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Technical Paper

Analysis of Tribofilm Formed by Electric Brush Sliding for Long Life Starter Motor

2019-04-02
2019-01-0181
Global exhaust emission regulations are becoming stricter, and vehicles equipped with the idle stop system (ISS) are increasing. Recently, starters for vehicles equipped with ISS are required to improve operation feel when speedily restarted. To satisfy this demand, starters must rotate at higher rotational speeds, and heavier wear in their brushes may cause problems. Tribofilm formed on commutators surface by the brush sliding is an important factor in the brush commutator wear, because tribofilm is said to have a property to increase lubricity and decrease mechanical wear in brushes and commutator, as well as to improve commutation and decrease arc wear. Therefore, for reducing brush commutator wear, it is considered effective to promote film formation by improving materials. However, few researches have been conducted to evaluate the relationship between brush materials and tribofilm formation.
Technical Paper

Maximizing Coasting of 48 V Vehicles with Cold-Storage Evaporator

2018-05-30
2018-37-0023
One of the main features of 48 V vehicles is the ability to coast at high speeds with the Internal Combustion Engine (ICE) off. This can be realized due to the high torque and power the 48 V motor-generator provides which allows a quick and smooth re-cranking of the ICE. The coasting feature reduces the fuel consumption depending on frequency and duration of the coasting events. This depends in turn on driving pattern, driving style, State-of-Charge of the 48 V and 12 V batteries and the air-conditioning (A/C) system. In summer, if the A/C runs with a mechanical belt-driven compressor, the cabin inlet air temperature from the evaporator inevitably increases during each coasting event as the ICE turns off and cannot operate the compressor. If the evaporator temperature reaches a certain threshold at which the cabin comfort is noticeably affected, the ICE is re-cranked for resuming air-conditioning.
Technical Paper

Development of the Large Type Electric-Driven Refrigerator for the HV Truck

2017-03-28
2017-01-0137
In respect to the present large refrigerator trucks, sub-engine type is the main product, but the basic structure does not change greatly since the introduction for around 50 years. A sub-engine type uses an industrial engine to drive the compressor, and the environmental correspondence such as the fuel consumption, the emission is late remarkably. In addition, most of trucks carry the truck equipment including the refrigerator which consumes fuel about 20% of whole vehicle. Focusing on this point, the following are the reports about the system development plan for fuel consumption reduction of the large size refrigerator truck. New concept is to utilize electrical power from HV system to power the electric-driven refrigerator. We have developed a fully electric-driven refrigerator system, which uses regenerated energy that is dedicated for our refrigerator system.
Technical Paper

Diesel Powertrain Energy Management via thermal Management and Electrification

2017-03-28
2017-01-0156
The coming Diesel powertrains will remain as key technology in Europe to achieve the stringent 2025 CO2 emission targets. Especially for applications which are unlikely to be powered by pure EV technology like Light Duty vehicles and C/D segment vehicles which require a long driving range this is the case. To cope with these low CO2 targets the amount of electrification e.g. in form of 48V Belt-driven integrated Starter Generator (BSG) systems will increase. On the other hand the efficiency of the Diesel engine will increase which will result in lower exhaust gas temperatures resulting in a challenge to keep the required NOx reduction system efficiencies under Real Drive Emissions (RDE) driving conditions. In order to comply with the RDE legislation down to -7 °C ambient an efficient thermal management is one potential approach. Commonly utilized means to increase exhaust gas temperature are late injection and/or intake throttling, which enable sufficient NOx reduction efficiency.
Journal Article

Prediction Method for Automobile EMI Test Result in AM Frequency Band

2017-03-28
2017-01-0014
The EMI, electromagnetic interference, is tested for automobiles and components by the method defined in the international standard, CISPR 25. Regarding the automobile test, the EMI from the component installed in the automobile is measured by the antenna of an automobile. On the other hand on the component test, the EMI from the component is measured by a mono-pole antenna set forward of the component. However, components sometimes fail the automobile test even if its passed the component test due to the difference of the method. In this case, the component has to be designed again to pass the automobile test. Therefore, the prediction method of the automobile test result is required. In this paper, we tried to modify the standard component test configuration to predict the automobile test result for a fuel pump system in AM frequency band.
Journal Article

