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Technical Paper

Validation of Vehicle NVH Performance using Experimental Modal Testing and In-Vehicle Dynamic Measurements

2007-05-15
2007-01-2320
NVH targets for future vehicles are often defined by utilizing a competitive benchmarking vehicle in conjunction with an existing production and/or reference vehicle. Mode management of full vehicle modes is one of the most effective and significant NVH strategies to achieve such targets. NVH dynamic characteristics of a full vehicle can be assessed and quantified through experimental modal testing for determination of global body mode resonance frequency, damping property, and mode shape. Major body modes identified from full vehicle modal testing are primarily dominated by the vehicle's body-in-white structure. Therefore, an estimate of BIW modes from full vehicle modes becomes essential, when only full vehicle modes from experimental modal testing exist. Establishing BIW targets for future vehicles confines the fundamental NVH behavior of the full vehicle.
Technical Paper

Tailor-Welded Aluminum Blanks for Liftgate Inner

2007-04-16
2007-01-0421
Tailor welded steel blanks have long been applied in stamping of automotive parts such as door inner, b-pillar, rail, sill inner and liftgate inner, etc. However, there are few known tailor welded aluminum blanks in production. Traditional laser welding equipment simply does not have the capability to weld aluminum since aluminum has much higher reflectivity than steel. Welding quality is another issue since aluminum is highly susceptible to pin holes and undercut which leads to deterioration in formability. In addition, high amount of springback for aluminum panels can result in dimension control problem during assembly. A tailor-welded aluminum blank can help reducing dimension variability by reducing the need for assembly. In this paper, application of friction stir and plasma arc welded blanks on a liftgate inner will be discussed.
Technical Paper

Lightweight Magnesium Intensive Body Structure

2006-04-03
2006-01-0523
This paper describes a lightweight magnesium intensive automobile body structure concept developed at DaimlerChrysler to support a high fuel-efficiency vehicle project. This body structure resulted in more than 40% weight reduction over a conventional steel structure while achieving significantly improved structural performance as evaluated through CAE simulations. A business case analysis was conducted and showed promising results. One concept vehicle was built for the purpose of demonstrating concept feasibility. The paper also identifies areas for further development to enable such a vehicle to become a production reality at a later time.
Technical Paper

A Failure Criterion for Stretch Bendability of Advanced High Strength Steels

2006-04-03
2006-01-0349
Studies in an Angular Stretch Bend Test (ASBT) have demonstrated that the failure location moves from the side wall to punch nose area. This occurs as the R/T ratio decreases below a certain limit and applies to most low carbon steels with the exception of Dual Phase (DP) steels. Such behavior in DP steels indicates that bending effects have a severe impact on the formability of DP materials. Therefore, the traditional criterion using the forming limit curve (FLC) is not suitable to assess the formability at punch radius areas for DP steels due in part to its uniqueness of unconventional microstructures. In this paper, a new failure criterion, ‘Bending-modified’ FLC (BFLC), is proposed by extending the traditional FLC using the “Stretch Bendability Index” (SBI) concept for the stretch bendability assessment.
Technical Paper

The USAMP Magnesium Powertrain Cast Components Project

2006-04-03
2006-01-0522
Over the past five years, the US Automotive Materials Partnership (USAMP) has brought together representatives from DaimlerChrysler, General Motors, Ford Motor Company and over 40 other participant companies from the Mg casting industry to create and test a low-cost, Mg-alloy engine that would achieve a 15 - 20 % Mg component weight savings with no compromise in performance or durability. The block, oil pan, and front cover were redesigned to take advantage of the properties of both high-pressure die cast (HPDC) and sand cast Mg creep- resistant alloys. This paper describes the alloy selection process and the casting and testing of these new Mg-variant components. This paper will also examine the lessons learned and implications of this pre-competitive technology for future applications.
Technical Paper

