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Technical Paper

Possibilities of Wall Heat Transfer Measurements at a Supercharged Euro VI Heavy-Duty Diesel Engine with High EGR-Rates, an In-Cylinder Peak Pressure of 250 Bar and an Injection Pressure up to 2500 Bar

A raise of efficiency is the strongest selling point concerning the total cost of ownership (TCO), especially for commercial vehicles (CV). Accompanied by legislations, with contradictive development demands, satisfying solutions have to be found. The analysis of energy losses in modern engines shows three influencing parameters. Wall heat transfer (WHT) losses are awarded with the highest optimization potential. Critical for the occurrence of these losses is the WHT, which can be described by representing coefficients. To reduce WHT accompanying losses a decrease of energy transfer between combustion gas and combustion chamber wall is necessary. A measurement of heat fluxes is necessary to determine the WHT relations of the combustion chamber in an engine. As this has not been done for a Heavy-Duty (HD) engine, with peak pressures up to 250 bar, an increased in-cylinder turbulence and high exhaust gas recirculation (EGR)-rates before, it is presented in the following.
Technical Paper

Steady-State Experimental and Meanline Study of an Asymmetric Twin-Scroll Turbine at Full and Unequal and Partial Admission Conditions

The use of twin-scroll turbocharger turbines has gained popularity in recent years. The main reason is its capability of isolating and preserving pulsating exhaust flow from engine cylinders of adjacent firing order, hence enabling more efficient pulse turbocharging. Asymmetrical twin-scroll turbines have been used to realize high pressure exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) using only one scroll while designing the other scroll for optimal scavenging. This research is based on a production asymmetrical turbocharger turbine designed for a heavy duty truck engine of Daimler AG. Even though there are number of studies on symmetrical twin entry scroll performance, a comprehensive modeling tool for asymmetrical twin-scroll turbines is yet to be found. This is particularly true for a meanline model, which is often used during the turbine preliminary design stage.
Technical Paper

Stoichiometric Natural Gas Combustion in a Single Cylinder SI Engine and Impact of Charge Dilution by Means of EGR

In this paper experimental results of a medium duty single cylinder research engine with spark ignition are presented. The engine was operated with stoichiometric natural gas combustion and additional charge dilution by means of external and cooled exhaust gas recirculation (EGR). The first part of this work considers the benefits of cooled EGR on thermo-mechanical stress of the engine including exhaust gas temperature, cylinder head temperature, and knock behaviour. This is followed by the analysis of the influence of cooled EGR on the heat release rate. In this context the impact of fuel gas composition is also under investigation. The influence of increasing EGR on fuel efficiency, which is caused by a changed combustion process due to higher fractions of inert gases, is shown in this section. By application of different pistons a relationship between the piston bowl geometry and the flame propagation has been demonstrated.
Journal Article

Cold Start Effect Phenomena over Zeolite SCR Catalysts for Exhaust Gas Aftertreatment

NH₃/urea SCR is a very effective and widely used technology for the abatement of NOx from diesel exhaust. The SCR mechanism is well understood and the catalyst behavior can be predicted by mathematical models - as long as operation above the temperature limit for AdBlue® injection is considered. The behavior below this level is less understood. During the first seconds up to minutes after cold start, complete NOx abatement can be observed over an SCR catalyst in test bench experiments, together with a significant increase in temperature after the converter (ca. 100 K). In this work these effects have been investigated over a monolith Cu-zeolite SCR catalyst. Concentration step experiments varying NO, NO₂ and H₂O have been carried out in lab scale, starting from room temperature. Further, the interaction of C₃H₆ and CO with NOx over the SCR has been investigated.
Technical Paper

Ash Transport in Diesel Particle Filters

Lubricant oil derived ash deposits still represent a major issue in diesel particulate filter operation in vehicles. In literature various ash deposition patterns are described. The two boundary deposition patterns are (a) wall layer and (b) filling at the back end of the inlet channels. The patterns are often associated with different regeneration methods. Continuous regeneration is supposed to result in a homogeneous ash layer, whereas periodic (active) regeneration is reported to result in back end filling. The current contribution describes the basic mechanisms associated with ash transport phenomena in particle filters. On the basis of (a) frequency of ash exposure to flow (b) ash particle structure re-entrainment and finally (c) axial ash transport the different deposition pattern can be explained. Exposure to flow accomplished by periodical soot removal, either by passive or active regeneration is the first step.
Technical Paper

Modeling of Injected Diesel Fuel Conversion and Heat Release in Oxidation Catalyst: 3D-CFD & 1D Channels Approach

