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Technical Paper

Trimmed Body Static Stiffness Identification Using Dynamic Measurements: Test Methodology and Correlation with CAE Results

2018-06-13
2018-01-1496
A key metric of a car body structure is the body stiffness, which shows significant correlation with different vehicle performance attributes as NVH, comfort and vehicle handling. Typical approaches to identify static stiffness characteristics are the use of a static stiffness test bench or the ‘static-from-dynamic’ approach in which free-free acquired transfer functions are used to build a modal model from which the static stiffness characteristics are extracted. Both of these approaches have limitations, the static stiffness bench with respect to clamping conditions and reproducing those in CAE, the static-from-dynamic with respect to the modal analysis (EMA) that needs to be performed. EMA is a subjective process, which can limit result robustness. In addition, performing EMA on a trimmed body is difficult due to the high modal density and the high level of damping.
Journal Article

The Thermodynamics of Exhaust Gas Condensation

2017-06-29
2017-01-9281
Water vapor is, aside from carbon dioxide, the major fossil fuel combustion by-product. Depending on its concentration in the exhaust gas mixture as well as on the exhaust gas pressure, its condensation temperature can be derived. For typical gasoline engine stoichiometric operating conditions, the water vapor dew point lies at about 53 °C. The exhaust gas mixture does however contain some pollutants coming from the fuel, engine oil, and charge air, which can react with the water vapor and affect the condensation process. For instance, sulfur trioxide present in the exhaust, reacts with water vapor forming sulfuric acid. This acid builds a binary system with water vapor, which presents a dew point often above 100 °C. Exhaust composition after leaving the combustion chamber strongly depends on fuel type, engine concept and operation point. Furthermore, the exhaust undergoes several chemical after treatments.
Journal Article

Development and Demonstration of LNT+SCR System for Passenger Car Diesel Applications

2014-04-01
2014-01-1537
The regulations for mobile applications will become stricter in Euro 6 and further emission levels and require the use of active aftertreatment methods for NOX and particulate matter. SCR and LNT have been both used commercially for mobile NOX removal. An alternative system is based on the combination of these two technologies. Developments of catalysts and whole systems as well as final vehicle demonstrations are discussed in this study. The small and full-size catalyst development experiments resulted in PtRh/LNT with optimized noble metal loadings and Cu-SCR catalyst having a high durability and ammonia adsorption capacity. For this study, an aftertreatment system consisting of LNT plus exhaust bypass, passive SCR and engine independent reductant supply by on-board exhaust fuel reforming was developed and investigated. The concept definition considers NOX conversion, CO2 drawback and system complexity.
Technical Paper

Gasoline HCCI/CAI on a Four-Cylinder Test Bench and Vehicle Engine - Results and Conclusions for the Next Investigation Steps

2010-05-05
2010-01-1488
Internal combustion engines with lean homogeneous charge and auto-ignition combustion of gasoline fuels have the capability to significantly reduce fuel consumption and realize ultra-low engine-out NOx emissions. Group research of Volkswagen AG has therefore defined the Gasoline Compression Ignition combustion (GCI®) concept. A detailed investigation of this novel combustion process has been carried out on test bench engines and test vehicles by group research of Volkswagen AG and IAV GmbH Gifhorn. Experimental results confirm the theoretically expected potential for improved efficiency and emissions behavior. Volkswagen AG and IAV GmbH will utilize a highly flexible externally supercharged variable valve train (VVT) engine for future investigations to extend the understanding of gas exchange and EGR strategy as well as the boost demands of gasoline auto-ignition combustion processes.
Technical Paper

Comparison of Different EGR Solutions

2008-04-14
2008-01-0206
This paper compares 4 different EGR systems by means of simulation in GT-Power. The demands of optimum massive EGR and fresh air rates were based on experimental results. The experimental data were used to calibrate the model and ROHR, in particular. The main aim was to investigate the influence of pumping work on engine and vehicle fuel consumption (thus CO2 production) in different EGR layouts using optimum VG turbine control. These EGR systems differ in the source of pressure drop between the exhaust and intake pipes. Firstly, the engine settings were optimized under steady operation - BSFC was minimized while taking into account both the required EGR rate and fresh air mass flow. Secondly, transient simulations (NEDC cycle) were carried out - a full engine model was used to obtain detailed information on important parameters. The study shows the necessity to use natural pressure differences or renewable pressure losses if reasonable fuel consumption is to be achieved.
Technical Paper