Test Methodology to Reduce Axle Whine in a 4WD Vehicle

2005-05-16
2005-01-2403
With the ever increasing popularity of SUV automobiles, studies involving driveline specific problems have grown. One prevalent NVH problem is axle whine associated with the assembled motion transmission error (MTE) of an axle system and the corresponding vibration/acoustic transfer paths into the vehicle. This phenomenon can result in objectionable noise levels in the passenger compartment, ensuing in customer complaints. This work explores the methodology and test methods used to diagnose and solve a field axle whine problem, including the use of cab mount motion transmissibility path analysis, running modes and a detailed MTE best-of-the-best (BOB)/worst-of-the-worst (WOW) study. The in-vehicle axle whine baseline measurements including both vehicle dynamometer and on-road test conditions, along with the countermeasures of axle whine fixes are identified and presented in this paper.
Technical Paper

Simulation of Hot Stamping Process With Advanced Material Modeling

2004-03-08
2004-01-0168
Advanced material modeling was conducted to describe the thermal-mechanical behavior of Boron Steel during hot stamping, a process in which blanks at 900 °C are formed and quenched between cold dies. Plastic deformation, thermal dilatation and phase transformation were incorporated in the constitutive model and a user-defined subroutine was developed to interface with LS-DYNA. Simulation was conducted on the hot stamping process of a door intrusion beam to gain insight into the physics of the process. Results showed significant influence of the thermal cycle on final product. It was also demonstrated that the program developed can be used as an early feasibility tool to determine baseline processing parameters and to detect potential defects in products without physical prototyping.
Technical Paper

Progress Toward a Magnesium-Intensive Engine: The USAMP Magnesium Powertrain Cast Components Project

2004-03-08
2004-01-0654
The US Automotive Materials Partnership (USAMP) and the US Department of Energy launched the Magnesium Powertrain Cast Components Project in 2001 to determine the feasibility and desirability of producing a magnesium-intensive engine; a V6 engine with a magnesium block, bedplate, oil pan, and front cover. In 2003 the Project reached mid-point and accomplished a successful Decision Gate Review for entry into the second half (Phase II) of the Project. Three tasks, comprising Phase I were completed: (1) evaluation of the most promising low-cost, creep-resistant magnesium alloys, (2) design of the engine components using the properties of the optimized alloys and creation of cost model to assess the cost/benefit of the magnesium-intensive engine, and (3) identification and prioritization of scientific research areas deemed by the project team to be critical for the use of magnesium in powertrain applications.
Technical Paper

Structure Borne Insertion Loss of Sound Package Components

2003-05-05
2003-01-1549
Typical automotive sound package components are usually characterized by their absorption coefficients and their acoustic power-based insertion loss. This insertion loss (IL) is usually obtained by subtracting the transmission loss (TL) of a bare flat steel plate from the TL of the same plate covered with the trim material. While providing useful information regarding the performance of the component, air-borne insertion loss is based solely on acoustic excitations and thus provides very little information about the structure-borne performance of the component. This paper presents an attempt to introduce a standard procedure to define the power-based structure-borne insertion loss of sound package components. A flat steel plate is excited mechanically using a shaker. Different carpet constructions are applied on the plate and tested. Based on velocity measurements, a force transducer and intensity probe, the mechanical input and the acoustic radiated power are obtained.
Technical Paper

A Design Study to Determine the Impact of Various Parameters on Door Acoustics

2003-05-05
2003-01-1430
Once the design of a door sheetmetal and accessories is confirmed, the acoustics of the door system depends on the sound package assembly. This essentially consists of a watershield which acts as a barrier and a porous material which acts as an absorber. The acoustical performance of the watershield and the reverberant sound build-up in the door cavity control the performance. This paper discusses the findings of a design study that was developed based on design of experiments (DOE) concepts to determine which parameters of the door sound package assembly are important to the door acoustics. The study was based on conducting a minimum number of tests on a five factor - two level design that covered over 16 different design configurations. In addition, other measurements were made that aided in developing a SEA model which is also compared with the findings of the results of the design study.
Technical Paper

