manufacturers use more sophisticated methods such as logging the engine speed and temperature and calculating the oil change intervals from this data. Neither technique tells the vehicle user anything about the true state of the oil. A novel form of viscosity sensor based on a vibrating piezoceramic element has been developed. Based on the output from such a device, a more accurate determination of the oil change interval can be made and abnormal conditions (such as the leakage of fuels into the lubricating oil) can be detected. This paper gives a brief description of the device itself and shows results from prototype samples.
Technical Paper

The SAE Oil Labeling Assessment Program - 1990 Sample Set

The results of analyses on 300 samples of engine oil purchased in the retail market in 1990 are discussed. All samples were labeled with the API SF or SG Service Category, separately, or in combination with an API C category designation. Also, 17 oils previously found to be questionably labeled, from the 1989 set, were repurchased and analyzed. These results are included.
Technical Paper

The SAE Oil Labeling Assessment Program-Three-Year Cumulative Report

A brief overview of the history and scope of the SAE Oil Labeling Assessment Program is presented. Then, the results of analyses on 893 samples of engine oil purchased in the retail market over the first three years of the program, are discussed. All samples were labeled with the API SF or SG Service Category, separately, or in combination with an API “C” category designation. Additionally, 43 engine oil samples found to be questionably labeled, were repurchased and analyzed; these results are included.
Technical Paper

Ball-on-Cylinder Testing for Aviation Fuel Lubricity

Of the many research approaches investigated over the years to measure the lubrication properties of aviation turbine fuels, the Ball-on-Cylinder Lubricity Evaluator (BOCLE) has emerged as the most significant test. BOCLE was originally a lubricant research device modified for low viscosity jet fuel when the Air Force encountered fuel control problems in 1965 with JP-4. It proved to be capable of detecting the presence of additives such as corrosion inhibitors which improve boundary lubrication properties and also the absence of natural lubricity agents in highly refined jet fuel. The Coordinating Research Council carried out several programs to investigate test variables such as cylinder type, humidity control and load. A semi-automated version using Falex test rings has now been commercialized and is being used to test fuels from aircraft experiencing abnormal pump wear and fuel control hang-up.
Technical Paper

Hydraulic Balancing to Improve Reliability of Military Hydraulic Components

The late and expected improvements in balancing design of hydraulics components to be sure to use real and relatively thick films to enhance the transmission gear of forces and torques with a very low level of friction forces and pratically without heating and wear. The RAFFO process allows high performances, low sensitivity to pollution and small machining cost.
Technical Paper

Effect of Ground Proximity on the Aerodynamic Characteristics of the STOL Aircraft

The aerodynamics of the STOL aircraft can experience significant changes in proximity to the ground. A review of the existing data base and methodologies has been made and the results of that review are presented in this paper. The existing data show that in ground proximity the STOL aircraft will generally experience a reduction in the lift component regardless of the lifting configuration. Those configurations with integrated power and lift systems will have an additional effect of ground induced aerodynamic changes. This paper will discuss the existing data base and the deficiencies of that data base.
Technical Paper

Overview of the Driver Performance Data Book

This paper presents an overview of the Driver Performance Data Book under preparation by the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA). It includes a brief discussion of the purpose of the Data Book, the restrictions placed on the development effort, and how it is expected that it will be used by Agency personnel and others. Sample pages from the document are reproduced to illustrate the basic format, and the Table of Contents of each section is presented to identify the major topics covered and indicate the number of pages devoted to each.
Technical Paper

Mass Measurement of Soil Parameters in Off-Road Locomotion-Wheeled Automated Bewameter (WAB)

Development of Terrain-Vehicle Systems Analysis involving statistically variable ground, has necessitated the development of field instrumentation for mass measurement of soil parameter input. To this end, the idea originally conceived and tested at U.S. Army's Land Locomotion Laboratory in Detroit, was revived and adapted to modern requirements. The Wheeled Automated Bevameter (WAB) was presented as a better vehicle analog for measuring soil parameters than the conventional plate-shearing instrument hitherto used. It yields itself to mass production of terrain input, without which further progress in Terramechanics, based on statistical changes of the environment may be impossible.
Technical Paper

Parametric Analyses of Tracks and Tracklayers Update-Sample of Engineering Problems and Their Solutions in Off Road Locomotion

The original design-performance evaluation method of tracks and tracklaying vehicles, proposed by this writer during the WW II, was further developed and enhanced with new experience gained by many researchers. The method is based on the approximation of track action by a number of appropriate wheel actions. It is mathematically simple, and practically unique encompassing detailed track and road wheel geometry, wheel spacing, loads and load distribution together with regular soil strength parameters. It conforms methodologically with evaluation of pneumatic tires and rigid wheels, previously published in a series of SAE papers. The said papers and the present one form a concise engineering outline of Terramechanics for off-road locomotion.