Reduction of Cranking Noise from High Voltage Starter for One-Motor Two-Clutch Hybrid Systems

2017-03-28
2017-01-1167
In this paper, we propose a high voltage brushless AC starter that contributes to improved fuel efficiency and a reduction in the cost of the one-motor two-clutch hybrid system, which we call a 1MG2CL system. We have named it the HV starter, and it is composed of an AC motor, inverter and pinion with a shift mechanism. One of the issues with the 1MG2CL system is the high electrical energy when starting an ICE as it switches over from EV drive to HEV drive. While the ICE is starting, the main motor has to crank the ICE via the clutch; the clutch slips to absorb the main motor power, so the main motor has to output a high power to overcome the loss. Therefore, to contribute to reducing the electrical power by eliminating clutch slip losses, we developed an HV starter as a dedicated ICE starting device. Thanks to the reduction in electrical power, the HV starter is able to improve fuel efficiency and reduce system costs.
Technical Paper

Development of New Generation Battery Management ECU

2017-03-28
2017-01-1203
Recent electric vehicles use Li-ion batteries to power the main electric motor. To maintain the safety of the main electric motor battery using Li-ion cells, it is necessary to monitor the voltage of each cell. DENSO has developed a battery Electronic Control Unit (ECU) that contributes greatly to the reduction of the cost and the improvement of the reliability of the system. Each manufacturer has been developing a dedicated IC for monitoring the voltages of each cell of a battery. However, since the number of cells that can be monitored is limited, more than one IC is required to measure the voltages of a large number of cells. The increase in the number of ICs and the amount of insulator leads to the rise in system cost. DENSO has developed a dedicated IC that uses a proprietary high-breakdown voltage process, and which enables monitoring up to 24 cells with a single IC chip.
Technical Paper

Development of a New MOS Rectifier for High-Efficiency Alternators

2017-03-28
2017-01-1240
For the purpose of improving vehicle fuel efficiency, it is necessary to reduce energy loss in the alternator. We have lowered the resistance of the rectifying device and connecting components, and control the rectifying device with an IC to reduce rectification loss. For the package design, we have changed the structure of the part on which the rectifying device is mounted into a high heat dissipation type. The new structure has enabled optimizing the size of the rectifying device, resulting in the reduction of size of the package. In addition, the rectifying device is mounted using a new soldering material and a new process, which has improved the reliability of the connection. Moreover, since the alternator has introduced a new system, the controller IC has a function for preventing malfunction of the rectifying device and a function for detecting abnormalities, in order to ensure safety.
Technical Paper

Development of High Efficiency Rectifier with MOSFET in “eSC Alternator”

2017-03-28
2017-01-1228
Alternator, which supplies electric energy to a battery and electrical loads when it is rotated by engine via belt, is one of key components to improve vehicle fuel efficiency. We have reduced rectification loss from AC to DC with a MOSFET instead of a rectifier diode. It is important to turn on the MOSFET and off during a rectification period, called synchronous control, to avoid a current flow in the reverse direction from the battery. We turn it off so as to remain a certain conduction period through a body diode of the MOSFET before the rectification end. It is controlled by making a feedback process to coincide with an internal target conduction period based on the rotational speed of the alternator. We reduced a voltage surge risk at turn-off by changing the feedback gain depending on the sign of the time difference between the measured period and the target.
Technical Paper

Criteria-Driven Approach in Automotive Software Development – Integrating Concepts of Formal Methods with Testing

