Refine Your Search

Topic

Author

Search Results

Journal Article

Review of Vehicle Engine Efficiency and Emissions

2019-04-02
2019-01-0314
This review paper covers major regulatory and technology developments in 2018 pertinent to tailpipe emissions of greenhouse gases and criteria pollutants. Europe has proposed ambitious reductions in CO2 limits for both light- and heavy-duty sectors. The challenge is compounded with changing measurement norms and a significant shift away from fuel efficient diesels in the light-duty (LD) space. Both incremental and step changes are being made to advance internal combustion. New studies show that in-use NOx emissions from diesels can be much lower than required by the Euro 6 regulation. Discussions have already started on Euro 7 regulations, and the leading regulatory concepts and proposed technical solutions are provided. In the heavy-duty (HD) sector, the progress is outlined in improving engine and vehicle fuel efficiency through the US Department of Energy’s (DOE’s) SuperTruck II program and other representative studies.
Book

Reducing Particulate Emissions in Gasoline Engines

2018-11-28
For years, diesel engines have been the focus of particulate matter emission reductions. Now, however, modern diesel engines emit less particles than a comparable gasoline engine. This transformation necessitates an introduction of particulate reduction strategies for the gasoline-powered vehicle. Many strategies can be leveraged from diesel engines, but new combustion and engine control technologies will be needed to meet the latest gasoline regulations across the globe. Particulate reduction is a critical health concern in addition to the regulatory requirements. This is a vital issue with real-world implications. Reducing Particulate Emissions in Gasoline Engines encompasses the current strategies and technologies used to reduce particulates to meet regulatory requirements and curtail health hazards - reviewing principles and applications of these techniques.
Journal Article

Review of Vehicle Engine Efficiency and Emissions

2018-04-03
2018-01-0329
This review article summarizes major and representative developments in vehicle emissions regulations, engine efficiency, and emission control from 2017. The article starts with the key regulatory developments in the field, including newly proposed European light-duty (LD) CO2 regulations (15 and 30% cuts in 2025 and 2030, respectively, from 2020 levels) and technical improvements of the Euro 6 real driving emissions (RDE) regulations. China finalized their new energy vehicle (NEV) mandates for 2019 and 2020. LD and heavy-duty (HD) engine technology continues showing marked improvements in engine efficiency. Key developments are summarized for gasoline and diesel engines to meet both the emerging criteria and greenhouse gas (GHG) regulations. Several LD gasoline concepts are achieving 10-15% and some up to 35% reductions relative to gasoline direct injection (GDI) engines of today.
Technical Paper

Review of Vehicle Engine Efficiency and Emissions

2017-03-28
2017-01-0907
This review paper summarizes major and representative developments in vehicle engine efficiency and emissions regulations and technologies from 2016. The paper starts with the key regulatory developments in the field, including newly proposed European RDE (real driving emissions) particle number regulations, and Euro 6 type regulations for China and India in the 2020 timeframe. China will be tightening 30-40% relative to Euro 6 in 2023. The California heavy duty (HD) low-NOx regulation is advancing and the US EPA is anticipating developing a harmonized proposal for implementation in 2023+. The US also finalized the next round of HD GHG (greenhouse gas) regulations for 2021-27, requiring 5% engine CO2 reductions. LD (light duty) and HD engine technology continues showing marked improvements in engine efficiency. Key developments are summarized for gasoline and diesel engines to meet both the emerging criteria and greenhouse gas regulations.
Journal Article

Low Cost LEV-III, Tier-III Emission Solutions with Particulate Control using Advanced Catalysts and Substrates

2016-04-05
2016-01-0925
A production calibrated GTDI 1.6L Ford Fusion was used to demonstrate low HC, CO, NOx, PM (particulate mass), and PN (particulate number) emissions using advanced catalyst technologies with newly developed high porosity substrates and coated GPFs (gasoline particulate filters). The exhaust system consisted of 1.2 liters of TWC (three way catalyst) in the close-coupled position, and 1.6L of coated GPF in the underfloor position. The catalysts were engine-aged on a dynamometer to simulate 150K miles of road aging. Results indicate that ULEV70 emissions can be achieved at ∼$40 of PGM, while also demonstrating PM tailpipe performance far below the proposed California Air Resources Board (CARB) LEV III limit of 1 mg/mi. Along with PM and PN analysis, exhaust system backpressure is also presented with various GPF designs.
Journal Article

