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Technical Paper

Effects of the Feature Extraction from Road Surface Image for Road Induced Noise Prediction Using Artificial Intelligence

2019-06-05
2019-01-1565
Next generation vehicles driven by motor such as electric vehicles and fuel cell vehicles have no engine noise. Therefore the balance of interior noise is different from the vehicles driven by conventional combustion engine. In particular, road induced noise tends to be conspicuous in the low to middle vehicle speed range, therefore, technological development to reduce it is important task. The purpose of this research is to predict the road induced noise from the signals of sensors adopted for automatic driving for utilizing the prediction result as a reference signal to reduce road induced noise by active noise control (ANC). Using the monocular camera which is one of the simplest image sensors, the road induced noise is predicted from the road surface image ahead of the vehicle by machine learning.
Technical Paper

Machine Learning Based Technology for Reducing Engine Starting Vibration of Hybrid Vehicles

2019-06-05
2019-01-1450
Engine starting vibration of hybrid vehicle with Toyota hybrid system has variations even in the same vehicle, and a large vibration that occurs rarely may cause stress to the passengers. The contribution analysis based on the vibration theory and statistical analysis has been done, but the primary factor of the rare large vibration has not been clarified because the number of factors is enormous. From this background, we apply machine learning that can reproduce multivariate and complicated relationships to analysis of variation factors of engine starting vibration. Variations in magnitude of the exciting force such as motor torque for starting the engine and in-cylinder pressure of the engine and timing of these forces are considered as factors of the variations. In addition, there are also nonlinear factors such as backlash of gears as a factor of variations.
Technical Paper

Analysis of Tribofilm Formed by Electric Brush Sliding for Long Life Starter Motor

2019-04-02
2019-01-0181
Global exhaust emission regulations are becoming stricter, and vehicles equipped with the idle stop system (ISS) are increasing. Recently, starters for vehicles equipped with ISS are required to improve operation feel when speedily restarted. To satisfy this demand, starters must rotate at higher rotational speeds, and heavier wear in their brushes may cause problems. Tribofilm formed on commutators surface by the brush sliding is an important factor in the brush commutator wear, because tribofilm is said to have a property to increase lubricity and decrease mechanical wear in brushes and commutator, as well as to improve commutation and decrease arc wear. Therefore, for reducing brush commutator wear, it is considered effective to promote film formation by improving materials. However, few researches have been conducted to evaluate the relationship between brush materials and tribofilm formation.
Technical Paper

Evolution of Gasoline Direct Injection System for Reduction of Real Mode Emission

2019-04-02
2019-01-0265
Continuous improvement of gasoline engine emissions performance is required to further protect the global environment and also the impact of emissions on a local level. During real world driving, transient engine operation and variation in fuel injection, airflow, and wall temperature are key factors to be controlled. Due to the limited opportunity for optimization of engine control, generation of a well-mixed fuel spray is necessary to create a suitable combustion environment to minimize emissions. Optimum spray performance achieves minimum surface wetting as well as promoting evaporation and diffusion if wetting occurs. Improvement in spray homogeneity is an important step to achieve this. Higher fuel pressure is initially considered to achieve improvements, as it is expected to improve mixture formation by reduction of wall wetting due to high atomization and lower penetration, as well as improvement in spray homogeneity.
Technical Paper

Ignition and Soot Formation/Oxidation Characteristics of Compositionally Unique International Diesel Blends

2019-04-02
2019-01-0548
With the global adoption of diesel common rail systems and the wide variation in composition of local commercial fuels, modern fuel injection systems must be robust against diverse fuel properties. To bridge the knowledge gap on the effects of compositional variation for real commercial fuels on spray combustion characteristics, the present work quantifies ignition and soot formation/oxidation in three unique, international diesel blends. Schlieren imaging, excited-state hydroxyl radical (OH*) chemiluminescence imaging and diffused back-illumination extinction imaging were employed to quantify vapor penetration, ignition, and soot formation and oxidation for high-pressure sprays in a constant-volume, pre-burn chamber. The three fuels were procured from Finland, Japan and Brazil and have cetane numbers of 64.1, 56.1 and 45.4, respectively.
Technical Paper

