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Technical Paper

Making the Case for a Next Generation Automotive Electrical System

1998-10-19
98C006
Introduction of an array of new electrical and electronic features into future vehicles is generating vehicle electrical power requirements that exceed the capabilities of today's 14 volt electrical systems. In the near term (5 to 10 years), the existing 14V system will be marginally capable of supporting the expected additional loads with escalating costs for the associated charging system. However, significant increases in vehicle functional content are expected as future requirements to meet longer-term (beyond 10 years) needs in the areas of emission control, fuel economy, safety, and passenger comfort. A higher voltage electrical system will be required to meet these future requirements. This paper explores the functional needs that will mandate a higher voltage system and the benefits derivable from its implementation.
Technical Paper

Chemiluminescence Imaging of Autoignition in a DI Diesel Engine

1998-10-19
982685
Chemiluminescence imaging has been applied to a parametric investigation of diesel autoignition. Time-resolved images of the natural light emission were made in an optically accessible DI diesel engine of the heavy-duty size class using an intensified CCD video camera. Measurements were obtained at a base operating condition, corresponding to a motored TDC temperature and density of 992 K and 16.6 kg/m3, and for TDC temperatures and densities above and below these values. Data were taken with a 42.5 cetane number blend of the diesel reference fuels for all conditions, and measurements were also made with no. 2 diesel fuel (D2) at the base condition. For each condition, temporal sequences of images were acquired from the time of first detectable chemiluminescence up through fully sooting combustion, and the images were analyzed to obtain quantitative measurements of the average emission intensity.
Technical Paper

The Knocking Syndrome - Its Cure and Its Potential

1998-10-19
982483
In his paper “The Knock Syndrome - its Cures and its Victims” (SAE 841339) Oppenheim proposed to change the whole process of the internal combustion engine replacing moving flames by homogeneous and simultaneous combustion. Intensive research work on flame propagation and auto-ignition phenomena led to new insights into combustion over recent years. The implementation of auto-ignition on two-stroke S.I. engines revealed the potential for simultaneous reductions in fuel consumption and NOx emission. Deploying the principle for the four-stroke piston engine and standard fuel would provide optimum conditions for application in common vehicles. The basic problem of homogeneous combustion is presented and some options of control are discussed. A methodology is proposed to apply a new type of combustion simply through a consistent combination of modern technology available for the S.I. engine.
Technical Paper

Multi-Dimensional Modeling of the Effect of Injection Systems on DI Diesel Engine Combustion and NO-Formation

1998-10-19
982585
The combustion process of a heavy-duty DI-Diesel truck engine has been investigated using numerical simulation. The numerical modeling was based on an improved version of the KIVA-2 engine simulation code, employing a modified characteristic time-scale combustion model and a modified Kelvin-Helmholtz spray atomization model. The NO-formation process was modeled using the extended thermal Zeldovich mechanism. The simulation efforts included the effects of different injection characteristics such as varying the injection rate profile or number of injection holes and sizes. The physical sub-models used to improve the simulation of the mixture-formation and the combustion process were validated through comparison with single-cylinder engine experiments. Special attention was given to accurately model the in-cylinder flame propagation of the individual sprays and their effect on thermal NO-formation. All simulations were based on full load cases at medium speed.
Technical Paper

Reduction of NOx in Lean Exhaust by Selective NOx-Recirculation (SNR-Technique) Part I: System and Decomposition Process

1998-10-19
982592
The SNR-technique is a new NOx aftertreatment system for lean burn gasoline and diesel applications. The objective of SNR is NOx removal from lean exhaust gas by NOx adsorption and subsequent selective external recirculation and decomposition of NOx in the combustion process. The SNR-project is composed of two major parts. Firstly the development of NOx adsorbents which are able to store large quantities of NOx in lean exhaust gas, and secondly the NOx decomposition by the combustion process. Emphasis of this paper is the investigation of NOx reduction in the combustion process, including experimental investigation and numerical simulation. The NOx decomposition process has been proven in diesel and lean-burn gasoline engines. Depending on the type of engine NOx-conversion rates up to 90 % have been observed. Regarding the complete SNR-system, including the efficiency of the adsorbing material and the NOx decomposition by the combustion, a NOx removal of more than 50% is achievable.
Technical Paper

Reduction of NOx in Lean Exhaust by Selective NOx-Recirculation (SNR-Technique) Part II: NOx Storage Materials

