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Technical Paper

On the Use of Spatial Transmissibility to Evaluate the NVH Performance of Engine Cover Assembly

In the present study, the NVH performance of an engine valve cover assembly is analyzed by the use of “spatial transmissibility (TR)”. It is a measure of the spatial response of the cover relative to the spatial response of the underlying structure to which it is connected. A prototyped engine valve cover assembly is examined. The cover transmissibility is computed through the finite element method and also measured by experimental testing. Various isolation systems have been examined and different cover materials have been investigated, including magnesium and thermosetting plastic. The transmissibility provides a strategy for evaluating the NVH characteristic of engine cover assembly in a much more timely, cost-effective manner, while the product is still in the early conceptual stage.
Technical Paper

Accelerated Testing of Multi-Layer Steel Cylinder Head Gaskets

Accelerated testing techniques for cylinder head gaskets have become absolutely necessary because of developments at engine manufacturers including: shorter engine development times, high costs of vehicle and dynamometer testing, new material generations for engine components, and new engine generations and longer engine life This paper will describe two accelerated test methods for Multi-Layer Steel (MLS) cylinder head gaskets and will discuss the most important parameters which influence MLS cylinder head gasket functional performance. We will describe how these parameters have been duplicated in the laboratory using the accelerated tests: the Bending Simulator and the Hydraulic Pulsator. The test method results have been confirmed based on detailed metallurgical analysis of MLS gaskets; comparing field (dynamometer and vehicle) tested gaskets to those gaskets evaluated on accelerated tests.
Technical Paper

Piston Ring Cylinder Liner Scuffing Phenomenon: Investigation, Simulation and Prevention

In spite of being a popular topic in technical publications, scuffing between piston ring face and cylinder liner is an extremely unpredictable and hard-to-reproduce phenomenon that significantly decreases engine performance. This paper will discuss results of metallurgical and metrological (post-mortem) examinations of the scuffing between hard and soft cylinder liners and different piston ring coatings after field, engine and bench testing. Detailed metallurgical analysis describes the lubricity mechanism between various piston ring coatings and iron cylinder liner at different temperatures with and without oil. The paper will explain the origin of the scuffing through lack of or inadequate lubrication at top dead center, particularly for hardened iron heavy-duty diesel cylinder liners.
Technical Paper

Design of a Pusher for a Crimp Using Finite Element Shape Optimization

Design analysts, who work with finite element shape optimization, face a daunting task of handling cylindrical parts like a pusher for a crimp. The shape vectors generated by any of the existing methods/tools cannot constrain nodes to move in a circular path. Since the pusher is not a complete cylinder and the loading is only along axial direction, shape optimization was performed after flattening out the cylindrical pusher. The existing shape optimization tools could now be applied to the flat plate. A numerical interpolation method, based on ‘Autodv’, has been used to generate shape vectors. Both weight and stresses have been brought down and the final design was verified with solid finite element analysis.
Technical Paper

Hydraulic Safety Valve Design Using PC Simulation

In today's global fluid power industry, successful hydraulic component manufacturers must utilize technical resources to maintain a competitive edge. When designing new products, past practice required an understanding of engineering theory and reliable and accurate lab and field testing of new products, but today's designers have a new tool at their disposal. Personal computer based software can be used to model and simulate individual hydraulic components or entire systems before prototypes are available for design and performance evaluation. This paper discusses the design of a hydraulic safety valve and how PC simulation was used to design and analyze valve performance during the design process.
Technical Paper

An Overview of Microalloyed Steels, Part I: Metallurgical Aspects

Microalloyed (MA) steels have been developed as one of the most significant metallurgical advances over the last thirty years, with their property improvement and cost effectiveness characteristics. Even though the underlying principles for microstructural property control of these steels have been well established, applications of these steels are still limited in scale mainly due to a lack of their understanding. This review paper focuses on mechanical property control of these steels. Since the properties depend mainly on the composition and microstructure which in turn are controlled by steel making and processing, metallurgical variables are reviewed in this first part of the review. These include their strengthening mechanisms, effects of composition and processing on their behavior, and the various MA steel microstructures.
Technical Paper