Development of Innovative Dynamic Torque Vectoring AWD System

2019-04-02
2019-01-0332
This paper describes the development of an innovative AWD system called Dynamic Torque Vectoring AWD for all-wheel drive (AWD) vehicles based on a front-wheel drive configuration. The Dynamic Torque Vectoring AWD system helps to achieve high levels of both dynamic performance and fuel efficiency. Significant fuel economy savings are achieved by using a new compact disconnection mechanism at the transfer and rear units, which prevents any unnecessary rotation of the propeller shaft. In addition, the system is also capable of independently distributing torque to the rear wheels by utilizing electronically controlled couplings on the left and right sides of the rear differential. This greatly enhances both on-road cornering performance and off-road driving performance.
Technical Paper

Development of High Accuracy NOx Sensor

2019-04-02
2019-01-0749
This paper presents an improvement in the accuracy of NOx sensors at high NOx concentration regions by optimizing the manufacturing process, sensor electrode materials and structure, in order to suppress the deterioration mechanism of sensor electrodes. Though NOx sensors generally consist of Pt/Au alloy based oxygen pump electrodes and Pt/Rh alloy based sensor electrodes, detailed experimental analysis of aged NOx sensors showed changes in the surface composition and morphology of the sensor electrode. The surface of the sensor electrode was covered with Au, which is not originally contained in the electrode, resulting in a diminished active site for NOx detection on the sensor electrode and a decrease in sensor output. Theoretical analysis using CAE with molecular dynamics supported that Au tends to be concentrated on the surface of the sensor electrode.
Technical Paper

Effect of High RON Fuels on Engine Thermal Efficiency and Greenhouse Gas Emissions

2019-04-02
2019-01-0629
Historically, greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions standards for vehicles have focused on tailpipe emissions. However, sound environmental policy requires a more holistic well-to-wheels (WTW) assessment that includes both production of the fuel and its use in the vehicle. The present research explores the net change in WTW GHG emissions associated with moving from regular octane (RO) to high octane (HO) gasoline. It considers both potential increases in refinery emissions from producing HO fuel and potential reductions in vehicle emissions through the use of fuel-efficient engines optimized for such fuel. Three refinery configurations of varying complexity and reforming capacity were studied. A set of simulations covering different levels of HO gasoline production were run for each refinery configuration.
Technical Paper

Validation Method of Interface Specification for Cooperative Control of Individual Systems

2019-04-02
2019-01-1039
As automotive electronic systems aiming for a safe and secure automobile society continue to develop, the control specifications of the ECU are becoming increasingly complex. When attempting to validate control specifications that cooperatively control different control specifications, control specification developers must consider various validation viewpoints. They narrow down the validation viewpoints based on rules from past experience, describe timing charts, and validate the specifications. However, due to complicated specifications, empirical rules do not pass, and specification mismatches are often found after actual systems completion. On the other hand, a block diagram simulator is a tool to verify control specifications. Since these tools are aimed at modeling and verifying the system design, it is efficient to describe how to implement the system. However, first it is necessary to verify the consistency between the model and the specifications.
Technical Paper

Determine 24 GHz and 77 GHz Radar Characteristics of Surrogate Grass

2019-04-02
2019-01-1012
Road Departure Mitigation System (RDMS) is a new feature in vehicle active safety systems. It may not rely only on the lane marking for road edge detection, but other roadside objects This paper discusses the radar aspect of the RDMS testing on roads with grass road edges. Since the grass color may be different at different test sites and in different seasons, testing of RDMS with real grass road edge has the repeatability issue over time and locations. A solution is to develop surrogate grass that has the same characteristics of the representative real grass. Radar can be used in RDMS to identify road edges. The surrogate grass should be similar to representative real grass in color, LIDAR characteristics, and Radar characteristics. This paper provides the 24 GHz and 77 GHz radar characteristic specifications of surrogate grass.
Journal Article

