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Technical Paper

On-Vehicle Fuel Cut Testing for Gasoline Particulate Filter Applications

2019-04-02
2019-01-0968
With the introduction of a stringent particulate number (PN) limit and real driving emission (RDE) requirements, gasoline particulate filters (GPF) are widely adopted for gasoline engines in Europe and China. The filter collects soot and ash. Like in diesel applications, the collected soot will continuously burn under favorable exhaust conditions. However, at extreme conditions, there could be large amounts of soot build-up, which may induce a highly exothermal event, potentially damaging the filter. Thus, it is important to understand what drives the over-heating in application, and develop counter measures. In this study, an on-vehicle fuel cut (FC) testing procedure was developed. The testing was conducted on two vehicles, one gasoline direct injection (GDI) vehicle and one multiple port injection (MPI) vehicle, with different exhaust systems designs (a close coupled GPF and an under floor GPF) and catalyst coating levels (bare and heavily coated GPFs).
Journal Article

Vehicular Emissions in Review

2013-04-08
2013-01-0538
This review paper summarizes major developments in vehicular emissions regulations and technologies (light-duty, heavy-duty, gasoline, diesel) in 2012. First, the paper covers the key regulatory developments in the field, including finalized criteria pollutant tightening in California; and in Europe, the development of real-world driving emissions (RDE) standards. The US finalized LD (light-duty) greenhouse gas (GHG) regulation for 2017-25. The paper then gives a brief, high-level overview of key developments in LD and HD engine technology, covering both gasoline and diesel. Marked improvements in engine efficiency are summarized for gasoline and diesel engines to meet both the emerging NOx and GHG regulations. HD engines are just starting to demonstrate 50% brake thermal efficiency. NOx control technologies are then summarized, including SCR (selective catalytic reduction) with ammonia, and hydrocarbon-based approaches.
Journal Article

Diesel Emission Control in Review

2009-04-20
2009-01-0121
This summary covers representative developments from 2008 in diesel regulations, engine technology, and NOx, particulate matter (PM), and hydrocarbon (HC) control. Europe is finalizing the Euro VI heavy-duty (HD) regulations for 2013 with the intent of technologically harmonizing with the US. A new particle number standard will be adopted. California is considering tightening the light-duty fleet average to US Tier 2 Bin 2 levels, and CO2 mandates are emerging in Europe for LD, and in the US for all vehicles. LD engine technology is focused on downsizing to deliver lower CO2 emissions, enabled by advances in boost and EGR (exhaust gas recirculation). Emerging concepts are shown for attaining Bin 2 emission levels. HD engines will make deNOx systems optional for even the tightest NOx standards, but deNOx systems enable much lower fuel consumption levels and will likely be used. NOx control is centered on SCR (selective catalytic reduction) for diverse applications.
Journal Article

Diesel Emission Control in Review

2008-04-14
2008-01-0069
This summary covers the developments from 2007 in diesel regulations, engine technology, and NOx and PM control. Regulatory developments are now focused on Europe, where heavy-duty regulations have been proposed for 2013. The regulations are similar in technology needs to US2010. Also, the European Commission proposed the first CO2 emission limits of 130 g/km, which are nearly at parity to the Japanese fuel economy standards. Engines are making very impressive progress, with clean combustion strategies in active development mainly for US light-duty application. Heavy-duty research engines are more focused on traditional approaches, and will provide numerous engine/aftertreatment options for hitting the tight US 2010 regulations. NOx control is centered on SCR (selective catalytic reduction) for diverse applications. Focus is on cold operation and system optimization. LNT (lean NOx traps) durability is quantified, and performance enhanced with a sulfur trap.
Journal Article

Impact of Ceramic Substrate Web Thickness on Emission Light-Off, Pressure Drop, and Strength

2008-04-14
2008-01-0808
The effect of web thickness on emission performance, pressure drop, and mechanical properties was investigated for a series of catalyzed ceramic monolith substrates having cell densities of 900, 600 and 400 cpsi. As expected, thinner webs provide better catalyst light off performance and lower pressure drop, but mechanical strength generally decreases as web thickness is reduced. Good correlations were found between emission performance and geometric parameters based on bare and coated parts. An improved method for estimating the effects of cell density and web thickness on bare substrate strength is described, and the effect of porosity on material strength is also examined. New mechanical strength correlations for ceramic honeycombs are presented. The availability of a range of ceramic product geometries provides options for gasoline exhaust emission design and optimization, especially where increased levels of performance are desired.
Technical Paper

