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Technical Paper

The Auto-Generation of Calibration Guides from MATLAB® Simulink®

2019-03-19
2019-01-1332
With the inception of model-based design and automatic code generation, many organizations are developing controls and diagnostics algorithms in model-based development tools to meet customer and regulatory requirements. Advances in model-based design have made it easier to generate C code from models and help software engineers streamline their workflow. Typically, after the software has been developed, the models are handed over to a calibration team responsible for calibrating the features to meet specified customer and regulatory requirements. However, once the models are handed over to the calibration team, the calibration engineers are unaware of how to calibrate the features because documentation is not available. Typically, model documentation trails behind the software process because it is created manually, most of this time is spent on formatting. As a result, lack of model documentation or up-to date documentation causes a lot of pain for OEM’s and Tier 1 suppliers.
Journal Article

Analysis of Pre-Crash Data Transferred over the Serial Data Bus and Utilized by the SDM-DS Module

2011-04-12
2011-01-0809
The primary function of an airbag control module is to detect crashes, discriminate and predict if a deployment is necessary, then deploy the restraint systems including airbags and where applicable, pretensioners. At General Motors (GM), the internal term for airbag control module is Sensing and Diagnostic Module (SDM). In the 1994 model year, GM introduced its SDM on some of its North American airbag-equipped vehicles. A secondary function of that SDM and all subsequent SDMs is to record crash related data. This data can include data regarding impact severity from internal accelerometers and pre-crash vehicle data from various chassis and powertrain modules. Previous researchers have addressed the accuracy of both the velocity change data, recorded by the SDM, and the pre-crash data, but the assessment of the timing of the pre-crash data has been limited to a single family of modules (Delphi SDM-G).
Technical Paper

Closed Loop Pressure Control System Requirements and Implementation

2011-04-12
2011-01-0391
Electro-hydraulic actuation has been used widely in automatic transmission designs. With greater demand for premium shift quality of automatic transmissions, higher pressure control accuracy of the transmission electro-hydraulic control system has become one of the main factors for meeting this growing demand. This demand has been the driving force for the development of closed loop pressure controls technology. This paper presents the further research done based upon a previously developed closed loop system. The focus for this research is on the system requirements, such as solenoid driver selection and system latency handling. Both spin-stand and test vehicle setups are discussed in detail. Test results for various configurations are given.
Technical Paper

Closed Loop Pressure Control System Development for an Automatic Transmission

2009-04-20
2009-01-0951
This paper presents the development of a transmission closed loop pressure control system. The objective of this system is to improve transmission pressure control accuracy by employing closed-loop technology. The control system design includes both feed forward and feedback control. The feed forward control algorithm continuously learns solenoid P-I characteristics. The closed loop feedback control has a conventional PID control with multi-level gain selections for each control channel, as well as different operating points. To further improve the system performance, Robust Optimization is carried out to determine the optimal set of control parameters and controller hardware design factors. The optimized design is verified via an L18 experiment on spin dynamometer. The design is also tested on vehicle.
Technical Paper

Spray Pattern Recognition for Multi-Hole Gasoline Direct Injectors Using CFD Modeling

2009-04-20
2009-01-1488
This paper describes a correlation study on fuel spray pattern recognition of multi-hole injectors for gasoline direct injection (GDi) engines. Spray pattern is characterized by patternation length, which represents the distance of maximum droplet concentration from the axis of the injector. Five fuel injectors with different numbers and sizes of nozzle holes were considered in this study. Experimental data and CFD modeling results were used separately to develop regression models for spray patternation. These regressions predicted the influence of a number of injector operating and design parameters, including injection system operating pressure, valve lift, injector hole length-to-diameter ratio (L/d) and the orientation of the injector hole. The regression correlations provided a good fit with both experimental and CFD spray simulation results. Thus CFD offers a good complement to experimental validation during development efforts to meet a desired injector spray pattern.
Journal Article

Energy-Efficient Air Conditioning Systems Utilizing Pneumatic Variable Compressors

2009-04-20
2009-01-0539
Air Conditioning systems with reheat reduction based for energy efficiency have generally been implemented with either electronic variable compressors through active stroke control or with fixed displacement compressors through modifying the cycling set point. The present work demonstrates a unique concept of achieving energy efficiency via cycling a pneumatic variable compressor at elevated set points. The energy efficiency of such a system approaches that of an electronic variable but significantly higher than that of a fixed displacement compressor system. The cost of the system, on the other hand, is substantially lower than that of an electronic compressor. Secondary benefits include a softer start than with a fixed compressor and a considerably simpler control scheme than that required by an electronic variable compressor.
Technical Paper

