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Technical Paper

Application of the Modal Compliance Technique to a Vehicle Body in White

2007-05-15
2007-01-2355
This paper describes the application of the modal compliance method to a complex structure such as a vehicle body in white, and the extension of the method from normal modes to the complex modes of a complete vehicle. In addition to the usual bending and torsion calculations, the paper also describes the application of the method to less usual tests such as second torsion, match-boxing and breathing. We also show how the method can be used to investigate the distribution of compliance throughout the structure.
Technical Paper

Improving Low Frequency Torsional Vibrations NVH Performance through Analysis and Test

2007-05-15
2007-01-2242
Low frequency torsional vibrations can be a significant source of objectionable vehicle vibrations and in-vehicle boom, especially with changes in engine operation required for improved fuel economy. These changes include lower torque converter lock-up speeds and cylinder deactivation. This paper has two objectives: 1) Examine the effect of increased torsional vibrations on vehicle NVH performance and ways to improve this performance early in the program using test and simulation techniques. The important design parameters affecting vehicle NVH performance will be identified, and the trade-offs required to produce an optimized design will be examined. Also, the relationship between torsional vibrations and mount excursions, will be examined. 2) Investigate the ability of simulation techniques to predict and improve torsional vibration NVH performance. Evaluate the accuracy of the analytical models by comparison to test results.
Technical Paper

Validation of Vehicle NVH Performance using Experimental Modal Testing and In-Vehicle Dynamic Measurements

2007-05-15
2007-01-2320
NVH targets for future vehicles are often defined by utilizing a competitive benchmarking vehicle in conjunction with an existing production and/or reference vehicle. Mode management of full vehicle modes is one of the most effective and significant NVH strategies to achieve such targets. NVH dynamic characteristics of a full vehicle can be assessed and quantified through experimental modal testing for determination of global body mode resonance frequency, damping property, and mode shape. Major body modes identified from full vehicle modal testing are primarily dominated by the vehicle's body-in-white structure. Therefore, an estimate of BIW modes from full vehicle modes becomes essential, when only full vehicle modes from experimental modal testing exist. Establishing BIW targets for future vehicles confines the fundamental NVH behavior of the full vehicle.
Technical Paper

Transmission Mount Assembly Modelling for Load Simulation and Analysis

2007-04-16
2007-01-1348
Transmission mounts are usually tested as an assembly and typically only translational stiffnesses are provided. The torsional stiffness of the assembly is traditionally estimated based on experience in load simulation and analysis. This paper presents a procedure to estimate the torsional stiffness of the transmission mount assembly by using the test data. The effects of the torsional stiffness on the simulation results are also discussed.
Technical Paper

Sensitivity Analysis of Powertrain Cooling System Performance

2007-04-16
2007-01-0598
This paper identifies the difference in powertrain cooling system content levels using a nominal and a +3 Standard deviation maximum temperature design approach. Variation simulation analysis tools are used along with a 1-D cooling system performance model to predict resulting temperature distribution for different combinations of input variable populations. The analysis will show differential in powertrain cooling system content, mass, and impact to fuel economy for a nominal vs. +3 sigma design approach.
Technical Paper

Tailor-Welded Aluminum Blanks for Liftgate Inner

2007-04-16
2007-01-0421
Tailor welded steel blanks have long been applied in stamping of automotive parts such as door inner, b-pillar, rail, sill inner and liftgate inner, etc. However, there are few known tailor welded aluminum blanks in production. Traditional laser welding equipment simply does not have the capability to weld aluminum since aluminum has much higher reflectivity than steel. Welding quality is another issue since aluminum is highly susceptible to pin holes and undercut which leads to deterioration in formability. In addition, high amount of springback for aluminum panels can result in dimension control problem during assembly. A tailor-welded aluminum blank can help reducing dimension variability by reducing the need for assembly. In this paper, application of friction stir and plasma arc welded blanks on a liftgate inner will be discussed.
Technical Paper

Optimization of Head Impact Waveform to Minimize HIC

2007-04-16
2007-01-0759
To mitigate head impact injuries of vehicle occupants in impact accidents, the FMVSS 201 requires padding of vehicle interior so that under the free-moving-head-form impact, the head injury criterion (HIC) is below the limit. More recently, pedestrian head impact on the vehicle bonnet has been a subject being studied and regulated as requirements to the automobile manufacturers. Over the years, the square wave has been considered as the best waveform for head impacts, although it is impractical to achieve. This paper revisits the head impact topic and challenges the optimality of aiming at the square waveform. It studies several different simple waveforms, with the objective to achieve minimal HIC or minimal crush space required in head-form impacts. With that it is found that many other waveforms can be more efficient and more practical than the square wave, especially for the pedestrian impact.
Technical Paper