A system for controlled heat generation in exhaust pipeline is studied, consisting of fuel injector and oxidation catalyst (plus connecting pipes). A 3D-CFD software (StarCD) coupled with a tailored 1D model of catalytic monolith channel (XMR) are employed for simulations of realistic, fully 3D system geometry. Exhaust gas flow, fuel injection, and distribution at the catalyst inlet is solved by 3D-CFD, while the processes inside individual representative channels are simulated by the effective 1D model. The 3D-CFD software calls iteratively the 1D channel model with proper boundary conditions and solves 3D temperature profile over the monolith, utilizing local enthalpy fluxes (including gas-solid heat transfer and reaction enthalpy) calculated by the 1D channel model. Seven representative hydrocarbons are used for characterisation of Diesel fuel composition with respect to catalytic oxidation kinetics.
Journal Article

The NH3 Inhibition Effect in the Standard SCR Reaction over a Commercial Fe-zeolite Catalyst for Diesel Exhaust Aftertreatment: An Experimental and Modeling Study

Transient and steady-state kinetic data are herein presented to analyze the inhibiting effect of ammonia on the NH₃-SCR of NO at low temperatures over a Fe-zeolite commercial catalyst for vehicles. It is shown that in SCR converter models a rate expression accounting for NH₃ inhibition of the Standard SCR reaction is needed in order to predict the specific dynamics observed both in lab-scale and in engine test bench runs upon switching on and off the ammonia feed. Two redox, dual site kinetic models are developed which ascribe such inhibition to the spill-over of ammonia from its adsorption sites, associated with the zeolite, to the redox sites, associated with the Fe promoter. Better agreement both with lab-scale intrinsic kinetic runs and with engine test-bench data, particularly during transients associated with dosing of ammonia to the SCR catalyst, is obtained assuming slow migration of NH₃ between the two sites.
Journal Article

Modelling of NOx Storage + SCR Exhaust Gas Aftertreatment System with Internal Generation of Ammonia

Combination of an NOx storage and reduction catalyst (NSRC, called also lean NOx trap, LNT) and a catalyst for the selective catalytic reduction of NOx by NH₃ (NH₃-SCR) offers a potential to significantly increase the efficiency of NSRC-based exhaust gas aftertreatment systems. Under most situations the SCR catalyst is able to adsorb the NH₃ peaks generated in the NSRC during the regeneration and utilize it for additional NOx reduction in the course of the consequent lean phase. This synergy becomes more important with the aged NSRC, where generally lower NOx conversions and higher NH₃ yields in wider range of operating temperatures are observed (in comparison with the fresh or de-greened NSRC). In this paper we present global kinetic models for the NSRC (Pt/Ba/Ce/gγ-Al₂O₃ catalyst type) and NH₃-SCR (Fe-ZSM5 catalyst type).
Technical Paper

Specifics of Daimler's new SCR system (BLUETEC) in the Diesel Sprinter Van - Certified for NAFTA 2010

Beginning in 2010, Daimler's well-known Diesel Sprinter van has to fulfill the new and clearly tighter NOx emission standards of NAFTA10 (EPA, CARB). This requires an integrated approach of further engine optimizations and the implementation of an innovative exhaust aftertreatment technology. The goal was to develop an overall concept which meets simultaneously the tightened emission standards (including OBD limits) and the increasing customer demands of more power and torque without losing the high fuel efficiency of the small and highly efficient 3-liter V6 diesel engine OM642, which already has been installed in the NAFTA07 Sprinter. In the early stages of the concept phase, the most appropriate NOx aftertreatment technology and certification form (engine or vehicle) had to be selected for this specific vehicle class in the van segment with enhanced requirements to durability, economical efficiency and specific driving behavior.
Technical Paper

Investigations on Chemical Ageing of Diesel Oxidation Catalysts and Coated Diesel Particulate Filters

For medium- and heavy-duty diesel engines, the development of new catalyst technologies and particulate filters is necessary to fulfill increasingly stringent emission regulations. An important aspect is the durability of the after-treatment system and therefore its efficiency over lifetime. Lubrication oil additives contain components such as phosphorous or zinc to ensure engine durability. Diesel oxidation catalyst (DOC) and coated diesel particulate filter (cDPF) catalytic coatings are negatively influenced by contamination on the surface with these components (chemical ageing). The components have a negative impact on the exhaust after-treatment systems performance. Additionally the cDPF is filled with oil ash. Engine tests are conducted to analyze the effect of lubrication oil additives on after-treatment system performance. In one study, lubrication oil with increased sulfur ash content is used.
Technical Paper