1998-10-19
982593
Selective NOx recirculation (SNR), involving adsorption, selective external recirculation and decomposition of the NOx by the combustion process, is itself a promising technique to abate NOx emissions. Three types of materials containing Ba: barium aluminate, barium tin perovskite and barium Y-zeolites have been developed to adsorb NOx under lean-burn or Diesel conditions, with or without the presence of S02. All these materials adsorb NO2 selectively (lean-burn conditions), and store it as nitrate/nitrite species. The desorption takes place by decomposition of these species at higher temperatures. Nitrate formation implies also sulfate formation in the presence of SO2 and SO3, while the NO2/SO2 competition governs the poisoning of such catalysts.
Technical Paper

Development of Close-Coupled Catalyst Systems for European Driving Conditions

1998-02-23
980663
The present paper describes the results of a joint development program focussing on a system approach to meet the proposed EURO III and IV emission standards for a passenger car equipped with a 3.2 liter, 18 valve gasoline engine. Starting with the in-production configuration of a EURO II certified vehicle (model year 1997) the following improvement points were investigated in detail. By the introduction of a close-coupled catalyst in combination with engine measures to improve the catalyst light-off the proposed EURO III limits were met. The proposed EURO IV hurdle could be overcome by further using secondary air injection during cold-start in combination with an increased precious metal loading for the close-coupled catalyst.
Technical Paper

Application of In-Line Hydrocarbon Adsorber Systems

1998-02-23
980422
An adsorber system for reducing cold start hydrocarbon (HC) emissions has been developed combining existing catalyst technologies with a zeolite-based HC adsorber. The series flow in-line concept offers a passive and simplified alternative to other technologies by incorporating one additional adsorber substrate into existing converters without any additional valving, purging lines, or special substrates. This contribution describes the current development status of hydrocarbon adsorber aftertreatment technologies. We report results obtained with a variety of adsorber, start-up, and underfloor catalyst system combinations. In each case, it was possible to achieve HC emission levels in compliance with the ULEV standards, and in the best cases, demonstrating HC emissions substantially below the legislated standard.
Technical Paper

Catalytic NOx Reduction on a Passenger Car Diesel Common Rail Engine

1998-02-23
980191
The awareness concerning environmental issues and the economical need for fuel savings leads to the introduction of new, highly efficient Diesel engines for passenger cars. An engine with common rail injection system could meet this target and, with the help of an advanced diesel exhaust aftertreatment system also fulfilled the new legislative emission regulations. Besides the efficient oxidation of carbon monoxide (CO), hydrocarbons (HC) and diesel particulates, such a system also requires a moderate reduction efficiency for nitrogen oxides (NOx) under excess oxygen conditions. The present paper illustrates the further progress in catalytic NOx-reduction under excess of oxygen by hydrocarbon enrichment using the common rail injection system.
Technical Paper

Stratified Diesel Fuel-Water-Diesel Fuel Injection Combined with EGR-The Most Efficient In-Cylinder NOx and PM Reduction Technology

1997-10-01
972962
For meeting 21st-century exhaust emission standards for HD diesel engines, new methods are necessary for reducing NOx and PM emissions without increasing fuel consumption. The stratified diesel fuel-water-diesel fuel (DWD) injection in combination with exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) is as a means for NOx and PM reduction without any negative effect on fuel economy. The investigation was performed on a charged HD single-cylinder direct-injection diesel engine with a modern low-swirl combustion system, 4-valve technology and high pressure injection. The application of DWD injection combined with EGR resulted in a 60 percent lower NOx emission at full load and a 75 percent reduced NOx emission at part load when compared with present day (EURO II) technology. This was achieved without any fuel economy penalty, but with an additional PM emission reduction.
Technical Paper

Advanced Engine Control and Exhaust Gas Aftertreatment of a Leanburn SI Engine

1997-10-01
972873
The development of a leanburn engine is described, in which optimized engine design, innovative engine management and exhaust gas aftertreatment using a special NOx-storage catalyst were combined to yield a significant improvement in fuel economy with reduced NOx emissions. To achieve stable combustion near the lean limit a swirl system was used and the appropriate parameters of the 2.2 I 4-cyIinder 4-valve SI engine were optimized. As a result, the mixture formation was improved and the lean limit was extended to higher air-fuel ratios. An adaptive lambda controller which was based on the evaluation of engine-smoothness calculated from the RPM-sensor was implemented to control each cylinder individually close to the lean limit. A model-based control system was developed to achieve extremely accurate air-fuel ratio control during transients.
Technical Paper