Simulation Process to Investigate Suspension Sensitivity to Brake Judder

2007-04-16
2007-01-0590
Brake judder, which is a low frequency excitation of the suspension and thus, the body structure during low-G braking, is mainly felt at the steering wheel and throughout the vehicle structure. Brake judder is a problem that costs manufacturers millions of dollars in warranty cost and undesirable trade offs. The magnitude of judder response depends not only on the brake torque variation, but also on the suspension design character-istics. This paper discusses the judder simulation process using ADAMS software to investigate the suspension design sensitivity to the first order brake judder performance. The paper recommends “tuning knobs” to suspension designers and vehicle development engineers to resolve issues in the design and development stages. Various suspension design varia-bles including geometry and compliances as well as brake related characteristics were investigated.
Technical Paper

Advancing the State of Strong Hybrid Technology

2006-10-16
2006-21-0058
As the hybrid automotive market becomes quickly saturated with highly competitive products and vehicles, auto manufacturers struggle with business models and the combination of current manufacturing with next generation development. The hybrid development cooperation amongst General Motors, DaimlerChrysler, and BMW offers a new business model that promotes the advancement of the state of strong hybrid technology while maintaining the strong global leadership and competition.
Technical Paper

Study on Simplified Finite Element Simulation Approaches of Fastened Joints

2006-04-03
2006-01-1268
In this paper, mechanism of fastened joints is described; numerical analyses and testing calibrations are conducted for the possible simplified finite element simulation approaches of the joints; and the best simplified approach is recommended. The approaches cover variations of element types and different ways that the joints are connected. The element types include rigid elements, deformable bar elements, solid elements, shell elements and combinations of these element types. The different ways that the joints are connected include connections of one row of nodes, two row of nodes and alternate nodes in the first and second rows. These simplified simulation approaches are numerically evaluated on a joint of two plates connected by a single fastener. The fundamental loads, bending with shear, shear and tension are applied in the numerical analyses. A detailed model including contact and clamp load are analyzed simultaneously to provide “accurate results”.
Technical Paper

Reliability and Robust Design of Automotive Thermal Systems - A Federated Approach

2006-04-03
2006-01-1576
Today automotive thermal systems development is a joint effort between an OEM and its suppliers. This paper presents a pilot program showing how OEMs and suppliers can jointly develop a reliable and robust thermal system using CAE tools over the internet. Federated Intelligent Product Environment (FIPER) has been used to establish B2B communication between OEMs and suppliers. Suppliers remotely run thermal systems computer models at the OEM site using the FIPER B2B feature.
Technical Paper

A Model for On-Line Monitoring of In-Cylinder Residual Gas Fraction (RGF) and Mass Flowrate in Gasoline Engines

2006-04-03
2006-01-0656
In a gasoline engine, the unswept in-cylinder residual gas and introduction of external EGR is one of the important means of controlling engine raw NOx emissions and improving part load fuel economy via reduction of pumping losses. Since the trapped in-cylinder Residual Gas Fraction (RGF, comprised of both internal, and external) significantly affects the combustion process, on-line diagnosis and monitoring of in-cylinder RGF is very important to the understanding of the in-cylinder dilution condition. This is critical during the combustion system development testing and calibration processes. However, on-line measurement of in-cylinder RGF is difficult and requires an expensive exhaust gas analyzer, making it impractical for every application. Other existing methods, based on measured intake and exhaust pressures (steady state or dynamic traces) to calculate gas mass flowrate across the cylinder ports, provide a fast and economical solution to this problem.
Technical Paper

Evaluation of Cylinder Pressure Transducer Accuracy based upon Mounting Style, Heat Shields, and Watercooling

2005-10-24
2005-01-3750
This investigation evaluated different pressure transducers in one cylinder to examine the combustion measurement differences between them simultaneously. There were a total of eleven transducers ranging in both diameter and type of transducer (piezo-electric, piezoresistive, and optical). Furthermore, the sensors differed in the methodology for minimizing signal distortion due to temperature. This methodology could take the form of various size mounting passages, heat shields, watercooling or heat transfer paths. To evaluate the sensors, different engine operating conditions were conducted, focusing at full load and low speeds. Other hardware configurations of the same engine family were used to exaggerate the combustion environment, specifically a tumble-motion plate and turbocharging.
Technical Paper

Gaseous Hydrogen Station Test Apparatus: Verification of Hydrogen Dispenser Performance Utilizing Vehicle Representative Test Cylinders

2005-04-11
2005-01-0002
The paper includes the development steps used in creating a station test apparatus (STA) and a description of the apparatus design. The purpose of this device is to simulate hydrogen vehicle conditions for the verification of gaseous hydrogen refueling station dispenser performance targets and hydrogen quality. This is done at the refueling station/vehicle interface (i.e. the refueling nozzle.) In addition, the device is to serve as a means for testing and developing future advanced fueling algorithms and protocols. The device is to be outfitted with vehicle representative container cylinders and sensors located inside and outside the apparatus to monitor refueling rate, ambient and internal gas temperature, pressure and weight of fuel transferred. Data is to be recorded during refueling and graphed automatically.
Technical Paper

