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Technical Paper

Real Driving Emission Efficiency Potential of SDPF Systems without an Ammonia Slip Catalyst

2017-03-28
2017-01-0913
In order to comply with emission regulation, reach their profitability targets and minimise the in-use cost of their vehicles, OEMs are seeking solutions to optimise their aftertreatment systems. For Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) system engineers, one of the most important challenges is to reduce the system's cost, while keeping its high level of NOx emission reduction performance. Ways to achieve this cost reduction include 1. using an engine out NOx estimation model instead of a NOx sensor upstream of the SDPF (DPF coated with SCR) catalyst and 2. eliminating the Ammonia Slip Catalyst (ASC) downstream of the SDPF catalyst. Achieving these challenging targets requires actions on the complete SCR system, from the optimisation of mixing and uniformity in the SDPF catalyst to the development of robust controls. To face these challenges, a novel exhaust reverse flow concept with a blade mixer was developed.
Technical Paper

Development of High Accuracy Rear A/F Sensor

2017-03-28
2017-01-0949
New 2A/F systems different from usual A/F-O2 systems are being developed to cope with strict regulation of exhaust gas. In the 2A/F systems, 2A/F sensors are equipped in front and rear of a three-way catalyst. The A/F-O2 systems are ideas which use a rear O2 to detect exhaust gas leaked from three-way catalyst early and feed back. On the other hand, the 2A/F systems are ideas which use a rear A/F sensor to detect nearly stoichiometric gas discharged from the three-way catalyst accurately, and to prevent leakage of exhaust gas from the three-way catalyst. Therefore, accurate detection of nearly stoichiometric gas by the rear A/F sensor is the most importrant for the 2A/F systems. In general, the A/F sensors can be classified into two types, so called, one-cell type and two-cell type. Because the one-cell type A/F sensors don’t have hysteresis, they have potential for higher accuracy.
Technical Paper

Accumulation Mechanism of Gasoline EGR Deposit

2017-03-28
2017-01-0806
Exhaust Gas Recirculation (EGR) systems reduce exhaust emissions and improve fuel efficiency. Recently, the number of EGR system installed vehicles has been increasing, especially for gasoline engine systems. One of the major causes of decreasing EGR function is deposit accumulation on a gas passage. The deposit consists mainly of hydrocarbons which are degradation products of fuel, thus the amount of deposit seems to be strongly affected by fuel compositions. Unfortunately there are not as many studies on EGR deposits with gasoline fuel as there are with diesel fuel. In this study, the influence of gasoline fuel compositions, especially aromatics which are major components of EGR gas, on chemical structures of the deposit were investigated. To clarify the accumulation mechanism of EGR deposits, a thermal oxidative degradation test with an autoclave unit and an actual gasoline engine test were employed.
Technical Paper

Impact of Substrate Geometry on Automotive TWC Gasoline (Three Way Catalyst) Performance

2017-03-28
2017-01-0923
Tightening global emissions standards are driving automotive Original Equipment Manufacturer’s (OEM’s) to utilize Three Way Catalyst (TWC) aftertreatment systems that can perform with greater efficiency and greater measured control of Precious Group Metals (PGM) use. At the same time, TWC aftertreatment systems minimize exhaust system pressure drops. This study will determine the influence of catalyst substrate cell geometry on emission and PGM usage. Additionally, a study of lightoff and backpressure comparisons will be conducted. The two substrate configurations used are hex/750cpsi and square/750cpsi.
Journal Article

Development of Ignition Technology for Dilute Combustion Engines

2017-03-28
2017-01-0676
In recent years, from a viewpoint of global warming and energy issues, the need to improve vehicle fuel economy to reduce CO2 emission has become apparent. One of the ways to improve this is to enhance engine thermal efficiency, and for that, automakers have been developing the technologies of high compression ratio and dilute combustion such as exhaust gas recirculation (EGR), and lean combustion. Since excessive dilute combustion causes the failure of flame propagation, combustion promotion by intensifying in-cylinder turbulence has been indispensable. However, instability of flame kernel formation by gas flow fluctuation between combustion cycles is becoming an issue. Therefore, achieving stable flame kernel formation and propagation under a high dilute condition is important technology.
Journal Article

