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Technical Paper

Grammatical Evolution Based Tool for Predicting Multivariable Response Surface for Laser Lap Welding

2008-04-14
2008-01-1372
The problem of predicting the quality of weld is critical to manufacturing. A great deal of data is collected under multiple conditions to predict the quality. The data generated at Daimler Chrysler has been used to develop a model based on grammatical evolution. Grammatical Evolution Technique is based on Genetic Algorithms and generates rules from the data which fit the data. This paper describes the development of a software tool that enables the user to choose input variables such as the metal types of top and bottom layers and their thickness, intensity and speed of laser beam, to generate a three dimensional map showing weld quality. A 3D weld quality surface can be generated in response to any of the two input variables picked from the set of defining input parameters. This tool will enable the user to pick the right set of input conditions to get an optimal weld quality. The tool is developed in Matlab with Graphical User Interface for the ease of operation.
Technical Paper

Improving Low Frequency Torsional Vibrations NVH Performance through Analysis and Test

2007-05-15
2007-01-2242
Low frequency torsional vibrations can be a significant source of objectionable vehicle vibrations and in-vehicle boom, especially with changes in engine operation required for improved fuel economy. These changes include lower torque converter lock-up speeds and cylinder deactivation. This paper has two objectives: 1) Examine the effect of increased torsional vibrations on vehicle NVH performance and ways to improve this performance early in the program using test and simulation techniques. The important design parameters affecting vehicle NVH performance will be identified, and the trade-offs required to produce an optimized design will be examined. Also, the relationship between torsional vibrations and mount excursions, will be examined. 2) Investigate the ability of simulation techniques to predict and improve torsional vibration NVH performance. Evaluate the accuracy of the analytical models by comparison to test results.
Technical Paper

NVH Refinement of Diesel Powered Sedans with Special Emphasis on Diesel Clatter Noise and Powertrain Harshness

2007-05-15
2007-01-2378
NVH refinement of passenger vehicles is crucial to customer acceptance of contemporary vehicles. This paper describes the vehicle NVH development process, with specific examples from a Diesel sedan application that was derived from gasoline engine-based vehicle architecture. Using an early prototype Diesel vehicle as a starting point, this paper examines the application of a Vehicle Interior Noise Simulation (VINS) technique in the development process. Accordingly, structureborne and airborne noise shares are analyzed in the time-domain under both steady-state and transient test conditions. The results are used to drive countermeasure development to address structureborne and airborne noise refinement. Examples are provided to highlight the refinement process for “Diesel knocking” under idle as well as transient test conditions. Specifically, the application of VINS to understanding the influence of high frequency dynamic stiffness of hydro-mounts on Diesel clatter noise is examined.
Technical Paper

Transmission Mount Assembly Modelling for Load Simulation and Analysis

2007-04-16
2007-01-1348
Transmission mounts are usually tested as an assembly and typically only translational stiffnesses are provided. The torsional stiffness of the assembly is traditionally estimated based on experience in load simulation and analysis. This paper presents a procedure to estimate the torsional stiffness of the transmission mount assembly by using the test data. The effects of the torsional stiffness on the simulation results are also discussed.
Technical Paper

Robust Optimization of Engine Lubrication System

2007-04-16
2007-01-1568
The quality of engine lubrication depends upon how much oil is supplied and how the lubricant is pressurized to the lubricated components. These variables strongly affect the safe operation and lifespan of an engine. During the conceptual design stage of an engine, its lubrication system cannot be verified experimentally. It is highly desirable for design engineers to utilize computer simulations and robust design methodology in order to achieve their goal of optimizing the engine lubrication system. The heuristic design principle is a relatively routine resource for design engineers to pursue although it is time consuming and sacrifices valuable developing time. This paper introduces an unusual design methodology in which design engineers were involved in analyzing their own designs along with lubrication system analyst to establish a link between two sophisticated software packages.
Technical Paper

248mm Elliptical Torque Converter from DaimlerChrysler Corporation

2007-04-16
2007-01-0241
The need for efficient space utilization has provided a framework for the design of a 248mm family of torque converters that supports a wide choice of engine and transmission combinations. The axial length of the part and its weight have been substantially reduced while the performance range has been broadened without degradation of efficiency. The new converter operates in an expanded slipping clutch mode. It significantly contributes to the performance and fuel economy improvements of related vehicles. To meet the cost target, the comprehensive lineup and the resulting complexity have required a high level of component interchangeability. During the design phase, the manufacturing core competencies were scrutinized and process redundancies eliminated, both resulting in optimization of material selection and applicable technology.
Technical Paper

Sensitivity Analysis of Powertrain Cooling System Performance

2007-04-16
2007-01-0598
This paper identifies the difference in powertrain cooling system content levels using a nominal and a +3 Standard deviation maximum temperature design approach. Variation simulation analysis tools are used along with a 1-D cooling system performance model to predict resulting temperature distribution for different combinations of input variable populations. The analysis will show differential in powertrain cooling system content, mass, and impact to fuel economy for a nominal vs. +3 sigma design approach.
Technical Paper

