Next Improvement Potentials for Heavy-Duty Diesel Engine - Tailor the Fuel Injection System to the Combustion Needs
Future diesel engine legislation Tier 4 / Stage V and EU6d demand further improvements to reduce CO2 while keeping the already low NOx emissions levels. For US trucks a more strict limit of 0.2 g/bhp-hr NOx emissions need to be achieved. In this trade-off, system costs and complexity of the after-treatment are defining the constraint in which the common rail fuel injection system layout has to be defined. The increase of rail pressure was in the past the major step to control the soot emissions in view of low engine-out NOx emissions by applying massive EGR. With the on-going development of NOx-aftertreatment by Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR), conversion efficiencies of up to 97% allow to reduce the EGR usage and rail pressure usage. In that context, the steepness of injection rate, the nozzle flow rate and the injection pressure are remaining parameters to control the NOx emissions.