Development of a New Ceramic Substrate with Gas Flow Control Functionality

2017-03-28
2017-01-0919
Emission regulations in many countries and regions around the world are becoming stricter in reaction to the increasing awareness of environment protections, and it has now become necessary to improve the performance of catalytic converters to achieve these goals. A catalytic converter is composed of a catalytically active material coated onto a ceramic honeycomb-structured substrate. Honeycomb substrates play the role of ensuring intimate contact between the exhaust gas and the catalyst within the substrate’s flow channels. In recent years, high-load test cycles have been introduced which require increased robustness to maintain low emissions during the wide range of load changes. Therefore, it is extremely important to increase the probability of contact between the exhaust gas and catalyst. To achieve this contact, several measures were considered such as increasing active sites or geometrical surface areas by utilizing substrates with higher cell densities or larger volumes.
Technical Paper

Hexagonal Cell Ceramic Substrates for Lower Emission and Backpressure

2008-04-14
2008-01-0805
Stringent emission regulations call for advanced catalyst substrates with thinner walls and higher cell density. However, substrates with higher cell density increase backpressure, thinner cell wall substrates have lower mechanical characteristics. Therefore we will focus on cell configurations that will show a positive effect on backpressure and emission performance. We found that hexagonal cells have a greater effect on emission and backpressure performance versus square or round cell configurations. This paper will describe in detail the advantage of hexagonal cell configuration versus round or square configurations with respect to the following features: 1 High Oxygen Storage Capacity (OSC) performance due to uniformity of the catalyst coating layer 2 Low backpressure due to the large hydraulic diameter of the catalyst cell 3 Quick light off characteristics due to efficient heat transfer and low thermal mass
Technical Paper

Evaporative Leak Check System by Depressurization Method

2004-03-08
2004-01-0143
Changes to OBDII regulations in North America are requiring more frequent leak checks to the evaporative emissions system. Conventional methods are unable to comply with the required 0.26 performance ratio due to various factors such as unstable tank pressure and fuel evaporation. These strict regulations require an innovative detection device. Utilizing a vacuum pump, a leak check module with high detection frequency, leak diagnostic accuracy, and reliability has been developed. In the present paper, the details of ELCM based on the depressurization method are reported together with the results of study on the pressurization method.
Technical Paper

Development of PZEV Exhaust Emission Control System

2003-03-03
2003-01-0817
A new exhaust emission control system has been developed which complies with the world's most severe emission standard: CARB PZEV. Leaner combustion in cold condition was enabled and rapid warm-up of a close-coupled catalyst was realized by utilizing a newly developed Intake Air Control Valve (IACV) system and hyper-atomization fuel injector. In addition, the newly developed HC adsorbing type 3-way catalyst realized cold HC reduction at lower cost. For further reduction of the exhaust emission, the Variable Valve Timing-Intelligent (VVT-i) system was positively operated immediately after the cold start. By the suitable operation of Variable Valve Timing (VVT), the blow-back from the cylinder enhanced the fuel atomization and re-burning of remaining unburned hydrocarbons (HCs), and increased in-cylinder residual gas reduces NOx.
Technical Paper

Glow Plug with Combustion Pressure Sensor

2003-03-03
2003-01-0707
Combustion-pressure-data-based feedback control of fuel injection and EGR is the most promising diesel system, since it can reduce fuel consumption and emissions, as well as noise and vibration, and improve the evaluation efficiency for adapting engine performance to. We developed a combustion pressure sensor installed inside the glow plug. This is superior in maintainability and ease of installation, and can detect the combustion pressure in each cylinder at high accuracy and low cost, with no need for engine modification.
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