Performance Evaluations of Aluminum Titanate Diesel Particulate Filters

2007-04-16
2007-01-0656
Over the past decade, regulations for mobile source emissions have become more stringent thus, requiring advances in emissions systems to comply with the new standards. For the popular diesel powered passenger cars particularly in Europe, diesel particulate filters (DPFs) have been integrated to control particulate matter (PM) emissions. Corning Incorporated has developed a new proprietary aluminum titanate-based material for filter use in passenger car diesel applications. Aluminum titanate (hereafter referred to as AT) filters were launched commercially in the fall of 2005 and have been equipped on more than several hundred thousand European passenger vehicles. Due to their outstanding durability, filtration efficiency and pressure drop attributes, AT filters are an excellent fit for demanding applications in passenger cars. Extensive testing was conducted on engine to evaluate the survivability and long-term thermo-mechanical durability of AT filters.
Technical Paper

Three-Way-Catalyst Modeling - A Comparison of 1D and 2D Simulations

2007-04-16
2007-01-1071
In this paper we present a comparison of two different approaches to model three-way catalyst. First, a numerical sample case simulating light-off is used to compare the 1D and the 2D models. The advantages of each code are discussed with respect to required input data, detail level of the output, comparability, and computation time. Thus, the 2D model reveals significant radial temperature gradients inside the monolith during light-off. In a second step, the 2D model is compared with experimental data. One set of data consists of an air/fuel ratio varying sweep at isothermal conditions. Another set was gained by emission measurements during a real driving MVEG tests with varying substrate cell density & inlet conditions. From these experiments the applicability of the model to numerical parameter studies is discussed.
Technical Paper

Diesel Emission Control in Review

2006-04-03
2006-01-0030
The paper summarizes the key developments in diesel emission control, generally for 2005. Regulatory targets for the next 10 years and projected advancements in engine technology are used to estimate future emission control needs. Recent NOx control developments on selective catalytic reduction (SCR), lean NOx traps (LNT) and lean NOx catalysts (LNC) are then summarized. Likewise, the paper covers important recent developments on diesel particulate filters (DPFs), summarizing regeneration strategies, new filter and catalyst materials, ash management, and PM measurement. Recent developments in diesel oxidation catalysts are also briefly summarized. Finally, the paper discusses examples of how it is all pulled together to meet the tightest future regulations.
Technical Paper

Evaluation of a Stronger Ultra Thin Wall Corning Substrate for Improved Performance

2005-04-11
2005-01-1109
Current trends in automotive emissions control have tended towards reduced mass substrates for improved light-off performance coupled with a reduction in PGM levels. This trend has led to increasingly thinner walls in the substrates and increased open frontal areas, with a potential of reducing the overall mechanical strength of the substrate relative to the thicker walled lower cell density supports. This change in demand driven technology has also led to developments, at times costly, in the processing of the catalytic converter system. Changes in mat materials, handling technology and coating variables are only a few sources of overall increased system costs. Corning has introduced the Celcor® XS™ product to the market which significantly increases the strength of thin and ultra thin walled substrates.
Technical Paper

Extruded Zeolite Catalysts for Lean Exhaust Application

2005-04-11
2005-01-1118
In lean burn engines, the conventional automotive catalyst is ineffective in reducing harmful nitric oxide (NOx) wastes. This study has investigated the use of different materials with metal additives as supports for effective NOx- controlling lean burn catalysts. A series of zeolite (ZSM-5) honeycomb samples were prepared via extrusion with low concentrations of transition metals. Samples were also impregnated with Pt to determine the effect on the catalytic activity. NOx and hydrocarbon conversion under simple lean conditions were measured in a temperature-controlled fixed bed reactor. Ethylene and Propylene, both highly selective NOx reductants, were used separately as the hydrocarbon species. Results have revealed that single and double component zeolites containing Ni, Mn, Cu, and Ag are highly effective in reducing NOx. When these same samples were impregnated with Pt, they achieved conversion rates up to 100% at temperatures less than 300°C at a space velocity of 7000 h-1.
Technical Paper