Vehicular Emissions in Review

2016-04-05
2016-01-0919
This review paper summarizes major and representative developments in vehicular emissions regulations and technologies from 2015. The paper starts with the key regulatory advancements in the field, including newly proposed Euro 6 type regulations for Beijing, China, and India in the 2017-20 timeframe. Europe is continuing developments towards real driving emissions (RDE) standards with the conformity factors for light-duty diesel NOx ramping down to 1.5X by 2021. The California heavy duty (HD) low-NOx regulation is advancing and may be proposed in 2017/18 for implementation in 2023+. LD (light duty) and HD engine technology continues showing marked improvements in engine efficiency. Key developments are summarized for gasoline and diesel engines to meet both the emerging criteria and greenhouse gas regulations. LD gasoline concepts are achieving 45% BTE (brake thermal efficiency or net amount of fuel energy gong to the crankshaft) and closing the gap with diesel.
Journal Article

Review of Vehicular Emissions Trends

2015-04-14
2015-01-0993
This review paper summarizes major developments in vehicular emissions regulations and technologies from 2014. The paper starts with the key regulatory advancements in the field, including newly proposed Non-Road Mobile Machinery regulations for 2019-20 in Europe, and the continuing developments towards real driving emissions (RDE) standards. An expert panel in India proposed a roadmap through 2025 for clean fuels and tailpipe regulations. LD (light duty) and HD (heavy-duty) engine technology continues showing marked improvements in engine efficiency. Key developments are summarized for gasoline and diesel engines to meet both the emerging NOx and GHG regulations. HD engines are demonstrating more than 50% brake thermal efficiency using methods that can reasonably be commercialized. Next, NOx control technologies are summarized, including SCR (selective catalytic reduction), lean NOx traps, and combination systems. Emphasis is on durability and control.
Technical Paper

Development of a Super-Light Substrate for LEV III/Tier3 Emission Regulation

2015-04-14
2015-01-1001
With the increasing number of automobiles, the worldwide problem of air pollution is becoming more serious. The necessity of reducing tail-pipe emissions is as high as ever, and in countries all over the world the regulations are becoming stricter. The emissions at times such as after engine cold start, when the three-way catalyst (TWC) has not warmed up, accounts for the majority of the emissions of these pollutants from vehicles. This is caused by the characteristic of the TWC that if a specific temperature is not exceeded, TWC cannot purify the emissions. In other words, if the catalyst could be warmed up at an early stage after engine start, this would provide a major contribution to reducing the emissions. Therefore, this research is focused on the substrate weight and investigated carrying out major weight reduction by making the porosity of the substrate larger than that of conventional products.
Journal Article

Vehicular Emissions in Review

2014-04-01
2014-01-1491
The review paper summarizes major developments in vehicular emissions regulations and technologies in 2013. First, the paper covers the key regulatory developments in the field, including proposed light-duty (LD) criteria pollutant tightening in the US; and in Europe, the continuing developments towards real-world driving emissions (RDE) standards. Significant shifts are occurring in China and India in addressing their severe air quality problems. The paper then gives a brief, high-level overview of key developments in fuels. Projections are that we are in the early stages of oil supply stability, which could stabilize fuel prices. LD and HD (heavy-duty) engine technology continues showing marked improvements in engine efficiency. Key developments are summarized for gasoline and diesel engines to meet both the emerging NOx and GHG regulations. HD engines are or will soon be demonstrating 50% brake thermal efficiency using common approaches.
Journal Article

Onboard Gasoline Separation for Improved Vehicle Efficiency

2014-04-01
2014-01-1200
ExxonMobil, Corning and Toyota have collaborated on an Onboard Separation System (OBS) to improve gasoline engine efficiency and performance. OBS is a membrane based process that separates gasoline into higher and lower octane fractions, allowing optimal use of fuel components based on engine requirements. The novel polymer-ceramic composite monolith membrane has been demonstrated to be stable to E10 gasoline, while typically providing 20% yield of ∼100 RON product when using RUL 92 RON gasoline. The OBS system makes use of wasted exhaust energy to effect the fuel separation and provides a simple and reliable means for managing the separated fuels that has been demonstrated using several generations of dual fuel test vehicles. Potential applications include downsizing to increase fuel economy by ∼10% while maintaining performance, and with turbocharging to improve knock resistance.
Journal Article