Computer Aided Simulations in Machining Applications

2005-04-11
2005-01-0518
Computer applications have been widely used to assist product design. The successes and sophistication of computer aided engineering (CAE) techniques are respectfully recognized in this field. CAE applications in the manufacturing area however are still developing, although the manufacturing community is increasingly starting to pay attentions to computer simulations in its daily workings. This paper will briefly introduce some of these applications and promote awareness of computer simulations in manufacturing area. It contains four main sections: finite element analysis (FEA) in machining fixture design, FEA applications in component assembly, machining process simulations and machining vibrations in the milling operation. Each section comes with a practical case study, potential benefits are identified and conclusions are presented by using an integrated design and analysis approach.
Technical Paper

Using Neural Networks to Compensate Altitude Effects on the Air Flow Rate in Variable Valve Timing Engines

2005-04-11
2005-01-0066
An accurate air flow rate model is critical for high-quality air-fuel ratio control in Spark-Ignition engines using a Three-Way-Catalyst. Emerging Variable Valve Timing technology complicates cylinder air charge estimation by increasing the number of independent variables. In our previous study (SAE 2004-01-3054), an Artificial Neural Network (ANN) has been used successfully to represent the air flow rate as a function of four independent variables: intake camshaft position, exhaust camshaft position, engine speed and intake manifold pressure. However, in more general terms the air flow rate also depends on ambient temperature and pressure, the latter being largely a function of altitude. With arbitrary cam phasing combinations, the ambient pressure effects in particular can be very complex. In this study, we propose using a separate neural network to compensate the effects of altitude on the air flow rate.
Technical Paper

Development of an Engine Stop/Start at Idle System

2005-04-11
2005-01-0069
A project was undertaken to demonstrate an engine stop/start at idle system utilizing a 12 volt Belt driven Starter Generator (BSG). The system was developed on a production four cylinder vehicle to determine emissions, driveability, and fuel economy impact.
Technical Paper

A Fully Variable Mechanical Valvetrain with a Simple Moving Pivot

2005-04-11
2005-01-0770
A continuously variable lift, duration and phase mechanical lift mechanism is described, as applied to the intake valvetrain of a SOHC, 4-valve per cylinder, four-cylinder production engine. Improvements in fuel economy were sought by reduction of pumping losses and improved charge preparation, and optimization of WOT torque was attempted by variation of intake valve closing angle. Adjustment of the mechanism is achieved by movement of the pivot shaft for the rocker arms. The relationship between lift, duration and phase is predetermined at the design stage, and is fixed during operation. There is considerable design flexibility to achieve the envelope of lift curves deemed desirable. The operation of the mechanism is described, as are the development procedure, testing with fixed cams, some cycle simulation, friction testing on a separate rig and dyno testing results for idle, part load and WOT.
Technical Paper

A Multiple Order Conformability Model for Uniform Cross-Section Piston Rings

2005-04-11
2005-01-1643
This paper examines the conformability of elastic piston rings to a distorted cylinder bore. Several bounds are available in the literature to help estimate the maximum allowable Fourier coefficient in a Fourier expansion of bore distortion: the analytically derived bounds in [7] and [8], and the semi-empirically derived bounds discussed in [9]. The underlying assumptions for each set of analytic bounds are examined and a multiple order algorithm is derived. The proposed algorithm takes account of multiple orders of distortion at once. It is tested with finite element (FE) data and compared to the classical bound approach. The results indicate that the bounds in [7] are compatible with linear elasticity theory (LET), whereas the bounds in [8] are not. Furthermore, numerical evidence indicates that the present multiple order algorithm can predict seal breaches more accurately than either of the other analytic bounds.
Technical Paper

An Experimental Study on the Effect of Intake Primary Runner Blockages on Combustion and Emissions in SI Engines under Part-Load Conditions

2004-10-25
2004-01-2973
Charge motion is known to accelerate and stabilize combustion through its influence on turbulence intensity and flame propagation. The present work investigates the effect of charge motion generated by intake runner blockages on combustion characteristics and emissions under part-load conditions in SI engines. Firing experiments have been conducted on a DaimlerChrysler (DC) 2.4L 4-valve I4 engine, with spark range extending around the Maximum Brake Torque (MBT) timing. Three blockages with 20% open area are compared to the fully open baseline case under two operating conditions: 2.41 bar brake mean effective pressure (bmep) at 1600 rpm, and 0.78 bar bmep at 1200 rpm. The blocked areas are shaped to create different levels of swirl, tumble, and cross-tumble. Crank-angle resolved pressures have been acquired, including cylinders 1 and 4, intake runners 1 and 4 upstream and downstream of the blockage, and exhaust runners 1 and 4.
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