DPF Regeneration-Concept to Avoid Uncontrolled Regeneration During Idle

2004-10-26
2004-01-2657
Significant particulate emission reductions of diesel engines can be achieved using diesel particulate filters (DPFs). Ceramic wall flow filters with a PM efficiency of >90% have proven to be effective components in emission control. The challenge for the application lies with the development and adaptation of a reliable regeneration strategy. The main focus is emission efficiency over the legally required durability periods, as well as over the useful vehicle life. It will be shown, that new DPF systems are characterized by a high degree of integration with the engine management system, to allow for initiation of the regeneration and its control for optimum DPF protection. Using selected cases, the optimum combination and tuning will be demonstrated for successful regenerations, taking into account DPF properties.
Technical Paper

Comparative Analysis of Different Heavy Duty Diesel Oxidation Catalysts Configurations

2004-03-08
2004-01-1419
Diesel Oxidation Catalyst in conjunction with large frontal area substrates is a key element in HDV Diesel emission control systems. This paper describes and reviews tests on a set of various Diesel Oxidation Catalyst configurations (for example cell densities), all with the same catalyst coating. The Diesel Oxidation Catalyst specimens were subjected to the European Stationary Cycle (ESC), the European Transient Cycle (ETC), and the US heavy duty Federal Test Procedure (US FTP). The focus was to study relative emissions, pressure drop, and light-off performance. All tests were conducted using the same Detroit Diesel Series 60 engine operating on ultra low sulfur diesel fuel. In addition to this, the exhaust was regulated so that the backpressure on the engine, upstream of the catalyst was also the same for all catalysts.
Technical Paper

Diesel Emission Control Technology 2003 in Review

2004-03-08
2004-01-0070
This paper will review the field of diesel emission control with the intent of highlighting representative studies that illustrate the state-of-the-art. First, the author reviews general technology approaches for heavy and light duty applications. Given the emerging significance of ultrafines to health, and to emission control technologies, an overview of the significant developments in ultrafine particulate science is provided, followed by an assessment of filter technology. Regarding NOx control, SCR (selective catalytic reduction) and LNT (lean NOx traps) progress is described. Finally, system integration examples are provided. In general, progress is impressive and studies demonstrate that high-efficiency systems are within reach in all highway vehicle sectors. Engines are making impressive gains, and will increase the options for emission control.
Technical Paper

Diesel SCR NOx Reduction and Performance on Washcoated SCR Catalysts

2004-03-08
2004-01-1293
This paper describes a study of ternary V2O5/WO3/TiO2 SCR catalysts coated on standard Celcor® and new highly porous cordierite substrates. At temperatures below 275°C, where NOx conversion is kinetically limited, high catalyst loadings are required to achieve high conversion efficiencies. In principle there are two ways to achieve high catalyst loadings: 1. On standard Celcor® substrates the washcoat thickness can be increased. 2. With new highly porous substrates a high amount of washcoat can be deposited in the walls. Various catalyst loadings varying from 120g/l to 540 g/l were washcoated on both standard Celcor® and new high porosity cordierite substrates with standard coating techniques. Simulated laboratory testing of these samples showed that high catalyst loadings improved both low temperature conversion efficiency and high temperature ammonia storage capacity and consequently increased the overall conversion efficiency.
Technical Paper

Diesel Emission Control in Review – The Last 12 Months

2003-03-03
2003-01-0039
Driven mainly by tightening of regulations, advance diesel emission control technologies are rapidly advancing. This paper will review the field with the intent of highlighting representative studies that illustrate the state-of-the-art. First, the author makes estimates of the emission control efficiency targets for heavy and light duty applications. Given the emerging significance of ultrafines to health, and to emission control technologies, an overview of the significant developments in ultrafine particulate science is provided, followed by an assessment of filter technology. Major deNOx catalyst developments, in addition to SCR and LNT progress is described. Finally, system integration examples are provided. In general, progress is impressive and studies have demonstrated that high-efficiency systems are within reach in all sectors highway vehicle sectors. Engines are making impressive gains, and will increase the options for emission control.
Technical Paper