Vehicular Emissions in Review

2012-04-16
2012-01-0368
This review paper summarizes major developments in vehicular emissions regulations and technologies (light-duty, heavy-duty, gasoline, diesel) in 2011. First, the paper covers the key regulatory developments in the field, including proposed criteria pollutant tightening in California; and in Europe, the newly proposed PN (particle number) regulation for direct injection gasoline engines, test cycle development, and in-use testing discussions. The proposed US LD (light-duty) greenhouse gas (GHG) regulation for 2017-25 is reviewed, as well as the finalized, first-ever, US HD (heavy-duty) GHG rule for 2014-17. The paper then gives a brief, high-level overview of key emissions developments in LD and HD engine technology, covering both gasoline and diesel. Emissions challenges include lean NOx remediation for diesel and lean-burn gasoline to meet both the emerging NOx and GHG regulations.
Technical Paper

Electronic and Atomistic Roles of Cordierite Substrate in Sintering of Washcoated Catalysts for Automotive Exhaust Gas Emissions Control: Multi-scale Computational Chemistry Approach based on Ultra-Accelerated Quantum Chemical Molecular Dynamics Method

2012-04-16
2012-01-1292
Multi-scale computational chemistry methods based on the ultra-accelerated quantum chemical molecular dynamics (UA-QCMD) are applied to investigate electronic and atomistic roles of cordierite substrate in sintering of washcoated automotive catalysts. It is demonstrated that the UA-QCMD method is effective in performing quantum chemical molecular dynamics calculations of crystals of cordierite, Al₂O₃ and CeZrO₄ (hereafter denoted as CZ). It is around 10,000,000 times faster than a conventional first-principles molecular dynamics method based on density-functional theory (DFT). Also, the accuracy of the UA-QCMD method is demonstrated to be as high as that of DFT. On the basis of these confirmations and comparison, we performed extensive quantum chemical molecular dynamics calculations of surfaces of cordierite, Al₂O₃ and CZ, and interfaces of Al₂O₃ and CZ with cordierite at various temperatures.
Journal Article

Diesel Emissions in Review

2011-04-12
2011-01-0304
This review summarizes the latest developments in diesel emissions regarding regulations, engines, NOx (nitrogen oxides) control, particulate matter (PM) reductions, and hydrocarbon (HC) and CO oxidation. Regulations are advancing with proposals for 70% tightening of fleet average light-duty (LD) criteria emissions likely to be proposed in California for ~2016-22. CO₂ regulations in both the heavy- and light-duty sectors will also tighten and impact diesel engines and emissions, probably long into the future. Engine technology is addressing these needs. Light-duty diesel engines are making incremental gains with combustion enhancements that allow downsizing for CO₂ savings. Heavy-duty (HD) engine show trade-offs between hardware recipes, exhaust deNOx control, and fuel consumption.
Journal Article

Review of CO2 Emissions and Technologies in the Road Transportation Sector

2010-04-12
2010-01-1276
The topic of CO₂ and fuel consumption reductions from vehicles is a very broad and complex issue, encompassing vehicle regulations, biofuel mandates, and a vast assortment of engine and vehicle technologies. This paper attempts to provide a high-level review of all these issues. Reducing fuel consumption appears not to be driven by the amount of hydrocarbon reserves, but by energy security and climate change issues. Regarding the latter, a plan was proposed by the United Nations for upwards of 80% CO₂ reductions from 1990 levels by 2050. Regulators are beginning to respond by requiring ~25% reductions in CO₂ emissions from light-duty vehicles by 2016 in major world markets, with more to come. The heavy-duty sector is poised to follow. Similarly, fuel policy is aimed at energy diversity (security) and climate change impacts. Emerging biofuel mandates require nominally 5-10% CO₂ life cycle emissions reductions by 2020.
Technical Paper

Prediction and Validation of Pressure Drop for Catalyzed Diesel Particulate Filters

2003-03-03
2003-01-0843
To meet the future emission targets for Diesel engines, one trend is the use of Catalyzed Diesel Particulate Filters (CDPF). Catalyzing the filter, however, alters filter behavior. In particular, alteration in filter permeability imparts a significant change in the filter's performance. To understand the impact of the catalyst coating on a DPF, engine tests have been conducted to measure the pressure drop across DPFs with different catalyst coatings, cell densities, and soot loadings. The tests were performed over a range of engine speeds and loads, with a corresponding range in exhaust flow rates and temperatures. A pressure drop model based on previous work for uncatalyzed filters has been modified and validated for CDPFs. To achieve optimum design for DPF's, a parametric study comparing the influence of catalyst, cell density, wall thickness, filter length and diameter was done.
Technical Paper

