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Technical Paper

Cavity Fill Balancing Technique for Rubber Injection Molding

2015-04-14
2015-01-0715
Balancing the fill sequence of multiple cavities in a rubber injection mold is desirable for efficient cure rates, optimized cure times, and consistent quality of all molded parts. The reality is that most rubber injection molds do not provide a consistent uniform balanced fill sequence for all the cavities in the mold - even if the runner and cavity layout is geometrically balanced. A new runner design technique, named “The Vanturi Effect”, is disclosed to help address the inherent deficiencies of traditional runner and cavity layouts in order to achieve a more balanced fill sequence. Comparative analysis of molded runner samples reveals a significant and positive improvement in runner and cavity fill balancing when the Vanturi Effect is integrated into the runner design.
Technical Paper

Diagnostic Strategies for Advanced Automotive Systems

2002-10-21
2002-21-0024
In recent years, the desire for improved vehicle performance, reliability and safety have increased the electrical content and its complexity in vehicles. Advanced automotive systems integrate sensors, controllers, actuators and communication networks. To maintain safety and reliability, a comprehensive system of diagnostics and physical and analytic redundancy are used. In some cases, diagnostic strategies based on analytical redundancy can provide detection, as well as fault-tolerance, and may provide benefits in cost, packaging, flexibility and reusability. This paper discusses a range of diagnostic methods and their applicability to advanced automotive systems such as X-by-Wire. It will also show the reduction to practice of an advanced analytical technique for an automotive application.
Technical Paper

Development of a Haptic Braking System as an ACC Vehicle FCW Measure

2002-05-07
2002-01-1601
This work examines the development and implementation of a pulsing brake control system as part of a Forward Collision Warning (FCW) System for an Adaptive Cruise Control (ACC) prototype vehicle. The brake pulse is a likely candidate to be employed with visual and auditory cues in the event of an imminent collision alert level when the driver is not in ACC mode.
Technical Paper

Analysis of Brake Caliper Seal-Groove Design

2002-03-04
2002-01-0927
It is well known that the design of the seal groove assembly in the brake caliper greatly influences the braking performance. The rubber seal performs the dual function of sealing the piston bore and retracting the caliper piston after a brake apply. However, the seal function is affected by the configuration of the seal groove, as well as the friction at the piston/seal and groove/seal interfaces. The material properties of the rubber seal are also important design parameters. Issues such as fluid displacement, piston retraction, piston sliding force, and brake drag are some of the critical brake performance parameters that must be considered in every caliper seal-groove design. Presently, the brake caliper seal groove design is still based on empirical rules established mainly from past experience and its performance is achieved through prototype testing.
Technical Paper

Instrument Panel Skin Manufactured with 100% Recycled TPO Material

2002-03-04
2002-01-1262
Desiring to push thermoplastic poly-olefin (TPO) technology to its fullest limits and to confirm our position as the leader in the manufacturing of environmentally friendly TPO instrument panels, we have designed a process to manufacture 100% recycled instrument panel skins. This closed-loop process begins with extruding 100% recycled TPO flake into sheet stock to be painted and vacuum formed. The painted sheet is vacuum formed and the offal is ground into regrind flake, ready to be extruded again, thus completing the closed-loop process. This paper will describe a 100% closed loop recycling process for TPO instrument panels, discuss the intense validation process for recycled material and prove the robustness and durability of this interior solution.
Technical Paper

Use of Fuzzy Logic in Wheel Slip Assignment - Part II: Yaw Rate Control with Sideslip Angle Limitation

2002-03-04
2002-01-1220
This paper is an extension to the work presented in part I [1]. The control objective is still the same - use a logic based control design technique to assign a wheel slip, λ, to each corner of a vehicle, to track overall desired vehicle dynamics. As in part I, a fuzzy logic based controller is the primary control, with additional logic to select the inside/outside classifiers for the wheels. In part I, only the reduction of yaw rate error, e, was considered. It was shown that, although the overall system had satisfactory performance, there was slight deteriorization in the tracking performance when trying to compensate through a significant vehicle sideslip angle, β. In this paper, additional logic is introduced into the control to limit the vehicle sideslip angle, β; thus, allowing for a more robust desired yaw rate, Ωd, tracking control performance. The emergency lane change maneuver is simulated to show the effectiveness of the redesigned control.
Technical Paper

Open-Interface Definitions for Automotive Systems1 Application to a Brake by Wire System

2002-03-04
2002-01-0267
Today automotive system suppliers develop more-or-less independent systems, such as brake, power steering and suspension systems. In the future, car manufacturers like Volvo will build up vehicle control systems combining their own algorithms with algorithms provided by automotive system suppliers. Standardization of interfaces to actuators, sensors and functions is an important enabler for this vision and will have major consequences for functionality, prices and lead times, and thus affects both vehicle manufacturers and automotive suppliers. The investigation of the level of appropriate interfaces, as part of the European BRAKE project, is described here. Potential problems and consequences are discussed from both a technical and a business perspective. This paper provides a background on BRAKE and on the functional decomposition upon which the interface definitions are based. Finally, the interface definitions for brake system functionality are given.
Technical Paper

