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Technical Paper

Investigation of the Disc Deflection Behavior of Shim Valves in Vehicle Shock Absorbers

Todays tuning of hydraulic vehicle shock absorbers is mainly an empirical iterative process performed in time-consuming and expensive ride tests, whereas the majority of damper simulation models used for investigating vehicle ride behavior is based on an abstract parameterization. For the manufacturing of automotive dampers, however, the valve code is essential. Minor changes in the valve code describing the shim stack in the hydraulic valves may have a noticeable impact on the damper characteristics, while the physical effects are still not sufficiently understood. Therefore, the paper presents a detailed physics-based structural model to investigate the pressure-deflection behavior of shim stacks and the influence of specific discs in the stack. The model includes a variety of effects like friction and preload, and is capable to predict the damper characteristics.
Technical Paper

Improved Full Vehicle Finite Element Tire Road Noise Prediction

This paper presents the application to full vehicle finite element simulation of a steady state rolling tire/wheel/cavity finite element model developed in previous work and validated at the subsystem level. Its originality consists in presenting validation results not only for a wheel on a test bench, but for a full vehicle on the road. The excitation is based on measured road data. Two methods are considered: enforced displacement on the patch centerline and enforced displacement on a 2D patch mesh. Finally the importance of taking the rotation of the tire into account is highlighted. Numerical results and test track measurements are compared in the 20-300 Hz frequency range showing good agreement for wheel hub vibration as well as for acoustic pressure at the occupant’s ears.
Technical Paper

A New Approach to Predicting Component Temperature Collectives for Vehicle Thermal Management

There is a growing need for life-cycle data – so-called collectives – when developing components like elastomer engine mounts. Current standardized extreme load cases are not sufficient for establishing such collectives. Supplementing the use of endurance testing data, a prediction methodology for component temperature collectives utilizing existing 3D CFD simulation models is presented. The method uses support points to approximate the full collective. Each support point is defined by a component temperature and a position on the time axis of the collective. Since it is the only currently available source for component temperature data, endurance testing data is used to develop the new method. The component temperature range in this data set is divided in temperature bands. Groups of driving states are determined which are each representative of an individual band. Each of the resulting four driving state spaces is condensed into a substitute load case.
Journal Article

Durability Simulation with Chassis Control Systems: Model Depth for a Handling Maneuver

This paper makes a contribution toward a more efficient chassis durability process for the development of passenger cars, in which the simulation of relevant load data is a time-consuming part. This is especially due to the full vehicle model complexity which is usually determined by the demands of rough road simulations. However, for the load calculation on a racetrack, time saving model approaches that are more simplified might be sufficient. Our investigation comprises two levels of vehicle model complexity: one with all chassis parts modeled in a multibody system environment and one characteristic curve based model in an internal simulation environment. Both approaches consider an original chassis control system as a Software-in-the-Loop model. By the evaluation of real-world experiments the main influence factors in terms of durability are demonstrated. With the help of those highly sensitive durability criteria the measurement and simulation results are then compared.
Technical Paper

Prediction of Wheel Forces and Moments and Their Influence to the Interior Noise

This paper describes the prediction process of wheel forces and moments via indirect transfer path analysis, followed by an analysis of the influence of wheel variants and suspension modifications. It proposes a method to calculate transmission of noise to the vehicle interior where wheel forces and especially moments were taken into account. The calculation is based on an indirect transfer path analysis with geometrical modifications of the frequency response functions. To generate high quality broadband results, this paper also points out some of the main clearance cutting criteria. The method has been successfully implemented to show the influence of wheel tire combinations as well as the influence of suspension modifications. Case studies have been performed and will be presented in this paper. Operational noise and vibration measurements have been carried out on Daimler NVH test tracks. The frequency response functions were estimated in an acoustic laboratory.
Technical Paper

Application and Validation of CAE Methods for Comprehensive Durability Assessment of Leaf Springs with Measurement and Testing