Material Property Characterization of Foilback Damping Treatments Using Modified ASTM Equations

2003-05-05
2003-01-1585
In the automotive industry, in order to characterize and evaluate damping treatments, it is a common practice to employ Oberst bar tests as specified by ASTM E756 and SAE J1637. The ASTM standard provides equations for sandwiched Oberst bars. These equations allow engineers to extract the properties of the visco-elastic core. For certain type of automotive constrained-layer damping treatments, such as the Aluminum Foilback, it is often convenient and desirable to prepare the Oberst bar samples with production-intent configuration. Unfortunately, these configurations are often asymmetric. Therefore, the composite Oberst bar data cannot be post-processed by employing the ASTM equations. In this study, the ASTM equations for sandwiched bars are modified to accommodate for asymmetric Oberst bar configurations. The finite element method is used to validate the derived equations by performing a “Virtual Oberst Bar test.”
Technical Paper

Laminated Steel Forming Modeling Techniques and Experimental Verifications

2003-03-03
2003-01-0689
Laminated steel sheets sandwiched with a polymer core are increasingly used for automotive applications due to their vibration and sound damping properties. However, it has become a major challenge in finite element modeling of laminated steel structures and forming processes due to the extremely large differences in mechanical properties and in the gauges of the polymer core and the steel skins. In this study, circular cup deep drawing and V-bending experiments using laminated steels were conducted in order to develop a modeling technique for laminate forming processes. The effectiveness of several finite element modeling techniques was investigated using the commercial FEM code LS-Dyna. Furthermore, two production parts were selected to verify the modeling techniques in real world applications.
Technical Paper

Modeling of Strain Rate Effects in Automotive Impact

2003-03-03
2003-01-1383
This paper deals with the effects of various approaches for modeling of strain rate effects for mild and high strength steels (HSS) on impact simulations. The material modeling is discussed in the context of the finite element method (FEM) modeling of progressive crush of energy absorbing automotive components. The characteristics of piecewise linear plasticity strain rate dependent material model are analyzed and various submodels for modeling of impact response of steel structures are investigated. The paper reports on the ranges of strains and strain rates that are calculated in typical FEM models for tube crush and their dependence on the material modeling approaches employed. The models are compared to the experimental results from drop tower tests.
Technical Paper

USCAR Traction Test Methodology for Traction-CVT Fluids

2002-10-21
2002-01-2820
A traction test machine, developed for evaluation of traction-CVT fluids for the automotive consortium, USCAR, provides precision traction measurements to stresses up to 4 GPa. The high stress machine, WAMhs, provides an elliptical contact between AISI 52100 steel roller and disc specimens. Machine stiffness and positioning technology offer precision control of linear slip, sideslip and spin. A USCAR traction test methodology includes entrainment velocities from 2 to 10 m/sec and temperatures from -20°C to 140°C. The purpose of the USCAR machine and test methodology is to encourage traction fluid development and to establish a common testing approach for fluid qualification. The machine utilizes custom software, which provides flexibility to conduct comprehensive traction fluid evaluations.
Technical Paper

A Simple Approach to Selecting Automotive Body-in-White Primary-Structural Materials

2002-07-09
2002-01-2050
A simple strategy for building lightweight automobile body-in-whites (BIWs) is developed and discussed herein. Because cost is a critical factor, expensive advanced materials, such as carbon fiber composites and magnesium, must only be used where they will be most effective. Constitutive laws for mass savings under various loading conditions indicate that these materials afford greater opportunity for mass saving when used in bending, buckling or torsion than in tensile, shear or compression. Consequently, it is recommended that these advanced materials be used in BIW components subject to bending and torsion such as rails, sills, “A-B-C” pillars, etc. Furthermore, BIW components primarily subject to tension, compression, or shear, such as floor pans, roofs, shock towers, etc., should be made from lower cost steel. Recommendations for future research that are consistent with this strategy are included.
Technical Paper

Techniques to Improve Springback Prediction Accuracy Using Dynamic Explicit FEA Codes

