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Technical Paper

Molecular Analysis of Automotive Electrical Components Contaminated with Engine and Powertrain Performance Fluids

2016-04-05
2016-01-0422
Samples of 33% glass filled and unfilled poly(butylene terephthalate) [PBT] and nylon 66 (PA66) were injection molded into bars,which were immersed in common engine and powertrain fluids: antifreeze, motor oil and automatic transmission fluid for 25 days. Fluid uptake was measured at 1, 7, 18, and 25 days by gravimetry. Both PBT samples absorbed 0.2-0.25% antifreeze and 0.05 - 0.10% motor oil and automatic transmission fluid (ATF). Both DSC and DMA analysis showed no disruption of polymer thermal transitions or storage moduli. The glass filled PA66 sample absorbed 2.5% antifreeze and 0.25-0.3% of motor oil and ATF and showed an 80°C reduction in the tan delta maximum on DMA. The unfilled PA66 sample absorbed 7% antifreeze and 0.2-0.3% of motor oil and ATF also showed a tan delta maximum 80°C less than the unexposed control. Creep analysis was conducted on the unfilled nylon sample and compared to a virgin material.
Technical Paper

Low Pressure Cooled EGR Transient Estimation and Measurement for an Turbocharged SI Engine

2016-04-05
2016-01-0618
Low Pressure Cooled Exhaust Gas Recirculation (LP EGR) is an attractive technology to reduce fuel consumption for a spark-ignition (SI) engine, particularly at medium-to-high load conditions, due to its knock suppression and combustion cooling effects. However, the long LP EGR transport path presents a significant challenge to the transient control of LP EGR for the engine management system. With a turbocharged engine, this is especially challenging due to the much longer intake induction system path compared with a naturally aspirated engine. Characterizing and modeling the EGR, intake air mixing and transport delay behavior is important for proper control. The model of the intake air path includes the compressor, intercooler and intake plenum. It is important to estimate and track the final EGR concentration at the intake plenum location, as it plays a key role in combustion control. This paper describes the development of a real-time, implementable model for LP EGR estimation.
Journal Article

Estimation Algorithms for Low Pressure Cooled EGR in Spark-Ignition Engines

2015-04-14
2015-01-1620
Low-pressure, Cooled Exhaust Gas Recirculation (LPC EGR) brings significant fuel economy, NOx reduction and knock suppression benefits to a modern, boosted, downsized Spark Ignition (SI) engine. As a prerequisite to design an engine control system for LPC EGR, this paper presents development of a set of estimation algorithms to accurately estimate the flow rate, pressure states and thermal states of the LPC EGR-related components.
Journal Article

Full-Time Gasoline Direct-Injection Compression Ignition (GDCI) for High Efficiency and Low NOx and PM

2012-04-16
2012-01-0384
A gasoline compression-ignition combustion system is being developed for full-time operation over the speed-load map. Low-temperature combustion was achieved using multiple late injection (MLI), intake boost, and moderate EGR for high efficiency, low NOx, and low particulate emissions. The relatively long ignition delay and high volatility of RON 91 pump gasoline combined with an advanced injection system and variable valve actuation provided controlled mixture stratification for low combustion noise. Tests were conducted on a single-cylinder research engine. Design of Experiments and response surface models were used to evaluate injection strategies, injector designs, and various valve lift profiles across the speed-load operating range. At light loads, an exhaust rebreathing strategy was used to promote autoignition and maintain exhaust temperatures. At medium loads, a triple injection strategy produced the best results with high thermal efficiency.
Book

Active Safety and Connectivity in the Mobility Industry

2011-10-24
This set includes two books, edited by Delphi's Chief Technology Officer Dr. Andrew Brown, Jr., which explore some of the most significant challenges currently facing the automotive industry-building safer and more connected vehicles. Active Safety and the Mobility Industry and Connectivity and the Mobility Industry each include 20 SAE technical papers on their respective topics, originally published from 2009 through 2011. Active Safety and the Mobility Industry Details the latest innovations and trends in active safety technology and driver distraction prevention techniques. Connectivity and the Mobility Industry Covers such topics as vehicle-to-vehicle communications, telematics, and autonomous driving. It also includes three original articles on automotive connectivity, written by various industry experts. Buy a Combination of Books and Save!
Book

Connectivity and the Mobility Industry

2011-10-24
Bound to play an ever increasing role in the driver-vehicle relationship, connectivity is becoming a basic consumer requirement when it comes to choosing a vehicle. Moving from the computer into the car, the ability to stay in touch, informed and entertained has reached yet a higher level of technology ubiquity. Featuring 20 SAE technical papers published in 2010 and 2011, Connectivity and the Mobility Industry addresses important aspects of one of the most cutting-edge topics in the industry today. Edited by Dr.
Book