Development of Fuel Cell (FC) System for New Generation FC Bus

2019-04-02
2019-01-0372
Toyota Motor Corporation has been actively pursuing the development of fuel cell vehicles (FCVs) to respond to global environmental concerns and demands for clean energy. Toyota developed the first fuel cell (FC) bus to receive vehicle type certification in Japan. Subsequently, a new FC bus has been developed, which adopts two FC systems and four high-voltage batteries to achieve the required high power performance and durability. For enhanced durability, the FC system is controlled to maximize usage of the high-voltage batteries and to reduce the number of electric potential changes of the fuel cell. To accomplish this, the voltage of the FC stack must be kept high and FC power must be kept low. The high-voltage batteries were used to actively minimize FC power during acceleration.
Technical Paper

High Resolution LiDAR Based on Single Chip SPAD Array

2019-04-02
2019-01-0119
It is important that Advanced Driver Assistance Systems (ADAS) and Automated Driving Systems (AD) detect on-road objects, road vehicles and pedestrians. The typical detection devices mounted on ADAS and AD include a camera, a millimeter-wave radar and a Light Detection And Ranging (LiDAR). Since LiDAR can obtain accurate distance and fine spatial resolution due to its short wavelength, it is expected that small objects such as a tire can be detected. However, the conventional LiDAR is equipped with multiple light transmitters and light receivers such as avalanche photo diodes. This causes LiDAR system to be expensive and large in size. Aiming to reduce the cost and size of LiDAR, we employed Single-Photon Avalanche Diode (SPAD) which can be fabricated by CMOS process and easily arrayed. We also developed “Single Chip SPAD Array“ in which the two-dimensional array of SPAD and a signal processing block of range calculation were integrated into a single chip.
Technical Paper

Long-Term Evolution of Straight Crossing Path Crash Occurrence in the U.S. Fleet: The Potential of Intersection Active Safety Systems

2019-04-02
2019-01-1023
Intersection collisions currently account for approximately one-fifth of all crashes and one-sixth of all fatal crashes in the United States. One promising method of mitigating these crashes and fatalities is to develop and install Intersection Advanced Driver Assistance Systems (I-ADAS) on vehicles. When an intersection crash is imminent, the I-ADAS system can either warn the driver or apply automated braking. The potential safety benefit of I-ADAS has been previously examined based on real-world cases drawn from the National Motor Vehicle Crash Causation Survey (NMVCCS). However, these studies made the idealized assumption of full installation in all vehicles of a future fleet. The objective of this work was to predict the reduction in Straight Crossing Path (SCP) crashes due to I-ADAS systems in the United States over time. The proportion of new vehicles with I-ADAS was modeled using Highway Loss Data Institute (HLDI) fleet penetration predictions.
Technical Paper

Color and Height Characteristics of Surrogate Grass for the Evaluation of Vehicle Road Departure Mitigation Systems

2019-04-02
2019-01-1026
In recent years Road Departure Mitigation Systems (RDMS) is introduced to the market for avoiding roadway departure collisions. To support the performance testing of the RDMS, the most commonly seen road edge, grass, is studied in this paper for the development of standard surrogate grass. This paper proposes a method for defining the resembling grass color and height features due to significant variations of grass appearances in different seasons, temperatures and environments. Randomly selected Google Street View images with grass road edges are gathered and analyzed. Image processing techniques are deployed to obtain the grass color distributions. The height of the grass is determined by referencing the gathered images with measured grass heights. The representative colors and heights of grass are derived as the specifications of surrogate grass for the standard evaluation of RDMS.
Technical Paper

Application of Models of Short Circuits and Blow-Outs of Spark Channels under High-Velocity Flow Conditions to Spark Ignition Simulation

2018-09-10
2018-01-1727
This report describes the implementation of the spark channel short circuit and blow-out submodels, which were described in the previous report, into a spark ignition model. The spark channel which is modeled by a particle series is elongated by moving individual spark particles along local gas flows. The equation of the spark channel resistance developed by Kim et al. is modified in order to describe the behavior of the current and the voltage in high flow velocity conditions and implemented into the electrical circuit model of the electrical inductive system of the spark plug. Input parameters of the circuit model are the following: initial discharge energy, inductance, internal resistance and capacitance of the spark plug, and the spark channel length obtained by the spark channel model. The instantaneous discharge current and the voltage are obtained as outputs of the circuit model.
Technical Paper