A Strategy to Partition Crash Data to Define Active-Safety Sensors and Product Solutions

2008-10-20
2008-21-0032
Both Crash-Avoidance and Pre-Crash active safety technologies are being developed to help reduce the number of crashes and minimize the severity of crashes. The root basis in the development of new and improved active safety technologies always begins with gaining further knowledge about crash kinds and causes. The dynamics of crashes are quite complex. The evolving precursor crash situation initiated in the Crash-Avoidance time-period will vary from the imminent crash situation in the Pre-Crash time-period. As such, in order to develop the appropriate requirements for both crash-avoidance and pre-crash technologies, they must be analyzed from their respective crash data. A data-driven methodology process has been developed which partitions the field data with a perspective to crash-avoidance and pre-crash.
Technical Paper

A 6-Speed Automatic Transmission Plant Dynamics Model for HIL Test Bench

2008-04-14
2008-01-0630
During the production controller and software development process, one critical step is the controller and software verification. There are various ways to perform this verification. One of the commonly used methods is to utilize an HIL (hardware-in-the-loop) test bench to emulate powertrain hardware for development and validation of powertrain controllers and software. A key piece of an HIL bench is the plant dynamics model used to emulate the external environment of a modern controller, such as engine (ECM), transmission (TCM) or powertrain controller (PCM), so that the algorithms and their software implementation can be exercised to confirm the desired results. This paper presents a 6-speed automatic transmission plant dynamics model development for hardware-in-the-loop (HIL) test bench for the validation of production transmission controls software. The modeling method, model validation, and application in an HIL test environment are described in details.
Technical Paper

A Vehicle-to-Vehicle Communication Database for Infrastructureless Routing

2008-04-14
2008-01-1254
Traffic engineers use time-of-day travel time databases to characterize normal travel times on roads. This information is used by traffic management centers together with information from sensors in the highway to identify problems and to make alternate route recommendations. In this paper, the travel time database concept is extended to a vehicle-to-vehicle communications network for traffic and safety information, wherein the travel time database is generated and stored by vehicles in the network, and used by the vehicles to identify abnormal traffic conditions. This infrastructure-free approach is attractive due to the potential to eliminate highway sensor and sensor maintenance costs, which are major factors that limit the growth of traffic information beyond major roadways in urban regions. Initial work indicates that database storage requirements in the vehicle should be manageable.
Technical Paper

Throttle Icing: Understanding the Icing Mechanism and Effects of Various Throttle Features

2008-04-14
2008-01-0439
Some Electronic Throttle Control (ETC) Air Control Valves (ACV) on automotive internal combustion engines are susceptible to icing of the throttle valve. Ice formation can result in an increase in torque required to open or close the valve. Laboratory studies were conducted to improve the understanding of throttle valve icing on electronic throttle control valves with both aluminum and composite (plastic) bodies over various bore sizes (4 cylinder to 8 cylinder engines). Study results indicated that ice compression at the bore and valve gap, not ice adhesion, is the major contributor to the ETC-ACV icing phenomenon. In addition, testing of parts with various bore sizes, orientations and surface cleanliness resulted in further understanding of the icing issue.
Journal Article

Diagnostics based on the Statistical Correlation of Sensors

2008-04-14
2008-01-0129
The paper describes a new strategy for real-time sensor diagnostics that is based on the statistical correlation of various sensor signal pairs. During normal fault-free operation there is a certain correlation between the sensor signals which is lost in the event of a fault. The proposed algorithm quantifies the correlation between sensor signal pairs using real-time scalar metrics based on the Mahalanobis-distance concept. During normal operation all metrics follow a similar pattern, however in the event of a fault; metrics involving the faulty sensor would increase in proportion to the magnitude of the fault. Thus, by monitoring this pattern and using a suitable fault-signature table it is possible to isolate the faulty sensor in real-time. Preliminary simulation results suggest that the strategy can mitigate the false-alarms experienced by most model-based diagnostic algorithms due to an intrinsic ability to distinguish nonlinear vehicle behavior from actual sensor faults.
Journal Article

Gasoline Fuel Injector Spray Measurement and Characterization - A New SAE J2715 Recommended Practice