Development of Advanced Metallic Substrate Design for Close Coupled Converter Application

2007-04-16
2007-01-1262
The implementations of the Tier 2 and LEVII emission levels require fast catalyst light-off and fast closed loop control through high-speed engine management. The paper describes the development of innovative catalyst designs. During the development thermal and mechanical boundary conditions were collected and component tests conducted on test rigs to identify the emission and durability performance. The products were evaluated on a Super Imposed Test Setup (SIT) where thermal and mechanical loads are applied to the test piece simultanously and results are compared to accelerated vehicle power train endurance runs. The newly developed light-off catalyst with Perforated Foil Technology (PE) showed superior emission light-off characteristic and robustness.
Technical Paper

Sunroof Buffeting Suppression Using a Dividing Bar

2007-04-16
2007-01-1552
This paper presents the results of CFD study on sunroof buffeting suppression using a dividing bar. The role of a dividing bar in side window buffeting case was illustrated in a previous study [8]. For the baseline model of the selected vehicle in this study, a very high level of sunroof buffeting, 133dB, has been found. The CFD simulation shows that the buffeting noise can be significantly reduced if a dividing bar is installed at the sunroof. A further optimization study on the dividing bar demonstrates that the peak buffeting level can be reduced to 123dB for the selected vehicle if the dividing bar is installed at its optimal location, 65% of the total length from the front edge of the sunroof. The peak buffeting level can be further reduced to 100dB if the dividing bar takes its optimal width 80mm, 15% of the total length of the sunroof for this vehicle, while staying at its optimal location.
Technical Paper

Locally Resolved Measurement of Gas-Phase Temperature and EGR-Ratio in an HCCI-Engine and Their Influence on Combustion Timing

2007-04-16
2007-01-0182
Laser-based measurements of charge temperature and exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) ratio in an homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI) engine are demonstrated. For this purpose, the rotational coherent anti-Stokes Raman spectroscopy technique (CARS) was used. This technique allows temporally and locally resolved measurements in combustion environments through only two small line-of-sight optical accesses and the use of standard gasoline as a fuel. The investigated engine is a production-line four-cylinder direct-injection gasoline engine with the valve strategy modified to realize HCCI-operation. CARS-measurements were performed in motored and fired operation and the results are compared to polytropic calculations. Studies of engine speed, load, valve timing, and injection pressure were conducted showing the strong influence of charge temperature on the combustion timing.
Technical Paper

Effects of Substrate Diameter and Cell Density FTP Performance

2007-04-16
2007-01-1265
An experiment was performed with a 1.3L catalytic converter design containing a front and rear catalyst each having a volume of 0.65 liters. This investigation varied the front catalyst parameters to study the effects of 1) substrate diameter, 2) substrate cell density, 3) Pd loading and 4) Rh loading on the FTP emissions on three different vehicles. Engine displacement varied from 2.4L to 4.7L. Eight different converters were built defined by a Taguchi L-8 array. Cold flow converter restriction results show the tradeoff in converter restriction between substrate cell density and substrate diameter. Vehicle FTP emissions show how the three vehicles are sensitive to the four parameters investigated. Platinum Group Metals (PGM) prices and Federal Test Procedure (FTP) emissions were used to define the emission value between the substrate properties of diameter and cell density to palladium (Pd) and rhodium (Rh) concentrations.
Technical Paper

Achievements and Exploitation of the AUTOSAR Development Partnership

2006-10-16
2006-21-0019
Reductions of hardware costs as well as implementations of new innovative functions are the main drivers of today's automotive electronics. Indeed more and more resources are spent on adapting existing solutions to different environments. At the same time, due to the increasing number of networked components, a level of complexity has been reached which is difficult to handle using traditional development processes. The automotive industry addresses this problem through a paradigm shift from a hardware-, component-driven to a requirement- and function-driven development process, and a stringent standardization of infrastructure elements. One central standardization initiative is the AUTomotive Open System ARchitecture (AUTOSAR). AUTOSAR was founded in 2003 by major OEMs and Tier1 suppliers and now includes a large number of automotive, electronics, semiconductor, hard- and software companies.
Technical Paper