Piston Ring Microwelding Phenomenon and Methods of Prevention

This paper will discuss metallurgical failure analysis of microwelded iron piston rings and aluminum pistons in internal combustion engines. “Microwelding” is defined as adherence of sporadic particles of aluminum from the piston to the bottom side of the piston ring. The paper will describe the high output water-cooled two-stroke engine accelerated test which reproduces the microwelding phenomenon in 30 minutes. SEM and EDS analyses have been used in the identification of the mechanism of this surface damage. Evidence of extreme temperatures during pre-ignition and normal operating conditions was obtained by studying hardness distributions through the piston cross section. As a potential solution, decreasing temperature through use of a thermal barrier coating was investigated. Also, test results of piston ring coatings, including molybdenum and tungsten disulfide, electroplated chromium, PVD titanium and chromium nitride, and fluoroplastic materials were compared.
Technical Paper

Design and Development of New Spicer S400-S Tandem Axle

The design objective of the Spicer S400-S axle program was to develop a light weight, lower torsional vibration, long life tandem drive axle for the heavy truck industry. This was accomplished with the incorporation of a number of new product features and technical advancements, both in design and manufacturing. These include: reduced standouts for improved interaxle driveline angles use of finite element analysis fixed pinion mounting optimization of lube flow and direction of lubrication optimized gear design for improved strength and noise reduction. This paper focuses on these features and also on the development process for the axle, including the use of simultaneous engineering. Utilizing simultaneous engineering, the S400-S was developed from concept to full production in fifteen months.
Technical Paper

Rapid Prototyping Shortens Hydraulic Component Development Time

A few years ago hydraulic fluid power component manufacturers had the luxury of long lead times to develop new products. In today's competitive global market, pump and valve design engineers must be able to shorten development lead times and get new, less costly products to production in order to satisfy customer demands. This paper describes how one fluid power component manufacturer uses rapid prototyping technology to speed up the development cycle by making: fit and form models, design evaluation test samples, and tooling for prototype castings.
Technical Paper

Heavy Duty Diesel Head/Block Joints, An In Depth Study

New analysis methods have been developed which allow heavy duty diesel engine cylinder head to block joints to be studied in a more effective manner. Failure analysis can yield more meaningful, quantitative results through the use of X-rays and microhardness measurements. Experimental methods of determining direction and magnitude of thermal motion, interactions between cylinder pressure and thermal cycling, and the relationship between leak pressure and thermal condition have been developed. Deep thermal cycle dynamometer testing has also been used successfully to duplicate failure modes seen in the field.
Technical Paper

Using Finite Element Analysis and Metallographic Analysis to Understand Field Forces on an Industrial Head Gasket

A major concern in head gasket reliability of an industrial diesel engine is flange cracking. This paper will discuss head gasket flange cracking and the head gasket joint environment as they relate to an industrial diesel engine head gasket joint. The paper will discuss metallographic and finite element analysis of head gasket field failures. The metallographic analysis will discuss the evaluation of production, assembled, laboratory tested, and field tested gaskets. The above will give head gasket designers and engine manufacturers insight into the industrial head gasket joint environment. The metallographic work will explain the method of creating micro sections as well as micro section measurements to aid in the understanding of the head gasket loading.
Technical Paper

Finite Element Modeling Spur and Helical Gears in Contact

Designing highly loaded spur and helical gears for truck transmissions that are both strong and quiet requires an analysis method that can easily be implemented and also provides information on bending stress, load distribution, and transmission error. The finite element method is capable of providing this information, but the time needed to create such a model is very great. In order to reduce the modeling time, a preprocessor program that creates the geometry needed for a finite element analysis has been developed. While requiring a minimum of user input, the program generates a three-dimensional model of contacting spur or helical gears using eight node brick elements. Gap elements are used to model the contact that normally occurs between meshing gear teeth as well as the contact that may occur off the line of action due to the teeth deflecting under load.
Technical Paper

Reduced Instruction Set Computers Versus Complex Instruction Set Computers for Gasket Finite Element Analysis

The intent of this paper will be to address the level of performance and cost of the various complex instruction set computers (CISC-80X86) versus the reduced instruction set computers (RISC). The original concept of reduced instruction set computers will be explained. The above information will be contrasted with how the second generation system functions. Once the operations are established, a discussion of operating performance as related to several types of benchmarks will be cited. A typical FEA model will be used as the final benchmark to determine realistic performance versus speed (wall clock time). The final comparison will be of cost.