BLUETEC Diesel Technology - Clean, Efficient and Powerful

Diesel engines have a strong contribution to the CO2 reduction in Europe in the past years. To enable these C02 reduction potential to the US market Mercedes Benz developed the BLUETEC technology for light duty diesel engines. The BLUETEC technology contains an optimized diesel engine and combustion system, an aftertreatment system with DOC, DPF and an active SCR catalyst with AdBlue Dosing System and an enhanced ECU functionality and calibration. For fulfilling the world strongest emission limits of the US legislation there have to be solutions developed for the handling of AdBlue under cold climate below -11°C, managing the refilling event, and the onboard diagnostic. To ensure the emission stability over full useful life on high NOx conversions level, intensive testing of the catalyst technology had to be done. In addition there are self learning functionalities for adapting the dosing strategy to ensure the maximum NOx performance.
Technical Paper

Bluetec Emission Control System for the US Tier 2 Bin 5 Legislation

While the market share for diesel engines for LD vehicles in Europe has grown continuously in the past years, the market share in North America is still negligible. Until now, it has been possible to fulfill the limits for nitrogen oxides (NOx) both in Europe and in North America by engine measures alone, without using an active NOx aftertreatment system. With the introduction of Tier II Bin 8 and Tier II Bin 5 emissions legislation in the US in 2007, most new diesel applications will now require NOx aftertreatment. One of the possible technologies for the reduction of nitrogen oxides in lean exhaust gas is the NOx storage catalyst which has become the generally-accepted choice for engines with gasoline direct injection systems and which is also utilized in the current diesel Bluetec I systems from Daimler. For heavier applications urea-SCR is the preferred technology to fulfill NOx legislation limits.
Technical Paper

Model-based Optimization of Catalyst Zoning in Diesel Particulate Filters

Catalyzed wall-flow particulate filters are increasingly applied in diesel exhaust after-treatment for multiple purposes, including low-temperature catalytic regeneration, CO and hydrocarbon conversion, as well as exothermic heat generation during forced regeneration. In order to optimize Precious Metals usage, it may be advantageous to apply the catalytic coating non-uniformly in the DPF, a technology referred to as “catalyst zoning”. In order to simulate the behavior of such a filter, one has to consider coupled transport-reaction modeling. In this work, a previously developed model is calibrated versus experimental data obtained with full-scale catalyzed filters on the engine dynamometer. In a next step, the model is validated under a variety of operating conditions using engine experiments with zoned filters. The performance of the zoned catalyst is analyzed by examining the transient temperature and species profiles in the inlet and outlet channels.
Technical Paper

Sensor for Directly Determining the State of a NOx Storage Catalyst

In order to control NOx reduction with NOx storing lean NOx traps (LNT), a gas sensor downstream of the LNT is presently preferred. It is a disadvantage that no means are available to gauge directly the LNT NOx loading level and the catalyst quality. The presented novel sensor consists of interdigital electrodes that are deposited on a planar substrate. On its reverse side, a temperature sensor is applied. Both sides are covered with the original catalyst coating, allowing detecting directly electrical impedance and temperature of the coating. Such sensors were integrated in different positions of an LNT. It is shown in synthetic exhausts as well as in engine tests that in-situ measurements of the electrical impedance of the LNT coating are appropriate to determine directly the catalyst status. Hence, the local degree of NOx loading as well as the local regeneration status can be measured. Furthermore, sulfur poisoning, desulfurization, and thermal ageing can be directly seen.
Technical Paper

New V6-Diesel-Engine for the Daimler Van “Sprinter” Certified to Emission-Regulation NAFTA2007

The new Sprinter targets the USA and Canada markets nationwide to reconfirm Daimlers statement for Diesel engine in vans. Consequentially, the MY2007 Sprinter follows his successful predecessor as again the first - and up to now the only - Diesel vehicle in its class now meeting even the strict EPA07 requirement in California. For the growing market in North America an unique development for the successor for the previous 5-cylinder Diesel Sprinter had been made. The new 3 liter V6 Diesel engine is based on numerous corporate wide versions from Mercedes and Chrysler Passenger cars and SUVs and has its roots also in smaller and larger Mercedes vans. Effective January 2007 the NAFTA04 requirements have been replaced by the NAFTA07 values. Meeting those led to significant changes of the latest Sprinter in European EURO4 version. Both, engine and exhaust hardware as well as the ECU-data had been modified consequentially.
Journal Article

Numerical Simulation of DOC+DPF+SCR systems:DOC Influence on SCR Performance

A numerical model for a diesel oxidation catalyst (DOC) is presented. It is based on a spatially 1D, physical and chemically based modeling of the relevant processes within the catalytic monolith. A global reaction kinetic approach has been chosen to describe the chemical reactions. Water condensation and evaporation was also considered, in order to predict the cold start behavior. Reaction kinetic parameters have been evaluated from a series of laboratory experiments. A correlation between the kinetic parameters and the noble metal loading was developed. The model was used in combination with a SCR-Model to study the influence of changes of noble metal loading and DOC volume on the overall transient NOx performance of a DOC+DPF+SCR system.