Green Technologies and Active Safety in the Mobility Industry

2011-09-12
This set includes two books, edited by Delphi's Chief Technology Officer Dr. Andrew Brown, Jr., which explore some of the most significant challenges currently facing the automotive industry-building green and safer vehicles. "Green Technologies and the Mobility Industry" and "Active Safety and the Mobility Industry" each include 20 SAE technical papers on their respective topics, originally published from 2009 through 2011. Green Technologies and the Mobility Industry Covers a wide range of subjects showcasing how the industry is developing greener products and keeping up with-if not staying ahead of-new standards and regulations. Active Safety and the Mobility Industry Details the latest innovations and trends in active safety technology and driver distraction prevention techniques. Buy a Combination of Books and Save!
Technical Paper

Acoustic Noise Assessment of Gasoline Direct Injection Fuel Injectors Using Taguchi Methods

2011-04-12
2011-01-1216
Gasoline Direct injection (GDi) systems offer performance and /or fuel consumption advantages compared to the traditional lower pressure port fuel injected technology. One disadvantage of GDi is the higher level of audible noise produced by the high pressure GDi system components. Powertrain noise is a known warranty complaint across the automotive industry. This paper presents an objective comparison of acoustic noise emitted by eight solenoid actuated fuel injector designs during their normal operation, including at engine idle, where powertrain noise is more noticeable to the customer. Taguchi Robust Engineering methods will be used to conduct an assessment of the noise generated by various GDi fuel injector designs. Injector fixturing, measurement procedures, and their impact on reducing test-to-test measurement variation are discussed.
Technical Paper

Minimizing Gasoline Direct Injection (GDi) Fuel System Pressure Pulsations by Robust Fuel Rail Design

2011-04-12
2011-01-1225
Gasoline direct injection (GDi) engines have become popular due to their inherent potential for reduction of exhaust emissions and fuel consumption to meet increasingly stringent environmental standards. These engines require high-pressure fuel injection in order to improve the fuel atomization process and accelerate mixture preparation. To achieve a lower-cost system, a single-piston high-pressure fuel pump design is often employed due to its relative simplicity. However, pumps of this design are acknowledged as the source of high levels of fuel pressure fluctuations which can lead to audible noise, variations in the amount and spray quality of fuel delivery from cylinder to cylinder, compromised durability and consumer dissatisfaction. In this paper, the design process for a high-pressure fuel rail assembly using Robust Engineering methodology is presented.
Technical Paper

High Frequency Ignition System for Gasoline Direct Injection Engines

2011-04-12
2011-01-1223
A high-frequency electrical resonance-based ignition concept is in development to replace conventional spark ignition functionality for gasoline engines employing various types of fuel injection methods. The concept provides the benefit of a continuous discharge phase and the electrical power of the discharge can also be adjusted to the needs of the combustion conditions. This concept employs an alternative method of generating high voltages, using inductors and capacitors trimmed such that the supplied energy steadily increases the output voltage. This configuration is widely known as Tesla transformer and has been engineered to operate in a modern gasoline engine combustion environment. This development allows very high break down voltages to be generated and the power into the spark itself can be influenced.
Book

Active Safety and the Mobility Industry

2011-04-11
Safety is a key element in new vehicle design and active safety, together with driver distraction prevention, has become one of the most talked about issues in the mobility industry. This book features 20 SAE technical papers, originally published in 2009 and 2010, which showcase how the mobility industry is considering all aspects of safety in designing and producing safer vehicles. These papers were selected by SAE International's 2010 President Dr. Andrew Brown Jr., Executive Director and Chief Technologist for Delphi Corporation. The contents of this book explore a variety of safety issues in the areas of market and consumer preferences; driver assistance and modeling; active safety system, crash sensing and sensor fusion; communications; and road safety. The publication also includes a number of articles authored by renowned experts in the field of active safety.
Book

Green Technologies and the Mobility Industry

2010-11-16
This book features 20 SAE technical papers, originally published in 2009 and 2010, which showcase how the mobility industry is developing greener products and staying responsive - if not ahead of - new standards and legal requirements. These papers were selected by SAE International's 2010 President Dr. Andrew Brown Jr., Executive Director and Chief Technologist for Delphi Corporation. Authored by international experts from both industry and academia, they cover a wide range of cutting-edge subjects including powertrain electrification, alternative fuels, new emissions standards and remediation strategies, nanotechnology, sustainability, in-vehicle networking, and how various countries are also stepping up to the "green challenge".
Technical Paper

Estimation of Vehicle Roll Angle and Side Slip for Crash Sensing

2010-04-12
2010-01-0529
Estimation of vehicle roll angle, lateral velocity and side slip angle for the purpose of crash sensing is considered. Only roll rate sensor and the sensors readily available in vehicles equipped with ESC (Electronic Stability Control) systems are used in the estimation process. The algorithms are based on kinematic relationships, thus avoiding dependence on vehicle and tire models, which minimizes tuning efforts and sensitivity to parameter variations. The estimate of roll angle is obtained by blending two preliminary estimates, each valid in different conditions, in such a manner that the final estimate continuously favors the more accurate one. The roll angle estimate is used to compensate the gravity component in measured lateral acceleration due to vehicle roll or road bank angle. This facilitates estimation of lateral velocity and side slip angle from fundamental kinematic relationships involving the gravity-compensated lateral acceleration, yaw rate and longitudinal velocity.
Technical Paper