Effect of Cross Flow on Performance of a PEM Fuel Cell

2007-04-16
2007-01-0697
A serpentine flow channel is one of the most common and practical channel layouts for a PEM fuel cell since it ensures the removal of water produced in a cell. While the reactant flows along the flow channel, it can also leak or cross to neighboring channels via the porous gas diffusion layer due to a high pressure gradient. Such a cross flow leads to effective water removal in a gas diffusion layer thus enlarging the active area for reaction although this cross flow has largely been ignored in previous studies. In this study, neutron radiography is applied to investigate the liquid water accumulation and its effect on the performance of a PEM fuel cell. Liquid water tends to accumulate in the gas diffusion layer adjacent to the flow channel area while the liquid water formed in the gas diffusion layer next to the channel land area seems to be effectively removed by the cross leakage flow between the adjacent flow channels.
Technical Paper

Multi-Disciplinary Aerodynamics Analysis for Vehicles: Application of External Flow Simulations to Aerodynamics, Aeroacoustics and Thermal Management of a Pickup Truck

2007-04-16
2007-01-0100
During the design process for a vehicle, the CAD surface geometry becomes available at an early stage so that numerical assessment of aerodynamic performance may accompany the design of the vehicle's shape. Accurate prediction requires open grille models with detailed underhood and underbody geometry with a high level of detail on the upper body surface, such as moldings, trim and parting lines. These details are also needed for aeroacoustics simulations to compute wall-pressure fluctuations, and for thermal management simulations to compute underhood cooling, surface temperatures and heat exchanger effectiveness. This paper presents the results of a significant effort to capitalize on the investment required to build a detailed virtual model of a pickup truck in order to simultaneously assess performance factors for aerodynamics, aeroacoustics and thermal management.
Technical Paper

Simulation Process to Investigate Suspension Sensitivity to Brake Judder

2007-04-16
2007-01-0590
Brake judder, which is a low frequency excitation of the suspension and thus, the body structure during low-G braking, is mainly felt at the steering wheel and throughout the vehicle structure. Brake judder is a problem that costs manufacturers millions of dollars in warranty cost and undesirable trade offs. The magnitude of judder response depends not only on the brake torque variation, but also on the suspension design character-istics. This paper discusses the judder simulation process using ADAMS software to investigate the suspension design sensitivity to the first order brake judder performance. The paper recommends “tuning knobs” to suspension designers and vehicle development engineers to resolve issues in the design and development stages. Various suspension design varia-bles including geometry and compliances as well as brake related characteristics were investigated.
Technical Paper

Model Based Reusable and Reliable Software Validation for Functional Coverage using Virtual ECUs

2007-04-16
2007-01-1742
In embedded software world, development and testing are becoming far more complex with growing functionality and fail safe strategies. As a result of that, model-based software development is getting increasingly popular in capturing the functional requirements and auto generating the code from these validated models to avoid any functional deficiency. However, the complexity in the model may not be correctly interpreted by the code generation tool and may result to an incorrect code behavior. In this paper, a methodology has been proposed and implemented to validate the generated code against the models. Simulation test scripts are recorded in the modeling environment to generate the desired set of test inputs. These input scripts are designed to get complete transition and state exposure to maximize the functional coverage. With these test scripts, expected outputs are recorded for downstream validation in the simulation environment with mature models.
Technical Paper

Finite Element Analyses of Fastened Joints in Automotive Engineering

2007-04-16
2007-01-1204
In this paper, the methodology of finite element analyses of fastened joints in automotive engineering applications is described in detail. The analyses cover a) the possibility of slippage of the spacer with the design/actual clamp load, and under critical operating loads; b) the strength of the fastener and other structural components comprising the joint under the maximum clamp load. The types of fastened joints, the mechanical characteristics of the joints, the relationship of clamp load to torque, the design and maximum clamp loads, the finite element model meshing and assembly, the non-linearity due to contact, the determination of gaps and stack-up, and the nonlinear material simulation and loading procedures are described. An analysis example of a fastened joint on chassis is also illustrated.
Technical Paper

Strength Prediction and Correlation of Tow Hook Systems using Finite Element Analyses

2007-04-16
2007-01-1206
In this paper, tow hook systems and their functional objectives are briefly introduced. General analysis considerations in strength prediction of a tow hook system are described. These considerations contain nonlinear, clamping and material property simulations. Connections and loading simulation of a tow hook system model are discussed in details. A correlation example of a tow hook system is illustrated. This study shows that detailed modeling of a tow hook system is a fundamental requirement for accurate strength prediction and good correlation between finite element analysis and testing.
Technical Paper

Stamping Effect on Oil Canning and Dent Resistance Performances of an Automotive Roof Panel