Evaluation of NOx Storage Catalysts for Lean Burn Gasoline Fueled Passenger Cars

1997-02-24
970746
Engine and laboratory tests were carried out to examine the performance of NOx adsorption catalysts for gasoline lean burn engines in fresh and aged condition. The results show that fresh NOx adsorption catalysts have the potential to meet EURO III emission standards. However, to accomplish these the fuel must contain a low sulfur concentration and the engine must be tuned to optimize the efficiency of the catalyst. After engine or furnace aging upto 750°C the catalyst shows some loss of NOx adsorption efficiency. This deterioration can be offset somewhat by increasing the frequency of lean/rich switching of the engine. Temperatures higher than 750°C may cause an irreversible destruction of the NOx, storage features while the three-way activity of the catalyst remains intact or even may improve. With reference to several physicochemical investigations it is believed that the detrimental effect of catalyst aging is attributed to two different deactivation modes.
Technical Paper

Aftertreatment System for NOx and Soot Removal - Evaluation of an Integrated System

1996-10-01
962044
The two major problems of diesel emission control are the reduction of nitrogen oxides and particulates. This paper describes experimental investigations to achieve both a separation of soot particles as well as a catalytic NOx reduction with hydrocarbons under lean diesel exhaust gas conditions. For that purpose a diesel particle trap is coated with a catalyst based on a Pt containing zeolite. Preliminary studies have been performed on the catalytic NOx reduction to evaluate the efficiency of a Pt/zeolite system as well as to establish the impact of operation conditions on the catalyst performance. The activity of the prepared samples (catalytic coating on particle trap) has been determined under model gas test conditions. Much attention has been focussed on the steady-state kinetics of the surface processes. Another aspect considered is the N2O formation which can be reduced, when alkali-earth or rare-earth oxides are added to the catalyst system.
Technical Paper

Evaluation of NOx Storage Catalysts as an Effective System for NOx Removal from the Exhaust Gas of Leanburn Gasoline Engines

1995-10-01
952490
One possibility to improve the fuel economy of SI-engines is to run the engine with a lean air-fuel-ratio (AFR). Hydrocarbon and carbon monoxide after-treatment has been proven under lean operation, but NOx-control remains a challenge to catalyst and car manufacturers. One strategy that is being considered is to run the engine lean with occasional operation at stoichiometry. This would be in conjunction with a three-way-catalyst (TWC) to achieve stoichiometric conversion of the three main pollutants in the normal way and a NOx trap. The NOx trap stores NOx under lean operation to be released and reduced under rich conditions. The trap also functions as a TWC and has good HC and CO conversion at both lean and stoichiometric AFR's. Under lean conditions NO is oxidised to NO2 on Pt which is then adsorbed on an oxide surface. Typical adsorbent materials include oxides of potassium, calcium, zirconium, strontium, lanthanum, cerium and barium.
Technical Paper

Effect of Sodium- and Lithium-Based Fuel Additives on the Regeneration Efficiency of Diesel Particulate Filters

1992-10-01
922188
The effect of fuel additives based on the alkali metals sodium and lithium on the regeneration behaviour of diesel particulate filters was studied. For this purpose the diesel fuel was doped with the lithium and sodium salts of an aliphatic alcohol. The efficiency of these additives was assessed by comparing it to ferrocene, which is, at present, the best studied additive for particulate filter regeneration. The additives were tested on an engine test bench under steady state conditions, on a transient dynamometer and finally in a real driving test. As a result of the addition of the alkali metal salts, the ignition temperature of the soot trapped in the particulate filter is considerably lower than the ignition temperature without additives. The results with the alkali metal additives are similar to those of ferrocene or other additives with transition metals like manganese or copper.
Technical Paper

Concept of Catalytic Exhaust Emission Control for Europe

1985-10-01
852095
The experience which has been gained in more than ten years with vehicles for the U.S.A. and Japan forms the basis of the catalytic converter systems for application in Europe. We are talking about the improvement of the mechanical and chemical endurance of catalytic converters and oxygen sensors. Special attention is paid to various substrate materials (e.g. steel) and coatings concerning their properties with regard to high-temperature stability and power loss. Moreover we are dealing with the increased application of electronics in the engine. The paper mainly refers to the Mercedes-Benz 190 E 2.3-16. This vehicle is used as an example to show the development of an emission concept for European requirements.
Technical Paper

The Effect of Methanol/Diesel Fuel Emulsions on the Mixture Formation in Direct-injection Diesel Engines: A Theory on Spontaneous Evaporation

1983-02-01
830376
Blendings of methanol and diesel fuel can only be produced in form of emulsions. The stability of those emulsions strongly depends on the concentration of surface active agents. It is shown that observed changes in mixture formation of emulsions in comparison to pure diesel fuel conditions can be explained by a theory of spontaneous evaporation. Several feasible droplet models are discussed. Emulsion droplets evaporate spontaneously if the droplet temperature exceeds the superheating limit of the disperse phase. The superheating limit is only exceeded at the outer zone of the injection jet.
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