Thermal Modeling for Heated Tip Injectors

2010-04-12
2010-01-1264
Brazilian ethanol vehicles are typically equipped with an auxiliary gasoline sub-tank fuel system which aids cold starting and drivability for low ambient temperatures. Port fuel injectors capable of rapidly heating ethanol have been developed to eliminate this auxiliary system. These injectors also enable reductions in emissions. Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) is used in conjunction with Taguchi Robust Engineering methods to optimize the heat exchanging geometry of these heated injectors. Simulation results are confirmed with experimental hardware and engine cold start testing. Modeling results, experimental hardware, and engine cold start performance is presented and discussed.
Technical Paper

Acoustic Noise Assessment of Gasoline Direct Injection (GDi) Components Using Taguchi Methods - Application to GDi High-Pressure Pumps

2010-04-12
2010-01-0586
Gasoline Direct Injection (GDi) system is a relatively new technology. In early implementations, its major components, i.e. high pressure fuel pump, injectors, and fuel rails, emit objectionable acoustic noise during normal operation. This paper will focus on making an objective comparison (assessment) of acoustic noise emitted by several cam-driven high pressure fuel pumps during their normal operation, especially at engine idle. Taguchi robust engineering methods will be used to conduct the robust assessment study of six GDi high-pressure pumps. A-weighted total sound pressure level (SPL), processed from two free-field microphones around each pump, will be used as the main function in the Taguchi design of experiments (DOE).
Technical Paper

Non-contact Pressure Switch Package Optimization for Improved Reliability of Diagnostics in Automatic Transmissions

2010-04-12
2010-01-0187
Modern automatic transmissions use various methods to estimate fluid line pressures in order to improve shift quality and reduce energy losses. These estimations lead to improvements in fuel economy, customer satisfaction and reduced exhaust emissions. The further addition of pressure feedback switches improves operational knowledge by verifying when clutches have received their commanded pressures. Product reliability above the industry standard for transmission pressure switches was developed through the use of multiple FEA platforms combined with advanced design optimization software, robust optimization and Shainin® tools. In this optimized design, ferromagnetic non-contact pressure switches operate by translating fluid pressure into piston motion, isolated by a sealed proprietary diaphragm.
Technical Paper

Individual Cylinder Fuel Control for Imbalance Diagnosis

2010-04-12
2010-01-0157
This paper identifies a select method for performing cylinder imbalance measurement, correction and diagnosis. The impetus is to address new U.S. Federal regulations that require the detection of excessive cylinder air-fuel ratio (AFR) imbalance, and doing so requires the foundational ability to measure and preferably remove cylinder imbalance via active closed-loop control. This function is called Individual Cylinder Fuel Control (ICFC). ICFC starts by extracting cylinder-imbalance information from the front oxygen sensor, and that information comes in the form a of continuous data stream. That stream is then parsed to create virtual sensors- one for each cylinder. Each virtual sensor acts as an imbalance or error signal which ICFC uses to correct and learn via feedback and feed-forward control for each cylinder. The cylinder imbalance diagnostic is enabled by the presence of ICFC.
Technical Paper

Phase Diagrams of Different Modes of Misfire Calculated from the Digital Fourier Transformation of Angular Crankshaft Velocity

2010-04-12
2010-01-0167
Certain harmonics of angular crankshaft velocity are indicative of engine imbalance induced by cylinder misfire. Application of the Digital Fourier Transformation (DFT) facilitates the production-feasible calculation of a singular index in the frequency domain indicative either of smooth engine operation or misfire. The phase of that particular index with proper interpretation directly points to a misfiring cylinder. The identification of a misfiring pair, either opposing or a non-opposing in the cylinder bank, requires a bit more sophisticated approach since the phase response of the characteristic index in the frequency domain becomes more complex. The method demonstrated here was successfully applied in real time in four-, six-, and eight-cylinder engines, both SI and Diesel, for the On-Board Diagnostic application with reliability exceeding relevant regulatory requirements.
Technical Paper

General Air Fuel Ratio and EGR Definitions and their Calculation from Emissions

2010-04-12
2010-01-1285
Many exhaust gas analyzers only calculate the Air Fuel Ratio (AF) based on equations derived for the special case of combustion without exhaust gas recirculation (EGR), and therefore do not represent the combustion AF during lean operation with EGR. Equations that are not subject to this limitation will be presented. Using these equations to provide measurements of the combustion AF and total inert EGR is encouraged as they relate more directly to what governs the combustion process.
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