2007-04-16
2007-01-1696
The objective of this paper is to investigate the effect of stamping process on oil canning and dent resistance performances of an automotive roof panel. Finite element analysis of stamping processes was carried out using LS-Dyna to obtain thickness and plastic strain distributions under various forming conditions. The forming results were mapped onto the roof model by an in-house developed mapping code. A displacement control approach using an implicit FEM code ABAQUS/Standard was employed for oil canning and denting analysis. An Auto/Steel Partnership Standardized Test Procedure for Dent Resistance was employed to establish the analysis model and to determine the dent and oil canning loads. The results indicate that stamping has a positive effect on dent resistance and a negative effect on oil canning performance. As forming strains increase, dent resistance increases while the oil canning load decreases.
Technical Paper

A Semi-Empirical Model for Fast Residual Gas Fraction Estimation in Gasoline Engines

2006-10-16
2006-01-3236
Accurate accounting for fresh charge (fuel and air) along with trapped RGF is essential for the subsequent thermodynamic analysis of combustion in gasoline engines as well as for on-line and real-time quantification as relevant to engine calibration and control. Cost and complexity of such techniques renders direct measurement of RGF impractical for running engines. In this paper, an empirically-based approach is proposed for on-line RGF, based on an existing semi-empirical model [1]. The model developed expands the range over which the semi-empirical model is valid and further improves its accuracy. The model was rigorously validated against a well correlated GT-POWER model as well as results from 1D gas exchange model [2]. Overall, using this model, RGF estimation error was within ∼1.5% for a wide range of engine operating conditions. The model will be implemented in Dyno development and calibration at Chrysler Group.
Technical Paper

Study on Simplified Finite Element Simulation Approaches of Fastened Joints

2006-04-03
2006-01-1268
In this paper, mechanism of fastened joints is described; numerical analyses and testing calibrations are conducted for the possible simplified finite element simulation approaches of the joints; and the best simplified approach is recommended. The approaches cover variations of element types and different ways that the joints are connected. The element types include rigid elements, deformable bar elements, solid elements, shell elements and combinations of these element types. The different ways that the joints are connected include connections of one row of nodes, two row of nodes and alternate nodes in the first and second rows. These simplified simulation approaches are numerically evaluated on a joint of two plates connected by a single fastener. The fundamental loads, bending with shear, shear and tension are applied in the numerical analyses. A detailed model including contact and clamp load are analyzed simultaneously to provide “accurate results”.
Technical Paper

In Vehicle Exhaust Mount Load Measurement and Calculation

2006-04-03
2006-01-1258
Exhaust durability is an important measure of quality, which can be predicted using CAE with accurate mount loads. This paper proposes an innovative method to calculate these loads from measured mount accelerations. A Chrysler vehicle was instrumented with accelerometers at both ends of its four exhaust mounts. The vehicle was tested at various durability routes or events at DaimlerChrysler Proving Grounds. These measured accelerations were integrated to obtain their velocities and displacements. The differences in velocities and displacements at each mount were multiplied by its damping and stiffness rates to obtain the mount load. The calculation was conducted for all three translational directions and for all events. The calculated mount loads are shown within reasonable range. Along with CAE, it is suggested to explore this method for exhaust durability development.
Technical Paper

Truck Frame Motion Prediction and Correlation

2006-04-03
2006-01-1257
Accurate motion prediction can be used to evaluate vibrations at seat track and steering wheel. This paper presents the prediction and correlation of truck frame motion from wheel force transducer (WFT) measurements. It is assumed that the method can be used to predict vibrations at seat track and steering wheel for unibody vehicles. Two durability events were used for calculation. WFT measurements were used as inputs applied on frame from suspension. Frame loads were then used as inputs to calculate frame motions using a FEA approach. The predicted frame motions are represented by four exhaust hangers and they are compared with measured motions of the same locations. The correlations include displacement, velocity, and acceleration. It is shown that good correlations are obtained in velocity and displacement. Acceleration shows bigger differences than velocity and displacement.
Technical Paper

Development of a Computerized Digital Resonance Fatigue Test Controller with Load Feedback Management

2006-04-03
2006-01-1620
In this report, the DCX Stress Lab and the Tool Development & Test Support groups investigated automating a resonant bending crankshaft fatigue test. Fatigue testing, in general, is a laborious process since many samples are needed for analysis. This makes development cost and speed dependant on the component test efficiency. In the case of crankshaft resonant bending testing, both cost and speed are influenced by the manual feedback operation needed to run the current procedure. In order to increase the efficiency of this process, this project sought to automate the following tasks: maintaining the load on the part, reacting to resonance changes in the part, mapping resonance changes, logging the number of cycles, and discerning resonance frequency shift failure modes objectively.
Technical Paper

Lightweight Magnesium Intensive Body Structure

2006-04-03
2006-01-0523
This paper describes a lightweight magnesium intensive automobile body structure concept developed at DaimlerChrysler to support a high fuel-efficiency vehicle project. This body structure resulted in more than 40% weight reduction over a conventional steel structure while achieving significantly improved structural performance as evaluated through CAE simulations. A business case analysis was conducted and showed promising results. One concept vehicle was built for the purpose of demonstrating concept feasibility. The paper also identifies areas for further development to enable such a vehicle to become a production reality at a later time.
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