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Technical Paper

Development of the TOP TIERTM Diesel Standard

The TOP TIERTM Diesel fuel standard was first established in 2017 to promote better fuel quality in marketplace to address the needs of diesel engines. It provides an automotive recommended fuel specification to be used in tandem with regional diesel fuel specifications or regulations. This fuel standard was developed by TOP TIERTM Diesel Original Equipment Manufacturer (OEM) sponsors made up of representatives of diesel auto and engine manufacturers. This performance specification developed after two years of discussions with various stakeholders such as individual OEMs, members of Truck and Engine Manufacturers Association (EMA), fuel additive companies, as well as fuel producers and marketers. This paper reviews the major aspects of the development of the TOP TIERTM Diesel program including implementation and market adoption challenges.
Technical Paper

μAFS High Resolution ADB/AFS Solution

A cooperation of several research partners supported by the German Federal Ministry of Research and Education proposes a new active matrix LED light source. A multi pixel flip chip LED array is directly mounted to an active driver IC. A total of 1024 pixel can be individually addressed through a serial data bus. Several of these units are integrated in a prototype headlamp to enable advanced light distribution patterns in an evaluation vehicle.
Journal Article

From Exterior Wind Noise Loads to Interior Cabin Noise: A Validation Study of a Generic Automotive Vehicle

The object of the validation study presented in this paper is a generic vehicle, the so-called SAE body, developed by a consortium of German car manufacturers (Audi, Daimler, Porsche, Volkswagen). Many experiments have been performed by the abovementioned consortium on this object in the past to investigate its behavior when exposed to fluid flow. Some of these experiments were used to validate the simulation results discussed in the present paper. It is demonstrated that the simulation of the exterior flow is able to represent the transient hydrodynamic structures and at the same time both the generation of the acoustic sources and the propagation of the acoustic waves. Performing wave number filtering allows to identify the acoustic phenomena and separate them from the hydrodynamic effects. In a next step, the noise transferred to the interior of the cabin through the glass panel was calculated, using a Statistical Energy Analysis approach.
Technical Paper

Numerical Investigation of Droplets Condensation on a Windshield: Prediction of Fogging Behavior

An accurate model to predict the formation of fogging and defogging which occurs for low windshield temperatures is helpful for designing the air-conditioning system in a car. Using a multiphase flow approach and additional user-defined functions within the commercial CFD-software STAR-CCM+, a model which is able to calculate the amount of water droplets on the windshield from condensation and which causes the fogging is set up. Different parameters like relative humidity, air temperature, mass flow rate and droplet distributions are considered. Because of the condition of the windshield's surface, the condensation occurs as tiny droplets with different sizes. The distribution of these very small droplets must be obtained to estimate numerically the heat transfer coefficient during the condensation process to predict the defogging time.
Technical Paper

Approach for Parameter Determination for Objective Comfort Evaluation of the Vehicle Vibration Induced by Powertrain

The driving comfort influences the customer purchase decision; hence it is an important aspect for the vehicle development. To better quantify the comfort level and reduce the experiment costs in the development process, the subjective comfort assessment by test drivers is nowadays more and more replaced by the objective comfort evaluation. Hereby the vibration comfort is described by scalar objective characteristic parameters that correlate with the subjective assessments. The correlation analysis requires the assessments and measurements at different vehicle vibration. To determine the objective parameters regarding the powertrain excitations, most experiments in the previous studies were carried out in several test vehicles with different powertrain units.
Technical Paper

An Approach to Develop Energy Efficient Operation Strategies and Derivation of Requirements for Vehicle Subsystems Using the Vehicle Air Conditioning System as an Example

Rising oil prices and increasing strict emission legislation force vehicle manufacturers to reduce fuel consumption of future vehicles. In order to meet this target, the process of converting fuel into useable energy and the use of this energy by the different energy-consuming vehicle's subsystems have to be examined. Vehicles' subsystems consist of energy-supplying, energy-consuming, and in some cases energy-storing components. Due to the high complexity of these systems and their interaction, optimization of their energy efficiency is a challenging task. By introducing individual operational strategies for each subsystem, it is possible to increase the energy efficiency for a specific function. To further improve the vehicle's overall energy efficiency, holistic control strategies are introduced that distribute the energy between the subsystems intelligently.
Technical Paper

A Numerical Methodology to Compute Temperatures of a Rotating Cardan Shaft

In this paper a new numerical methodology to compute component temperatures of a rotating cardan shaft is described. In general temperatures of the cardan shaft are mainly dominated by radiation from the exhaust gas system and air temperatures in the transmission tunnel and underbody. While driving the cardan shaft is rotating. This yields a uniform temperature distribution of the circumference of the shaft. However most simulation approaches for heat protection are nowadays steady-state computations. In these simulations the rotation of the cardan shaft is not considered. In particular next to the exhaust gas system the distribution of the temperatures of the cardan shaft is not uniform but shows hot temperatures due to radiation at the side facing the exhaust gas system and lower temperatures at the other side. This paper describes a new computational approach that is averaging the radiative and convective heat fluxes circumferentially over bands of the cardan shaft.
Technical Paper

Standardization of Wiring Harness Data Formats between Truck OEMs and Suppliers

The continuously integration of electrics and electronics (EE) in the last decades is one of the main key drivers for innovation and business success of the Automotive OEMs. This is also applicable for truck manufacturers. On the other side factors like the rising vehicle complexity, number of variants and the warranty costs for EE issues are increasing the pressure on the engineering teams responsible for the mechatronic systems. To address these issues one of the key activities in the European market (focus on Germany) during the last decade was to introduce industry-wide standards for the data transfer of wiring harness data between OEM and harness supplier. In this paper the benefits and technical background of using the standards KBL and KOMP formats within the MB-Trucks brand will be presented. Moreover the role of the Information Technology (IT) will be explained in detail.