2002-03-04
2002-01-0159
Finite Element Analysis (FEA) has been successfully used in the simulation of sheet metal forming process. The accurate prediction of the springback is still a major challenge due to its sensitivity to the geometric modeling of the tools, strain hardening model, yield criterion, contact algorithm, loading pattern, element formulation, mesh size and number of through-thickness integration points, etc. The objective of this paper is to discuss the effect of numerical parameters on springback prediction using dynamic explicit FEA codes. The example used in the study is from the Auto/Steel Partnership High Strength Steel Rail Springback Project. The modeling techniques are discussed and the guidelines are provided for choosing numerical parameters, which influence the accuracy of the springback prediction and the computation cost.
Technical Paper

Specifying Steel Properties and Incorporating Forming Effects in Full Vehicle Impact Simulation

2002-03-04
2002-01-0639
Mechanical properties of as-rolled steels used in a vehicle vary with many parameters including gages, steel suppliers and manufacturing processes. The residual forming and strain rate effects of automotive components have been generally neglected in full vehicle crashworthiness analyses. Not having the above information has been considered as one of the reasons for the discrepancy between the results from computer simulation models and actual vehicle tests. The objective of this study is to choose the right material property for as-rolled steels for stamping and crash computer simulation, and investigate the effect of forming and strain rate on the results of full vehicle impact analyses. Major Body-in-White components which were in the crash load paths and whose material property would change in the forming process were selected in this study. The post-formed thickness and yield stress distributions on the components were estimated using One Step forming analyses.
Technical Paper

Oxidation Stability of Automatic Transmission Fluids -A Study by the International Lubricants Standardization and Approval Committee (ILSAC) ATF Subcommittee

2001-05-07
2001-01-1991
The International Lubricant Standardization and Approval Committee (ILSAC) ATF subcommittee members have compared the two oxidation bench test methods, Aluminum Beaker Oxidation Test (ABOT) and Indiana Stirring Oxidation Stability Test (ISOT), using a number of factory-fill and service-fill ATFs obtained in Japan and in the US. In many cases, the ATFs were more severely oxidized after the ABOT procedure than after the same duration of the ISOT procedure. The relative severity of these two tests was influenced by the composition of the ATFs. The bench test oxidation data were compared with the transmission and the vehicle oxidation test data.
Technical Paper

Understanding Laboratory Versus In-Vehicle Performance of Sprayable and Sheet Applied Damping Materials

2001-04-30
2001-01-1465
Liquid spray applied damping materials have potential advantages over conventional sheet damping materials in automotive body panel vibration applications. In order to understand the acoustical impact, a laboratory based NVH study was conducted to compare the damping and stiffness performance characteristics of various sprayable damping materials versus the production damping treatment. Based on this comparison, a criteria was developed to select potentially viable sprayable damping materials for vehicle testing. In-vehicle tests were also performed and compared to the laboratory findings to understand how well the results correlate. This paper discusses a criteria for selecting sprayable damping materials based on bench-top tests for vehicle applications, and the potential benefits of sprayable materials.
Technical Paper

Effect of Thermal Treatments and Carbon Potential on Bending Fatigue Performance of SAE 4320 Gear Steel

1999-03-01
1999-01-0603
This project investigated the effect of carburizing carbon-potential and thermal history on the bending fatigue performance of carburized SAE 4320 gear steel. Modified-Brugger cantilever bending fatigue specimens were carburized at carbon potentials of 0.60, 0.85, 1.05, and 1.25 wt. pct. carbon, and were either quenched and tempered or quenched, tempered, reheated, quenched, and tempered. The reheat treatment was designed to lower the solute carbon content in the case through the formation of transition carbides and refine the prior austenite grain size. Specimens were fatigue tested in a tension/tension cycle with a minimum to maximum stress ratio of 0.1. The bending fatigue results were correlated with case and core microstructures, hardness profiles, residual stress profiles, retained austenite profiles, and component distortion.
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