Modeling of SCR DeNOx Catalyst - Looking at the Impact of Substrate Attributes

2003-03-03
2003-01-0845
The present work intends to examine the selective NOx reduction efficiency of a current commercial Titanium-Vanadium washcoated catalyst and to develop a transient numerical model capable of describing the SCR process while using a wide range of inlet conditions such as space velocity, oxygen concentrations, water concentration and NO2/NO ratio. The concentrations of different components (NO, NO2, N2O, NH3, H2O and HNO3) were analyzed continuously by a FT-IR spectrometer. A temperature range from 150°C up to 650°C was examined and tests were carried out using a model exhaust gas comparable to the real diesel exhaust gas composition. There is a very good correlation between experimental and calculated results with the given chemical kinetics.
Technical Paper

Impact of Ultra Thinwall Catalyst Substrates for TIER2 Emission Standards

2003-03-03
2003-01-0658
The impact of ultra thinwall catalysts on TIER2 emission performance, packaging and total system cost was evaluated. The primary focus was to compare ultra-thinwall and thinwall cell configurations (400/3, 400/4, 600/2, 600/3, 600/3 hex, 900/2, and 1200/2) with a baseline 600/4 at constant substrate volume, washcoat and PGM loading. Other areas investigated included the evaluation of decreasing catalyst volume while maintaining constant or increased mass transfer capabilities while holding washcoat and PGM loadings constant. The emissions impact of varying washcoat and PGM loading was measured on specific substrates, including a comparison of square to hex cell. Backpressure for each configuration was calculated with the Corning substrate pressure drop modeling tool. Converters were rapid aged on dynamometers reflecting approximately a 50,000 mile aged performance. Emission testing was completed using the FTP test cycle.
Technical Paper

Review of Development, Properties and Packaging of Thinwall and Ultrathinwall Ceramic Substrates

2002-11-19
2002-01-3578
Driven by the worldwide automotive emission regulations, ceramic substrates were developed to serve as catalyst support. Since the introduction of Standard wall substrates in 1974, substrates with thinner walls and higher cell densities have been developed to meet the tighter emission requirements; Worldwide, the amount of Thinwall and Ultrathinwall substrates in series applications is increasing continuously. The properties of the substrates determine their performance regarding pressure drop, heat-up and conversion efficiency. These properties are analyzed, as well as the packaging process for Thinwall and Ultrathinwall substrates; A new packaging technique with lower pressure load is described.
Technical Paper

Principles for the Design of Diesel Oxidation Catalysts

2002-05-06
2002-01-1723
The diesel oxidation catalyst is required to remove hydrocarbons and carbon monoxide from the diesel engine exhaust stream while minimizing the impact of all other features such as cost, space, pressure drop, weight, fuel consumption, etc. The challenge of designing a catalytic converter for a particular application then becomes to: first, understand the emissions and other performance targets and requirements for the engine; second, understand the influence each of the converter parameters has on the overall system performance and; third, optimize the system using these relationships. This paper will explore some of the considerations with respect to the second of the above challenges.
Technical Paper

Thermal Shock Resistance of Advanced Ceramic Catalysts for Close-Coupled Application

2002-03-04
2002-01-0738
This paper examines the relative thermal shock requirements for ceramic catalysts in underbody vs. close-coupled positions. The higher operating temperature in the latter position may imply higher coefficient of thermal expansion and higher thermal stresses, depending on substrate/washcoat interaction, than those for underbody position. An analysis of thermal stresses, using relevant physical properties and temperature gradients, is presented for both close-coupled and underbody catalysts. Three different high temperature close-coupled catalysts, employing advanced ceramic substrates with 600/3, 600/4 and 900/2 cell structure, and an underbody catalyst with 400/6.5 standard ceramic substrate are examined. Such an analysis is valuable for designing the optimum aspect ratio (length/diameter) and packaging system, which will minimize thermal and mechanical stresses over the desired lifetime of 120K vehicle miles.
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