Effects of EGR Constituents and Fuel Composition on DISI Engine Knock: An Experimental and Modeling Study

2018-09-10
2018-01-1677
The use of exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) in spark ignition engines has been shown to have a number of beneficial effects under specific operating conditions. These include reducing pumping work under part load conditions, reducing NOx emissions and heat losses by lowering peak combustion temperatures, and by reducing the tendency for engine knock (caused by end-gas autoignition) under certain operating regimes. In this study, the effects of EGR addition on knocking combustion are investigated through a combined experimental and modeling approach. The problem is investigated by considering the effects of individual EGR constituents, such as CO2, N2, and H2O, on knock, both individually and combined, and with and without traces species, such as unburned hydrocarbons and NOx. The effects of engine compression ratio and fuel composition on the effectiveness of knock suppression with EGR addition were also investigated.
Technical Paper

Maximizing Coasting of 48 V Vehicles with Cold-Storage Evaporator

2018-05-30
2018-37-0023
One of the main features of 48 V vehicles is the ability to coast at high speeds with the Internal Combustion Engine (ICE) off. This can be realized due to the high torque and power the 48 V motor-generator provides which allows a quick and smooth re-cranking of the ICE. The coasting feature reduces the fuel consumption depending on frequency and duration of the coasting events. This depends in turn on driving pattern, driving style, State-of-Charge of the 48 V and 12 V batteries and the air-conditioning (A/C) system. In summer, if the A/C runs with a mechanical belt-driven compressor, the cabin inlet air temperature from the evaporator inevitably increases during each coasting event as the ICE turns off and cannot operate the compressor. If the evaporator temperature reaches a certain threshold at which the cabin comfort is noticeably affected, the ICE is re-cranked for resuming air-conditioning.
Technical Paper

Pressure Sensor Module for High Temperature,High Pressure, and Quick Response

2018-04-03
2018-01-0759
According to the advance of engine control development, demands for direct sensing of physical quantity have been growing. Regarding pressure sensing, key properties for direct sensing are robustness against high temperature and pressure, and response time in addition to accuracy. In this work, a pressure sensor module with these key properties was developed. First of all, a piezoelectric device was selected as a suitable sensing principle for the required properties because of its thermally stable piezoelectric effect and potential for simple installation structure. Regarding robustness against temperature, the sensor module was designed to form thermal isolation layer with outer housing which is optimized according to its application. Regarding robustness against pressure and response time, breakage of the piezoelectric element is the main technical issue.
Technical Paper

A Sense of Distance and Augmented Reality for Stereoscopic Vision

2018-04-03
2018-01-1036
Head-up displays (HUDs) give visual information to drivers in an easy to understand manner and prevent traffic accidents. Augmented reality head-up displays (AR-HUDs) display the driving information overlaid on the actual scenery. The AR-HUD must allow the visual information and the actual scene to be viewed at the same time, and a sense of depth and distance are key factors in achieving this. Binocular parallax used in stereoscopic 3D display is one of the most useful methods of providing a sense of depth and distance. Generally, stereoscopic 3D displays must limit the image range to within Panum’s fusional area to ensure fusion of the stereoscopic images. However, when using a stereoscopic 3D display for an AR-HUD, the image range must extend beyond Panum’s fusional area to allow the visual information and the actual scene to be displayed at the same time.
Technical Paper

Ride Comfort Enhancement Using Active Stabilizer

2018-04-03
2018-01-0563
Ongoing research on active stabilizers involves not only control of the roll angle of the vehicle based on steering input but also improving ride comfort by reducing roll vibration caused by the antiphase road surface input. In that context, roll skyhook control, which applies skyhook theory to provide feedback on the vehicle roll and drive the actuators, has already been presented. Although vibration in all frequency bands can be reduced if there is no control delay, time lags or phase delays in control elements such as the communication, computation, low-pass filter, or actuators can amplify vibration. Consequently, a sufficient effect of controlling cannot be obtained. This paper will address wheelbase filtering, which produces a frequency that minimizes roll oscillation, and is used to suppress the influence of the undesirable vibration.
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