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Technical Paper

The Thermodynamic Design, Analysis and Test of Cummins’ Supertruck 2 50% Brake Thermal Efficiency Engine System

2019-04-02
2019-01-0247
Current production heavy duty diesel engines have a brake thermal efficiency (BTE) between 43-46% [1]. In partnership with the United States Department of Energy (DOE) as part of the Supertruck 2 program, Cummins has undertaken a research program to develop a new heavy-duty diesel engine designed to deliver greater than 50% BTE without the use of waste heat recovery. A system level optimization focused on: increased compression ratio, higher injection rate, carefully matched highly efficient turbocharging, variable lube oil pump, variable cooling components, and low restriction after treatment designed to deliver 50% BTE at a target development point. This work will also illustrate the system level planning and understanding of interactions required to allow that same 50% BTE heavy duty diesel engine to be integrated with a waste heat recovery (WHR) system to deliver system level efficiency of 55% BTE at a single point.
Technical Paper

Multi-Domain Optimization for Fuel Economy Improvement of HD Trucks

2019-04-02
2019-01-0312
Fuel usage negatively impacts the environment and is a significant portion of operational costs of moving freight globally. Reducing fuel consumption is key to lessening environmental impacts and maximizing freight efficiency, thereby increasing the profit margin of logistic operators. In this paper, fuel economy improvements of a cab-over style 49T heavy duty Foton truck powered by a Cummins 12-liter engine are studied and systematically applied for the China market. Most fuel efficiency improvements are found within the vehicle design when compared to opportunities available at the engine level. Vehicle design (improved aerodynamics), component selection/matching (low rolling resistance tires), and powertrain electronic features integration (shift schedule/electronic trim) offer the largest opportunities for lowering fuel consumption.
Technical Paper

Phenomenological Investigations of Mid-Channel Ash Deposit Formation and Characteristics in Diesel Particulate Filters

2019-04-02
2019-01-0973
Accumulation of lubricant and fuel derived ash in the diesel particulate filter (DPF) during vehicle operation results in a significant increase of pressure drop across the after-treatment system leading to loss of fuel economy and reduced soot storage capacity over time. Under certain operating conditions, the accumulated ash and/or soot cake layer can collapse resulting in ash deposits upstream from the typical ash plug section, henceforth termed mid-channel ash deposits. In addition, ash particles can bond (either physically or chemically) with neighboring particles resulting in formation of bridges across the channels that effectively block access to the remainder of the channel for the incoming exhaust gas stream. This phenomenon creates serious long-term durability issues for the DPF, which often must be replaced. Mid-channel deposits and ash bridges are extremely difficult to remove from the channels as they often sinter to the substrate.
Technical Paper

Cooling Fan Selection in Power Car Application Using CFD and FEA Analysis

2019-04-02
2019-01-0900
This paper describes the methodology used to select an application-based fan that has optimum operating characteristics in terms of cooling air flow rate, fan power, and noise. The selected fan is then evaluated for structural strength. To evaluate different fans, complete rail coach under-hood simulations were carried out using steady-state 3D computational fluid dynamics (CFD) approach. These simulations considered an actual, highly non-uniform flow field. For each fan option, fan power, air flow rate, and surface acoustic power was evaluated. Pressure profiles on the fan blades were studied to assess the effect of non-uniform downstream air passage designs. Surface acoustic power was calculated using broadband noise source (BNS) model in ANSYS Fluent®. Surface pressure profiles over fan blades imported from 3D CFD were used in finite element analysis (FEA) in ANSYS. Analyses were carried out for blade linear and non-linear properties.
Technical Paper

Diagnostics of Field-Aged Three-Way Catalyst (TWC) on Stoichiometric Natural Gas Engines

2019-04-02
2019-01-0998
Three-way catalysts have been used in a variety of stoichiometric natural gas engines for emission control. During real-world operation, these catalysts have experienced a large number of temporary and permanent deactivations including thermal aging and chemical contamination. Thermal aging is typically induced either by high engine-out exhaust temperatures or the reaction exotherm generated on the catalysts. Chemical contamination originates from various inorganic species such as Phosphorous (P) and Sulfur (S) that contain in engine fluids, which can poison and/or mask the catalyst active components. Such deactivations are quite difficult to simulate under laboratory conditions, due to the fact that multiple deactivation modes may occur at the same time in the real-world operations. In this work, a set of field-aged TWCs has been analyzed through detailed laboratory research in order to identify and quantify the real-world aging mechanisms.
Technical Paper