Securing the desired strength and durability characteristics of suspension components is one of the most important topics in the development of commercial vehicles because these components undergo multiaxial variable amplitude loading. Leaf springs are essential for the suspension systems of trucks and they are considered as security relevant components in the product development phase. In order to guide the engineers in the design and testing department, a simulation method is developed as explained by Bakir et al. in a recently published SAE paper [1]. The main aim of the present study is to illustrate the validation of this simulation method for the durability of leaf springs based on the results from testing and measurements. In order to verify this CAE Method, the calculated stresses on the leaf springs are compared with the results of strain gage measurements and the fatigue failures of leaf springs are correlated with the calculated damage values.
Technical Paper

Physical 1-D System Simulation Model for Monotube Shock Absorbers for Simulation with Excitation up to 70Hz

In an automotive suspension, the shock absorber plays a significant role to enable the vehicle performances, especially in ride, handling and Noise-Vibration-Harshness (NVH). Understanding its physical characteristics is of great importance, as it has a main influence on the overall vehicle performance. Within this research project simulation models for different passive monotube shock absorber systems have been created in a 1-D system simulation software. The simulation models are designed and parameterized physically. To validate the simulation models measurements on different hydropulse-shaker with specially designed control signals to investigate the response during high frequency excitation, have been done. A detailed discussion of the several models and results of a simulation to measurement comparison is given. After detailed investigation the shock absorber simulation models are now adaptable to the multi body simulation.
Technical Paper

Numerical Investigation of Droplets Condensation on a Windshield: Prediction of Fogging Behavior

An accurate model to predict the formation of fogging and defogging which occurs for low windshield temperatures is helpful for designing the air-conditioning system in a car. Using a multiphase flow approach and additional user-defined functions within the commercial CFD-software STAR-CCM+, a model which is able to calculate the amount of water droplets on the windshield from condensation and which causes the fogging is set up. Different parameters like relative humidity, air temperature, mass flow rate and droplet distributions are considered. Because of the condition of the windshield's surface, the condensation occurs as tiny droplets with different sizes. The distribution of these very small droplets must be obtained to estimate numerically the heat transfer coefficient during the condensation process to predict the defogging time.
Technical Paper

Approach for Parameter Determination for Objective Comfort Evaluation of the Vehicle Vibration Induced by Powertrain

The driving comfort influences the customer purchase decision; hence it is an important aspect for the vehicle development. To better quantify the comfort level and reduce the experiment costs in the development process, the subjective comfort assessment by test drivers is nowadays more and more replaced by the objective comfort evaluation. Hereby the vibration comfort is described by scalar objective characteristic parameters that correlate with the subjective assessments. The correlation analysis requires the assessments and measurements at different vehicle vibration. To determine the objective parameters regarding the powertrain excitations, most experiments in the previous studies were carried out in several test vehicles with different powertrain units.
Journal Article

Investigation of Tire-Road Noise with Respect to Road Induced Wheel Forces and Radiated Airborne Noise

Low interior noise levels in combination with a comfortable sound is an important task for passenger cars. Due to the reduction of many noise sources over the last decades, nowadays tire-road noise has become one of the dominant sources for the interior noise. Especially for manufactures of luxury cars, the reduction of tire-road noise is a big challenge and therefore a central part of NVH development. The knowledge of the noise transmission behavior based on the characteristics of the relevant sources is a fundamental of a modern NVH - development process. For tire-road noise the source characteristics can be described by wheel forces and radiated airborne noise. In combination with the related vehicle transfer functions it is possible to describe the noise transmission behavior in detail. A method for estimating wheel forces and radiated airborne noise is presented.
Journal Article

Air Spring Air Damper: Modelling and Dynamic Performance in Case of Small Excitations

Air spring systems gain more and more popularity in the automotive industry and with the ever growing demand for comfort nowadays they are almost inevitable. Some significant advantages over conventional steel springs are appealing for commercial vehicles as well as for the modern passenger vehicles in the luxury class. Current production air spring systems exist in combination with hydraulic shock absorbers (integrated or resolved). An alternative is to use the medium air not only as a spring but also as a damper: a so-called air spring air damper. Air spring air dampers are force elements which could be a great step for the chassis technology due to their functionality (frequency selectivity, load levelling, load independent vibration behaviour, load dependent damping). Some of their design which avoid dynamic seals by the using of rubber bellows contribute to a better ride comfort.
Technical Paper