Engine-Independent Exhaust Gas Aftertreatment Using a Burner Heated Catalyst

2006-10-16
2006-01-3401
Meeting current exhaust emission standards requires rapid catalyst light-off. Closed-coupled catalysts are commonly used to reduce light-off time by minimizing exhaust heat loss between the engine and catalyst. However, this exhaust gas system design leads to a coupling of catalyst heating and engine operation. An engine-independent exhaust gas aftertreatment can be realized by combining a burner heated catalyst system (BHC) with an underfloor catalyst located far away from the engine. This paper describes some basic characteristics of such a BHC system and the results of fitting this system into a Volkswagen Touareg where a single catalyst was located about 1.8 m downstream of the engine. Nevertheless, it was possible to reach about 50% of the current European emission standard EU 4 without additional fuel consumption caused by the BHC system.
Technical Paper

Evaluation of Advanced Diesel Oxidation Catalyst Concepts: Part 2

2006-04-03
2006-01-0032
The development of diesel powered passenger cars is driven by the enhanced emission legislation. To fulfill the future emission limits there is a need for advanced aftertreatment devices. A comprehensive study was carried out focusing on the improvement of the DOC as one part of these systems, concerning high HC/CO conversion rates, low temperature light-off behaviour and high temperature aging stability, respectively. The first part of this study was published in [1]. Further evaluations using a high temperature DPF aging were carried out for the introduced systems. Again the substrate geometry and the catalytic coating were varied. The results from engine as well as vehicle tests show advantages in a highly systematic context by changing either geometrical or chemical factors. These results enable further improvement for the design of the exhaust system to pass the demanding emission legislation for high performance diesel powered passenger cars.
Technical Paper

Optimization Study for Sunroof Buffeting Reduction

2006-04-03
2006-01-0138
This paper presents the results of optimization study for sunroof buffeting reduction using CFD technology. For an early prototype vehicle as a baseline model in this study a high level of sunroof buffeting 133dB has been found. The CFD simulation shows that the buffeting noise can be reduced by installing a wind deflector at its optimal angle 40 degrees from the upward vertical line. Further optimization study demonstrates that the buffeting peak SPL can be reduced to 97dB if the sunroof glass moves to its optimal position, 50% of the total length of the sunroof from the front edge. For any other vehicles, the optimization procedure is the same to get the optimal parameters. On the other hand, however, this optimization study is only based on fluid dynamics principle without considering manufacturability, styling, cost, etc. Further work is needed to utilize the results in the production design.
Technical Paper

PGM Optimization by Robust Design

2005-10-24
2005-01-3849
A Robust Engineering experiment was performed to determine the effects PGM loading and placement on the FTP emissions of a 4 cylinder 2.4L and two 8 cylinder 4.7L vehicles. 1.3L catalytic converters were used containing a front and rear catalyst of equal volume. The experiment is defined by a Taguchi L-8 array. Eight different combinations of catalyst PGM loadings were aged and evaluated. Results show that nmHC and NOx emissions are predominately affected by the PGM loading of the front catalyst. The rear catalyst is insensitive to either Pt or Pd which can be used at low concentrations. Results also compare the benefits of Pd and Rh to reduce emissions. Confirmation runs suggest that significant reductions in PGM cost can be achieved over baseline designs.
Technical Paper

Cooling Fan Modeling to Support Robust AC/Cooling System Simulation

2005-04-11
2005-01-1905
Advanced design of modern engine cooling and vehicle HVAC components involves sophisticated simulation. In particular, front end air flow models must be able to cover the complete range of conditions from idle to high road speeds involving multiple fans of varying types both powered and unpowered. This paper presents a model for electric radiator cooling fans which covers the complete range of powered and unpowered (freewheel) operation. The model applies equally well to mechanical drive fans.
Technical Paper

