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Technical Paper

Achieving Breakthrough on Manufacturing Floor through Project-Based Organization

2009-10-06
2009-36-0333
Many companies around the world have adopted the lean thinking as their strategy to operate, in a global market where changes happen all the time. One foundation for the success of lean manufacturing appliance is the continuous improvement approach which has been considered even on company statements, or it can be also considered as part of the genetic code of any enterprise. However, if in one side the continuous improvement thinking, set people mind to look for opportunities of improvement all the time, on other hand these improvements are incremental and they do not have significant impact on company performance on both short-term and medium-term and sometimes, the activities performed by the employees are not sustainable due to the lack of structure to manage and follow up these activities.
Technical Paper

Near and Far-Side Adult Front Passenger Kinematics in a Vehicle Rollover

2001-03-05
2001-01-0176
In this study, U.S. accident data was analyzed to determine interior contacts and injuries for front-seated occupants in rollovers. The injury distribution for belted and unbelted, non-ejected drivers and right front passengers (RFP) was assessed for single-event accidents where the leading side of the vehicle rollover was either on the driver or passenger door. Drivers in a roll-left and RFP in roll-right rollovers were defined as near-side occupants, while drivers in roll-right and RFP in roll-left rollovers were defined as far-side occupants. Serious injuries (AIS 3+) were most common to the head and thorax for both the near and far-side occupants. However, serious spinal injuries were more frequent for the far-side occupants, where the source was most often coded as roof, windshield and interior.
Technical Paper

US and UK Field Rollover Characteristics

2001-03-05
2001-01-0167
In this study, US and UK accident data were analyzed to identify parameters that may influence rollover propensity to analyze driver injury rate. The US data was obtained from the weighted National Automotive Sampling System (NASS-CDS), calendar years 1992 to 1996. The UK pre-roll data was obtained from the national STATS 19 database for 1996, while the injury information was collected from the Co-operative Crash Injury Study (CCIS) database. In the US and UK databases, rollovers accounted for about 10% of all crashes with known crash directions. In the US and UK databases, most rollovers occurred when the vehicle was either going straight ahead or turning. The propensity for a rollover was more than 3 times higher when going around a bend than a non-rollover. In the UK, 74% of rollovers occurred on clear days with no high winds and 14% on rainy days with no high winds. In the US, 83% of rollovers took place in non-adverse weather conditions and 10% with rain.
Technical Paper

Driver Injuries in US Single-Event Rollovers

2000-03-06
2000-01-0633
The purpose of this paper is to investigate occupant injuries which may be sustained during a single-event crash with known roll mechanism. The data was obtained from the weighted National Automotive Sampling System/ Crashworthiness Data System (NASS-CDS) for calendar years 1992 to 1996. The effect of number of rollover turns, roll direction, ejection and belt usage on driver injury responses was analyzed in single-event trip-overs. Trip-overs were chosen for the analysis because they account for over 50% of rollover crashes. The number of rollovers was divided in 3 categories: ¼ to ½ turn, ¾ to 1 turn and above 1 turn. Roll direction was either roll-left or a rollright along the longitudinal axis of the vehicle. Roll-left represents a roll with the driver side leading, while a roll right is with the right front passenger side leading. In the database used in this study, there were three times more belted drivers than unbelted.
Technical Paper

A Madymo Model of the Foot and Leg for Local Impacts

1999-10-10
99SC12
It has been reported that lower extremity injuries represent a measurable portion of all moderate-to-severe automobile crash- related injuries. Thus, a simple tool to assist with the design of leg and foot injury countermeasures is desirable. The objective of this study is to develop a mathematical model which can predict load propagation and kinematics of the foot and leg in frontal automotive impacts. A multi-body model developed at the University of Virginia and validated for blunt impact to the whole foot has been used as basis for the current work. This model includes representations of the tibia, fibula, talus, hindfoot, midfoot and forefoot bones. Additionally, the model provides a means for tensioning the Achilles tendon. In the current study, the simulations conducted correspond to tests performed by the Transport Research Laboratory and the University of Nottingham on knee-amputated cadaver specimens.
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