Rollover Stability Index Including Effects of Suspension Design

2002-03-04
2002-01-0965
In this paper a simple yet insightful model to predict vehicle propensity to rollover is proposed, which includes the effects of suspension and tire compliance. The model uses only a few parameters, usually known at the design stage. The lateral accelerations at the rollover threshold predicted by the model are compared to the results of simulations, in which vehicles with the same static stability factor, but different suspension characteristics and payloads are subjected to roll-inducing handling maneuvers. The results of simulations correlate well with the predictions based on the proposed model. Design recommendations for passive suspensions, which would increase rollover stability are discussed.
Technical Paper

Influence of Active Chassis Systems on Vehicle Propensity to Maneuver-Induced Rollovers

2002-03-04
2002-01-0967
The purpose of this paper is to evaluate through simulations the effects of active chassis systems on vehicle propensity to rollover caused by aggressive handling maneuvers. A 16 degree-of-freedom computer model of a full vehicle is used for this purpose. It includes models of active chassis systems and the associated control algorithms, and allows for simulation of vehicle dynamic behavior under large roll angles. The controllable chassis systems considered in this investigation are active rear steer, brake based vehicle stability enhancement system and active anti-roll bar. The maneuvers used in simulation are the double lane change and the fishhook maneuvers with increasing steering amplitudes. The vehicle represents a midsize SUV with a marginal static stability factor of 1.09 and aggressive tires. The results of simulations demonstrate that the uncontrolled vehicle rolls over in both maneuvers when the steering angle is sufficiently large.
Technical Paper

The BRAKE Project - Centralized Versus Distributed Redundancy for Brake-by-Wire Systems

2002-03-04
2002-01-0266
This paper presents the objectives and preliminary results of the BRAKE project - a joint effort of Delphi Automotive Systems, Infineon Technologies, Volvo Car Corporation and WindRiver. The objective of this project is to use microelectronics technologies to design a distributed Brake-by-Wire system including: A distributed fault tolerant system for enhanced safety An extension of the OSEK based operating system for a distributed time triggered architecture An open interface between vehicle control, and brake system control The results comprise the requirements, interface specification (see [1]), a full simulation model, a hardware-in-the-loop bench, and a demonstration vehicle. The application has been developed using advanced automatic code generation for Infineon's TriCore based automotive microcontrollers.
Technical Paper

An Analytical Assessment of Rotor Distortion Attributed to Wheel Assembly

2001-10-28
2001-01-3134
The lateral runout of disc brake corner components can lead to the generation of brake system pulsation. Emphasis on reducing component flatness and lateral runout tolerances are a typical response to address this phenomenon. This paper presents the results of an analytical study that examined the effect that the attachment of the wheel to the brake corner assembly could have on the lateral distortion of the rotor. An analysis procedure was developed to utilize the finite element method and simulate the mechanics of the assembly process. Calculated rotor distortions were compared to laboratory measurements. A statistical approach was utilized, in conjunction with the finite element method, to study a number of wheel and brake corner parameters and identify the characteristics of a robust design.
Technical Paper

Development Experience with Steer-by-Wire

2001-08-20
2001-01-2479
Recent advances in dependable embedded system technology, as well as continuing demand for improved handling and passive and active safety improvements, have led vehicle manufacturers and suppliers to actively pursue development programs in computer-controlled, by-wire subsystems. These subsystems include steer-by-wire and brake-by-wire, and are composed of mechanically de-coupled sets of actuators and controllers connected through multiplexed, in-vehicle computer networks; there is no mechanical link to the driver. This paper addresses fundamental benefits and issues of steer-by-wire, especially those related to automated vehicle control and steering feel quality as perceived by the driver.
Technical Paper

A Model-Based Brake Pressure Estimation Strategy for Traction Control System

2001-03-05
2001-01-0595
This paper presents a brake pressure estimation algorithm for Delphi Traction Control Systems (TCS). A control oriented lumped parameter model of a brake control system is developed using Matlab/Simulink. The model is derived based on a typical brake system and is generic to other types of brake control hardware systems. For application purposes, the model is simplified to capture the dominant dynamic brake pressure response. Vehicle experimental data collected under various scenarios are used to validate the algorithm. Simulation results show that the algorithm gives accurate pressure estimation. In addition, the calibration procedure is greatly simplified
Technical Paper

Dependable E/E System Drivers and Application Issues

2000-11-01
2000-01-C064
Today, electrical/electronic systems like ABS/power brakes and electric power steering are all designed to enhance, not replace a mechanical function. If an electrical or electronic fault occurs, the function reverts to the base mechanical capability. Future E/E systems, such as steer-by-wire and brake-by- wire replace mechanical linkages with electrical or optical signals as in computer networks. While these systems offer many potential safety benefits, they will require different strategies for dependability, and as with any vehicle system, they will further require that dependability be an integral part of the overall E/E system design. This paper illustrates how by-wire systems drive different dependability requirements and discusses some key technologies that are emerging to meet these requirements.
Technical Paper