FlexMetal Catalyst Technologies

2005-04-11
2005-01-1111
A new family of automotive three-way conversion (TWC) catalyst technologies has been developed using a Precision Metal Addition (PMA) process. Precious metal (PGM) fixation onto the support occurs during the PMA step when the PGM is added to the slurry immediately prior to application to the monolith substrate. PMA slurries can be prepared with high precision and the slurry manufacturing process is greatly simplified. Further, it has been found that with the use of new generation washcoat (WC) materials, the same WC composition can be used for all three PGMs - Pt, Pd & Rh. Negative interactions between Pd and Rh in the same WC layer do not occur, providing advantages over older technologies. Thus, new WC compositions coupled with the PMA process offers precious metal flexibility. This FlexMetal family of catalyst technologies includes single layer Pd-only, Pd/Rh and Pt/Rh and dual layer bi-metal Pd/Rh and Pt/Rh and tri-metal Pt/Pd/Rh.
Technical Paper

Development and Verification of In-Vehicle Networks in a Virtual Environment

2005-04-11
2005-01-1534
Due to the increase in demand for comfort and safety features in today's automobiles, the internal vehicle communication networks necessary to accommodate these features are very complex. These networks represent a heterogeneous architecture consisting of several ECUs exchanging information via bus systems such as CAN, LIN, MOST, or FlexRay buses. Development and verification of internal vehicle networks include multiple design layers. These layers are the logical layer represented by the software application, the associated data link layer, and the physical connection layer containing bus interfaces, wires, and termination. Verification of these systems in the early stages of the design process (before a physical network is available for testing) has become a critical need. As a result, the need to simulate these designs at all their levels of complexity has become critically important.
Technical Paper

Electromagnetic Compatibility of Direct Current Motors in an Automobile Environment

2005-04-11
2005-01-0637
As the volume and complexity of electronics increases in automobiles, so does the complexity of the electromagnetic relationship between systems. The reliability and functionality of electronic systems in automobiles can be affected by noise sources such as direct current (DC) motors. A typical automobile has 25 to 100+ DC motors performing different tasks. This paper investigates the noise environment due to DC motors found in automobiles and the requirements that automobile manufacturers impose to suppress RF electromagnetic noise and conducted transients.
Technical Paper

NO Laser-Induced Fluorescence Imaging in the Combustion Chamber of a Spray-Guided Direct-Injection Gasoline Engine

2004-06-08
2004-01-1918
In direct-injection gasoline (GDI) engines with charge stratification, minimizing engine-out nitrogen oxide (NOx) emission is crucial since exhaust-gas aftertreatment tolerates only limited amounts of NOx. Reduced NOx production directly lowers the frequency of energy-inefficient catalyst regeneration cycles. In this paper we investigate NO formation in a realistic GDI engine. Quantitative in-cylinder measurements of NO concentrations are carried out via laser-induced fluorescence imaging with excitation of NO (A-X(0,2) band at 248 nm), and subsequent fluorescence detection at 220-240 nm. Engine modifications were kept to a minimum in order to provide results that are representative of practical operating conditions. Optical access via a sapphire ring enabled identical engine geometry as a production line engine. The engine is operated with commercial gasoline (“Super-Plus”, RON 98).
Technical Paper

Comparison of Indoor Vehicle Thermal Soak Tests to Outdoor Tests

2004-03-08
2004-01-1376
Researchers at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory conducted outdoor vehicle thermal soak tests in Golden, Colorado, in September 2002. The same environmental conditions and vehicle were then tested indoors in two DaimlerChrysler test cells, one with metal halide lamps and one with infrared lamps. Results show that the vehicle's shaded interior temperatures correlated well with the outdoor data, while temperatures in the direct sun did not. The large lamp array situated over the vehicle caused the roof to be significantly hotter indoors. Yet, inside the vehicle, the instrument panel was cooler due to the geometry of the lamp array and the spectral difference between the lamps and sun. Results indicate that solar lamps effectively heat the cabin interior in indoor vehicle soak tests for climate control evaluation and SCO3 emissions tests. However, such lamps do not effectively assess vehicle skin temperatures and glazing temperatures.
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