Model-Based Approaches in Developing an Advanced Aftertreatment System: An Overview

2019-01-15
2019-01-0026
Cummins has recently launched next-generation aftertreatment technology, the Single ModuleTM aftertreatment system, for medium-duty and heavy-duty engines used in on-highway and off-highway applications. Besides meeting EPA 2010+ and Euro VI regulations, the Single ModuleTM aftertreatment system offers 60% volume and 40% weight reductions compared to current aftertreatment systems. In this work, we present model-based approaches that were systematically adopted in the design and development of the Cummins Single ModuleTM aftertreatment system. Particularly, a variety of analytical and experimental component-level and system-level validation tools have been used to optimize DOC, DPF, SCR/ASC, as well as the DEF decomposition device.
Technical Paper

Cylinder Deactivation for Increased Engine Efficiency and Aftertreatment Thermal Management in Diesel Engines

2018-04-03
2018-01-0384
Diesel engine cylinder deactivation (CDA) can be used to reduce petroleum consumption and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions of the global freight transportation system. Heavy duty trucks require complex exhaust aftertreatment (A/T) in order to meet stringent emission regulations. Efficient reduction of engine-out emissions require a certain A/T system temperature range, which is achieved by thermal management via control of engine exhaust flow and temperature. Fuel efficient thermal management is a significant challenge, particularly during cold start, extended idle, urban driving, and vehicle operation in cold ambient conditions. CDA results in airflow reductions at low loads. Airflow reductions generally result in higher exhaust gas temperatures and lower exhaust flow rates, which are beneficial for maintaining already elevated component temperatures. Airflow reductions also reduce pumping work, which improves fuel efficiency.
Technical Paper

Diesel Engine Cylinder Deactivation for Improved System Performance over Transient Real-World Drive Cycles

2018-04-03
2018-01-0880
Effective control of exhaust emissions from modern diesel engines requires the use of aftertreatment systems. Elevated aftertreatment component temperatures are required for engine-out emissions reductions to acceptable tailpipe limits. Maintaining elevated aftertreatment components temperatures is particularly problematic during prolonged low speed, low load operation of the engine (i.e. idle, creep, stop and go traffic), on account of low engine-outlet temperatures during these operating conditions. Conventional techniques to achieve elevated aftertreatment component temperatures include delayed fuel injections and over-squeezing the turbocharger, both of which result in a significant fuel consumption penalty. Cylinder deactivation (CDA) has been studied as a candidate strategy to maintain favorable aftertreatment temperatures, in a fuel efficient manner, via reduced airflow through the engine.
Technical Paper

Durability Test Suite Optimization Based on Physics of Failure

2018-04-03
2018-01-0792
Dynamometer (dyno) durability testing plays a significant role in reliability and durability assessment of commercial engines. Frequently, durability test procedures are based on warranty history and corresponding component failure modes. Evolution of engine designs, operating conditions, electronic control features, and diagnostic limits have created challenges to historical-based testing approaches. A physics-based methodology, known as Load Matrix, is described to counteract these challenges. The technique, developed by AVL, is based on damage factor models for subsystem and component failure modes (e.g. fatigue, wear, degradation, deposits) and knowledge of customer duty cycles. By correlating dyno test to field conditions in quantifiable terms, such as customer equivalent miles, more effective and efficient durability test suites and test procedures can be utilized. To this end, application of Load Matrix to a heavy-duty diesel engine is presented.
Technical Paper

Reactor System with Diesel Injection Capability for DOC Evaluations

2018-04-03
2018-01-0647
Plug flow reactors, simulating engine exhaust gas, are widely used in emissions control research to gain insight into the reaction mechanisms and engineering aspects that controls activity, selectivity, and durability of catalyst components. The choice of relevant hydrocarbon (HC) species is one of the most challenging factor in such laboratory studies, given the variety of compositions that can be encountered in different application scenarios. Furthermore, this challenge is amplified by the experimental difficulties related to introducing heavier and multi-component HCs and analyzing the reaction products.
Technical Paper