Modal Participation Analysis for Identifying Brake Squeal Mechanism

2000-10-01
2000-01-2764
Brake squeal phenomenon often involves modal coupling between various component modes. In order to reduce or eliminate squeal, it is very important to understand the coupling mechanism so that the key component(s) can be modified accordingly. This paper demonstrates a quantitative method to define system mode shapes using the concept of modal participation factors. This method is implemented on a front disc brake system to identify the modal coupling mechanism associated with its high frequency squeal. Complex eigenvalue analysis is carried out and the squeal frequency is correlated. System mode shapes are then processed with an in-house program to calculate modal participation factors based on a complex MAC (Modal Assurance Criteria) algorithm. The coupling mechanism is identified and possible countermeasures are discussed.
Technical Paper

Environmentally Conscious Manufacturing of TPO Instrument Panel Skins

2000-03-06
2000-01-0023
Thermoplastic polyolefin (TPO) instrument panel skins are in demand in Europe and Asia as a solution to final product disposition environmental concerns. In North America TPO is valued for its durability characteristics (particularly heat and UV aging) and capability for deployment of seamless airbags at cold temperatures. Desiring to have an environmentally “green” system to create the “green” product, Delphi designed a manufacturing process with in-plant closed loop recycling of 100% offal directly back into the skin and the use of waterbased coating system for combating concerns with solvents. Delphi's development of recyclable TPO skin for instrument panels was introduced on 1997 production of Mercedes-Benz M-class. The paper will describe how the systems approach was used in overcoming the challenges involved in closed loop recycling of engineered offal during sheet manufacturing and thermoforming processes and the implementation of waterbased primer and topcoat systems.
Technical Paper

Variable Effort Steering for Vehicle Stability Enhancement Using an Electric Power Steering System

2000-03-06
2000-01-0817
This paper investigates a method for improving vehicle stability by incorporating feedback from a yaw rate sensor into an electric power steering system. Presently, vehicle stability enhancement techniques are an extension of antilock braking systems in aiding the driver during vehicle maneuvers. One of the contributors to loss of vehicle control is the reduction in tactile feedback from the steering handwheel when driving on wet or icy pavement. This paper presents research indicating that the use yaw rate feedback improves vehicle stability by increasing the amount of tactile feedback when driving under adverse road conditions.
Technical Paper

The Effectiveness of Adjustable Pedals Usage

2000-03-06
2000-01-0172
This study evaluates the comfort benefits of adjustable pedals by determining their effect on the distance between the occupant and steering wheel, occupant posture and foot kinematics. For the study, 20 volunteers were tested in a small and large vehicle equipped with adjustable pedals. Twenty volunteers were tested in a small and large vehicle at 3 pedal positions: normal, comfortable and maximum tolerable. In the small car, the decrease in ankle-to-steering wheel distance between the normal and comfortable position was higher in the short-statured group than the medium group. The mean change in chest-to-steering wheel distance was about 50 mm in the medium and in the order of 40 mm in the short group. The seatback angle increased by 2° in the medium group and decreased by 3° in the short group. In the large car, the decrease in ankle-to-steering wheel distance between comfortable and the normal position was about 70 mm in the short-statured and medium group.
Technical Paper

Estimation of Vehicle Side Slip Angle and Yaw Rate

2000-03-06
2000-01-0696
An algorithm for estimation of vehicle yaw rate and side slip angle using steering wheel angle, wheel speed, and lateral acceleration sensors is proposed. It is intended for application in vehicle stability enhancement systems, which use controlled brakes or steering. The algorithm first generates two initial estimates of yaw rate from wheel speeds and from lateral acceleration. A new estimate is subsequently calculated as a weighted average of the two initial ones, with the weights proportional to confidence levels in each estimate. This preliminary estimate is fed into a closed loop nonlinear observer, which generates the final estimate of yaw rate along with estimates of lateral velocity and side slip angle. Parameters of the observer depend on the estimated surface coefficient of adhesion, thus providing adaptation to changes in road surface coefficient of adhesion.
Technical Paper

Complex Eigenvalue Analysis for Reducing Low Frequency Brake Squeal

2000-03-06
2000-01-0444
A front disc brake system is used as an example for an investigation of low frequency squeal. Many different modifications to this disc brake system have been proposed and this paper focuses on a solution that reduces the stiffness of the rotor. This is accomplished by a reduction in the Young's modulus of the rotor material. The complex eigenvalue method is used for a detailed analytical study in order to obtain a better understanding of this solution technique. Modal participation factors are calculated to examine the modal coupling mechanism. Parametric studies are also performed to find out the effects of friction coefficient and rotor stiffness. Results show that shifting rotor resonance frequencies may ecouple the modal interaction and eliminate dynamic instability, which is in agreement with experimental results.
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