Approach to Determine Slip Values Based on the Intensity of Tire Marks with Respect to Tire and Road Properties

The objective of the presented research is to analyze the cause-and-effect chain of the emergence of tire marks and to indentify how the intensity of a friction-related tire mark on asphalt or concrete pavements can provide additional information related to forces or slips at the marking wheels. Focusing on tire marks due to abrasive wear, the influences on the intensity of tire marks are analyzed based on three categories: vehicle dynamic parameters, tire and road properties, which determine the sensitivity of tire marking for a specific tire-road combination for constant vehicle dynamic parameters; and optical parameters, influencing the contrast of a given tire mark. The analysis includes a new objective method for the assessment of the tire mark intensities derived by photos of tire marks, generated with a tire measurement trailer. Additionally a test rig was developed to determine the tire marking sensitivity with reference marks under controlled friction conditions.
Technical Paper

Standardization of Wiring Harness Data Formats between Truck OEMs and Suppliers

The continuously integration of electrics and electronics (EE) in the last decades is one of the main key drivers for innovation and business success of the Automotive OEMs. This is also applicable for truck manufacturers. On the other side factors like the rising vehicle complexity, number of variants and the warranty costs for EE issues are increasing the pressure on the engineering teams responsible for the mechatronic systems. To address these issues one of the key activities in the European market (focus on Germany) during the last decade was to introduce industry-wide standards for the data transfer of wiring harness data between OEM and harness supplier. In this paper the benefits and technical background of using the standards KBL and KOMP formats within the MB-Trucks brand will be presented. Moreover the role of the Information Technology (IT) will be explained in detail.
Technical Paper

Development of Universal Brake Test Data Exchange Format and Evaluation Standard

Brake system development and testing is spread over vehicle manufacturers, system and component suppliers. Test equipment from different sources, even resulting from different technology generations, different data analysis and report tools - comprising different and sometimes undocumented algorithms - lead to a difficult exchange and analysis of test results and, at the same time, contributes to unwanted test variability. Other studies regarding the test variability brought up that only a unified and unambiguous data format will allow a meaningful and comparative evaluation of these data and only standardization will reveal the actual reasons of test variability. The text at hand illustrates that a substantial part of test variability is caused by a misinterpretation of data and/or by the application of different algorithms.
Journal Article

Tire Mark Analysis of a Modern Passenger Vehicle with Respect to Tire Variation, Tire Pressure and Chassis Control Systems

Tire mark analysis is an important factor in accident reconstruction. A precise determination of pre- and postcrash speeds as well as longitudinal and lateral accelerations from tire marks contributes significantly to a reliable accident reconstruction. Continuous advancements in tire and vehicle technology – in particular with respect to modern control systems such as anti-lock braking systems (ABS) – raises the question what role tire marks play in accident reconstruction today. Moreover, this accompanies the question to what extent potential interventions by vehicle control systems such as the electronic stability program (ESP®) resp. the electronic stability control (ESC) can be identified in a tire mark. The widespread use of these systems today makes them increasingly important in accident reconstruction.
Journal Article

Numerical Simulation of DOC+DPF+SCR systems:DOC Influence on SCR Performance

A numerical model for a diesel oxidation catalyst (DOC) is presented. It is based on a spatially 1D, physical and chemically based modeling of the relevant processes within the catalytic monolith. A global reaction kinetic approach has been chosen to describe the chemical reactions. Water condensation and evaporation was also considered, in order to predict the cold start behavior. Reaction kinetic parameters have been evaluated from a series of laboratory experiments. A correlation between the kinetic parameters and the noble metal loading was developed. The model was used in combination with a SCR-Model to study the influence of changes of noble metal loading and DOC volume on the overall transient NOx performance of a DOC+DPF+SCR system.