Sustained Low Temperature NOx Reduction

2018-04-03
2018-01-0341
Sustained NOx reduction at low temperatures, especially in the 150-200 °C range, shares some similarities with the more commonly discussed cold-start challenge, however, poses a number of additional and distinct technical problems. In this project, we set a bold target of achieving and maintaining 90% NOx conversion at the SCR catalyst inlet temperature of 150 °C. This project is intended to push the boundaries of the existing technologies, while staying within the realm of realistic future practical implementation. In order to meet the resulting challenges at the levels of catalyst fundamentals, system components, and system integration, Cummins has partnered with the DOE, Johnson Matthey, and Pacific Northwest National Lab and initiated the Sustained Low-Temperature NOx Reduction program at the beginning of 2015 and completed in 2017.
Technical Paper

Experimental and Kinetic Modeling of Degreened and Aged Three-way Catalysts: Aging Impact on Oxygen Storage Capacity and Catalyst Performance

2018-04-03
2018-01-0950
The aging impact on oxygen storage capacity (OSC) and catalyst performance was investigated on one degreened and one aged (hydrothermally aged at 955 °C for 50 h) commercial three-way catalyst (TWC) by experiments and modeling. The difference of OSC between the degreened and aged TWCs was dependent on catalyst temperature. The largest difference was found at 600 °C, at which the amount of OSC decreased by 45.5%. Catalyst performance was evaluated through lightoff tests at two simulated engine exhaust conditions (lean and rich) on a micro-reactor. The aging impact on the catalyst performance was different under lean and rich environments and investigated separately. At the lean condition, oxidation of CO and C3H6 was significantly suppressed while oxidation of C3H8 was relatively less degraded. At the rich condition, the inhibition effect was more pronounced on the aged TWC and inhibiting hydrocarbon species from C3H6 partial oxidation can survive at temperatures up to 450 °C.
Technical Paper

Diesel Engines Gear Whine: Production Plant Perspective

2017-06-05
2017-01-1809
Engine noise is one of the significant aspects of product quality for light and medium duty diesel engine market applications. Gear whine is one of those noise issues, which is considered objectionable and impacts the customer’s perception of the product quality. Gear whine could result due to defects in the gear manufacturing process and/or due to inaccurate design of the gear macro and micro geometry. The focus of this technical paper is to discuss gear whine considerations from the production plant perspective. This includes quick overview of the measurement process, test cell environment, noise acceptance criteria considerations. A gear whine case study is presented based on the data collected in the test cell at the engine plant. Gear whine data acquired on current product and next generation of prototype engines is analyzed and presented. This paper concludes by highlighting the lessons learned from the case study.
Technical Paper

Diesel Engine Noise Source Visualization with Wideband Acoustical Holography

2017-06-05
2017-01-1874
Wideband Acoustical Holography (WBH), which is a monopole-based, equivalent source procedure (J. Hald, “Wideband Acoustical Holography,” INTER-NOISE 2014), has proven to offer accurate noise source visualization results in experiments with a simple noise source: e.g., a loudspeaker (T. Shi, Y. Liu, J.S. Bolton, “The Use of Wideband Holography for Noise Source Visualization”, NOISE-CON 2016). From a previous study, it was found that the advantage of this procedure is the ability to optimize the solution in the case of an under-determined system: i.e., when the number of measurements is much smaller than the number of parameters that must be estimated in the model. In the present work, a diesel engine noise source was measured by using one set of measurements from a thirty-five channel combo-array placed in front of the engine.
Technical Paper

The Application of Acoustic Radiation Modes to Engine Oil Pan Design

2017-06-05
2017-01-1844
In modern engine design, downsizing and reducing weight while still providing an increased amount of power has been a general trend in recent decades. Traditionally, an engine design with superior NVH performance usually comes with a heavier, thus sturdier structure. Therefore, modern engine design requires that NVH be considered in the very early design stage to avoid modifications of engine structure at the last minute, when very few changes can be made. NVH design optimization of engine components has become more practical due to the development of computer software and hardware. However, there is still a need for smarter algorithms to draw a direct relationship between the design and the radiated sound power. At the moment, techniques based on modal acoustic transfer vectors (MATVs) have gained popularity in design optimization for their good performance in sound pressure prediction.
Technical Paper

Development of a Kinetic Model to Evaluate Water Storage on Commercial Cu-Zeolite SCR Catalysts during Cold Start