2017-03-28
2017-01-0003
We propose a verification method in the field of automotive control systems integrating the concepts of Formal Methods with testing, aiming at efficient and reliable software development. Although Formal Methods are believed to provide the benefits of their rigorous nature and their inherent capability of automation, only limited cases are known where Formal Methods were applied in system and software development, in practice, due to two major difficulties: appropriate abstraction in modeling and scalability in automated reasoning. Focusing on testing on the other hand, there is the difficulty of selecting reasonable set of tests for given verification objectives. In order to overcome these difficulties, our approach is to present verification criteria for testing to appropriately cover the property with the help of the Formal Method concepts.
Journal Article

Multiplex Communication Protocol for Switch/Sensor/Actuator Network: “CXPI”

2016-04-05
2016-01-0057
The growing functionality and complexity of recent vehicle electronic systems have made inter-device communication (on-board LAN) technology vital to vehicle design. By field of application, the LAN (Local Area Network) systems currently in use are LIN (Local Interconnect Network) used for body systems, CAN (Controller Area Network) used for control systems, and MOST (Media Oriented Systems Transport ) used for multimedia and camera systems, and work to standardize the next-generation communication technology for each of those fields is underway. This paper provides a technical overview of the CXPI (Clock Extension Peripheral Interface) communication protocol, which satisfies the body system requirements (rapid response, system extensibility, high reliability, and low cost). It also presents the progress made on standardization at SAE and other organizations.
Technical Paper

Analysis of Influence Factors for Partial Discharge Inception Voltage between Magnet-Wires on Rotating Machines

2016-04-05
2016-01-1226
In automobiles, Integrated Starter Generators (ISGs) are important components since they ensure significant fuel economy improvements. With motors that operate at high voltage such as ISGs, it is important to accurately know partial discharge inception voltages (PDIVs) for the assured insulation reliability of the motors. However, the PDIVs vary due to various factors including the environment (temperature, atmospheric pressure and humidity), materials (water absorption and degradation) and voltage waveforms. Consequently, it is not easy either empirically or analytically to ascertain the PDIVs in a complex environment (involving, for example, high temperature, low atmospheric pressure and high humidity) in which many factors vary simultaneously, as with invehicle environments. As a well-known method, PDIVs can be analyzed in terms of two voltage values, which are the breakdown voltage of the air (called “Paschen curve”) and the shared voltage of the air layer.
Technical Paper

Virtualization Technology and Using Virtual CPU in the Context of ISO26262: The E-Gas Case Study

2013-04-08
2013-01-0196
A new development environment is required where conflict between control systems is minimized, where processing can be executed while maintaining independence between systems, and where quality can be assured easily. This environment must enable flexibility in software layouts to accommodate software changes during the development process and the parallel development of multiple derivative systems. We have developed virtualization technology (virtual CPU), which allows the execution of system control with a single CPU without conflict between systems. An outstanding virtual CPU architecture that we have developed allows us to execute multiple real-time control tasks with the hardware scheduler, and we have developed hardware that extends the management of address space and interrupt handling, making it possible for a single CPU to be configured as multiple CPUs. Also, we have implemented a bus system that reduces interference between threads.
Technical Paper

Development of PZEV Exhaust Emission Control System

2003-03-03
2003-01-0817
A new exhaust emission control system has been developed which complies with the world's most severe emission standard: CARB PZEV. Leaner combustion in cold condition was enabled and rapid warm-up of a close-coupled catalyst was realized by utilizing a newly developed Intake Air Control Valve (IACV) system and hyper-atomization fuel injector. In addition, the newly developed HC adsorbing type 3-way catalyst realized cold HC reduction at lower cost. For further reduction of the exhaust emission, the Variable Valve Timing-Intelligent (VVT-i) system was positively operated immediately after the cold start. By the suitable operation of Variable Valve Timing (VVT), the blow-back from the cylinder enhanced the fuel atomization and re-burning of remaining unburned hydrocarbons (HCs), and increased in-cylinder residual gas reduces NOx.
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