Ultra Thinwall Light-off Performance - Varying Substrates, Catalysts, and Flow Rates; Models and Engine Testing

2002-03-04
2002-01-0352
To establish performance trends in ultra thin wall substrates and help support their selection criteria for designing catalytic converter systems, the light-off behavior of five Ultra Thin Wall ceramic substrates and two catalysts on an engine dynamometer are hereby examined. Modeling predictions are also compared to the engine results and the trends and implications are discussed. To quantify the performance of these different systems, light-off tests were performed on an engine dynamometer using a simulated FTP cycle. Five systems were evaluated (600/4, 600/3, 600/2, 900/2 and 1200/2) each with two different catalyst formulations. Engine bench aging was used to simulate typical aged conditions in the converter systems. Second by second emissions data for temperature, hydrocarbons and carbon monoxide, were used to evaluate the relative performances of the substrates.
Technical Paper

Performance and Durability Evaluation of Continuously Regenerating Particulate Filters on Diesel Powered Urban Buses at NY City Transit - Part II

2002-03-04
2002-01-0430
In urban areas, particulate emission from diesel engines is one of the pollutants of most concern. As a result, particulate emission control from urban bus diesel engines using particle filter technology is being evaluated at several locations in the US. A project entitled, “Clean Diesel Vehicle Air Quality Project” has been initiated by NY City Transit under the supervision of NYSDEC and with active participation from several industry partners. Under this program, 25 NY City transit buses with DDC Series 50 engines have been equipped with continuously regenerating diesel particulate filter systems and have been operating with ultra low sulfur diesel (< 30 ppm S) in transit service in Manhattan since February 2000. These buses were evaluated over a 9 month period for operations, maintainability and durability of the particulate filter.
Technical Paper

Ultra Thin Wall Substrates - Trends for Performance in FTP and US06 Tests

2002-03-04
2002-01-0356
This paper compares the emissions performance of four ultra thin wall ceramic substrates with standard wall thickness product on a chassis dynamometer for two different substrate volumes. This comparison helps establish performance trends and provides useful information for selection of substrates in designing catalytic converter systems. This experimental study tests and compares four ultra thin wall products (400/4, 600/3, 600/4, and 900/2) with a standard wall product (400/6.5) at two different substrate volumes. Engine bench aging is used to simulate typical aged conditions. Temperature data as well as second by second and bag emissions data for hydrocarbons, carbon monoxide and oxides of nitrogen were used to evaluate the relative performances of the substrates. The US FTP and US06 driving cycles were used as protocols for the comparison. Results suggest that lower bulk density and higher geometric surface area interact to lead to lower emissions.
Technical Paper

Performance and Durability Evaluation of Continuously Regenerating Particulate Filters on Diesel Powered Urban Buses at NY City Transit

2001-03-05
2001-01-0511
Particulate emission from diesel engines is one of the most important pollutants in urban areas. As a result, particulate emission control from urban bus diesel engines using particle filter technology is being evaluated at several locations in the US. A project entitled “Clean Diesel Demonstration Program” has been initiated by NY City Transit under the supervision of NY State DEC and with active participation from several industrial partners. Under this program, several NY City transit buses with DDC Series 50 engines have been equipped with continuously regenerating diesel particulate filter system and are operating with ultra low sulfur diesel (< 30 ppm S) in transit service in Manhattan since February 2000. These buses are being evaluated over a 8-9 month period for operations, maintainability and durability of the particulate filter.
Technical Paper

Diesel Emission Control in Review

2001-03-05
2001-01-0184
This paper gives a comprehensive overview of the current state-of-the-art in diesel emission control. The nature of diesel particulates is summarized. The variety of diesel particulate filter regeneration strategies that will become so important to filter application are reviewed. Filter retrofit and durability issues are addressed. DeNOx catalysts, SCR, NOx traps for diesel, and non-thermal plasma methods are summarized. Integrated NOx/PM systems are described. And reduction of exhaust toxics is discussed. The paper covers all major conferences in the year 2000 that occurred in the US and Europe. US and Europe.
X