2017-03-28
2017-01-0968
Commercial Cu-Zeolite SCR catalyst can store and subsequently release significant amount of H2O. The process is accompanied by large heat effects. It is critical to model this phenomenon to design aftertreatment systems and to provide robust tuning strategies to meet cold start emissions and low temperature operation. The complex reaction mechanism of water adsorption and desorption over a Cu-exchanged SAPO-34 catalyst at low temperature was studied through steady state and transient experiments. Steady state isotherms were generated using a gravimetric method and then utilized to predict water storage interactions with respect to feed concentration and catalyst temperature. Transient temperature programmed desorption (TPD) experiments provided the kinetic information required to develop a global kinetic model from the experimental data. The model captures fundamental characteristics of water adsorption and desorption accompanied by the heat effects.
Technical Paper

Axial NO2 Utilization Measurements within a Partial Flow Filter during Passive Regeneration

2017-03-28
2017-01-0988
Measuring axial exhaust species concentration distributions within a wall-flow aftertreatment device provides unique and significant insights regarding the performance of complex devices like the SCR-on-filter. In this particular study, a less complex aftertreatment configuration which includes a DOC followed by two uncoated partial flow filters (PFF) was used to demonstrate the potential and challenges. The PFF design in this study was a particulate filter with alternating open and plugged channels. A SpaciMS [1] instrument was used to measure the axial NO2 profiles within adjacent open and plugged channels of each filter element during an extended passive regeneration event using a full-scale engine and catalyst system. By estimating the mass flow through the open and plugged channels, the axial soot load profile history could be assessed.
Technical Paper

A Full-Cycle Multi-Zone Quasi-Dimensional Direct Injection Diesel Engine Model Based on a Conceptual Model Developed from Imaging Experiments

2017-03-28
2017-01-0537
A quasi-dimensional model for a direct injection diesel engine was developed based on experiments at Sandia National Laboratory. The Sandia researchers obtained images describing diesel spray evolution, spray mixing, premixed combustion, mixing controlled combustion, soot formation, and NOx formation. Dec [1] combined all of the available images to develop a conceptual diesel combustion model to describe diesel combustion from the start of injection up to the quasi-steady form of the jet. The end of injection behavior was left undescribed in this conceptual model because no clear image was available due to the chaotic behavior of diesel combustion. A conceptual end-of-injection diesel combustion behavior model was developed to capture diesel combustion throughout its life span. The compression, expansion, and gas exchange stages are modeled via zero-dimensional single zone calculations.
Technical Paper

Lean Breakthrough Phenomena Analysis for TWC OBD on a Natural Gas Engine using a Dual-Site Dynamic Oxygen Storage Capacity Model

2017-03-28
2017-01-0962
Oxygen storage capacity (OSC) is one of the most critical characteristics of a three-way catalyst (TWC) and is closely related to the catalyst aging and performance. In this study, a dynamic OSC model involving two oxygen storage sites with distinct kinetics was developed. The dual-site OSC model was validated on a bench reactor and a natural gas engine. The model was capable of predicting temperature dependence on OSC with H2, CO and CH4 as reductants. Also, the effects of oxygen concentration and space velocity on the amount of OSC were captured by the model. The validated OSC model was applied to simulate lean breakthrough phenomena with varied space velocities and oxygen concentrations. It is found that OSC during lean breakthrough is not a constant for a particular TWC catalyst and is dependent on space velocity and oxygen concentration. Specifically, breakthrough time exhibits a non-linear, inverse correlation to oxygen flux.
Journal Article

Effect of Transition Metal Ion Properties on the Catalytic Functions and Sulfation Behavior of Zeolite-Based SCR Catalysts

2017-03-28
2017-01-0939
Copper- and Iron- based metal-zeolite SCR catalysts are widely used in US and European diesel aftertreatment systems to achieve drastic reduction in NOx emission. These catalysts are highly selective to N2 under wide range of operating conditions. Nevertheless, the type of transition metal has a significant impact on the key performance and durability parameters such as NOx conversion, selectivity towards N2O, hydrothermal stability, and sensitivity to fuel sulfur content. In this study, we explained the differences in the performance characteristics of these catalysts based on their relative acidic-basic nature of transition metal present in these catalysts using practically relevant gas species present in diesel exhaust such as NO2, SOx, and NH3. These experiments show that Fe-zeolite has relatively acidic nature as compared to Cu-zeolite that causes NH3 inhibition and hence explains low NOx conversion on Fe-zeolite at low temperature under standard SCR conditions.
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