2008-04-14
2008-01-1068
With increasingly stringent emissions regulations and concurrent requirements for enhanced engine thermal efficiency, a comprehensive characterization of the automotive gasoline fuel spray has become essential. The acquisition of accurate and repeatable spray data is even more critical when a combustion strategy such as gasoline direct injection is to be utilized. Without industry-wide standardization of testing procedures, large variablilities have been experienced in attempts to verify the claimed spray performance values for the Sauter mean diameter, Dv90, tip penetration and cone angle of many types of fuel sprays. A new SAE Recommended Practice document, J2715, has been developed by the SAE Gasoline Fuel Injection Standards Committee (GFISC) and is now available for the measurement and characterization of the fuel sprays from both gasoline direct injection and port fuel injection injectors.
Technical Paper

SAE Standard Procedure J2747 for Measuring Hydraulic Pump Airborne Noise

2007-05-15
2007-01-2408
This work discusses the development of SAE procedure J2747, “Hydraulic Pump Airborne Noise Bench Test”. This is a test procedure describing a standard method for measuring radiated sound power levels from hydraulic pumps of the type typically used in automotive power steering systems, though it can be extended for use with other types of pumps. This standard was developed by a committee of industry representatives from OEM's, suppliers and NVH testing firms familiar with NVH measurement requirements for automotive hydraulic pumps. Details of the test standard are discussed. The hardware configuration of the test bench and the configuration of the test article are described. Test conditions, data acquisition and post-processing specifics are also included. Contextual information regarding the reasoning and priorities applied by the development committee is provided to further explain the strengths, limitations and intended usage of the test procedure.
Technical Paper

A Statistical Approach for Real-Time Prognosis of Safety-Critical Vehicle Systems

2007-04-16
2007-01-1497
The paper describes the development of a vehicle stability indicator based on the correlation between various current vehicle chassis sensors such as hand wheel angle, yaw rate and lateral acceleration. In general, there is a correlation between various pairs of sensor signals when the vehicle operation is linear and stable and a lack of correlation when the vehicle is becoming unstable or operating in a nonlinear region. The paper outlines one potential embodiment of the technology that makes use of the Mahalanobis distance metric to assess the degree of correlation among the sensor signals. With this approach a single scalar metric provides an accurate indication of vehicle stability.
Technical Paper

Design of an Automotive Grade Controller for In-Cylinder Pressure Based Engine Control Development

2007-04-16
2007-01-0774
This paper describes a new tool to capture cylinder pressure information, calculate combustion parameters, and implement control algorithms. There are numerous instrumentation and prototyping systems which can provide some or all of this capability. The Cylinder Pressure Development Controller (CPDC) is unique in that it uses advanced high volume automotive grade circuitry, packaging, and software methodologies. This approach provides insight regarding the implementation of cylinder pressure based controls in a production engine management system. A high performance data acquisition system is described along with a data reduction technique to minimize data processing requirements. The CPDC software architecture is discussed along with model-based algorithm development and autocoding. Finally, CPDC calculated combustion parameters are compared with those from a well established combustion analysis system and thermodynamic simulations.
Technical Paper

Exploring the Trade-Off of Handling Stability and Responsiveness with Advanced Control Systems

2007-04-16
2007-01-0812
Advanced chassis control systems enable a vehicle to achieve new levels of performance in handling stability and responsiveness. In recent work by NHTSA and others, the performance of Electronic Stability Control (ESC) systems has been studied with focus on yaw stability and roll stability of vehicles on high friction surfaces. However, it is recognized that vehicle handling responsiveness is also an important aspect that should be maintained. This paper explores the trade-offs between yaw rate, side slip, and roll motions of a vehicle, and their relationships to handling stability and handling responsiveness. This paper further describes how various control systems are able to manage these motions. The paper also discusses methods to assess vehicle stability and responsiveness using specific maneuvers and measurements, and it includes data from vehicle tests on a slippery surface.
Technical Paper

A Hardware-in-the-loop Test Bench for Production Transmission Controls Software Quality Validation

2007-04-16
2007-01-0502
Production software validation is critical during software development, allowing potential quality issues that could occur in the field to be minimized. By developing automated and repeatable software test methods, test cases can be created to validate targeted areas of the control software for confirmation of the expected results from software release to release. This is especially important when algorithm/software development timing is aggressive and the management of development activities in a global work environment requires high quality, and timely test results. This paper presents a hardware-in-the-loop (HIL) test bench for the validation of production transmission controls software. The powertrain model used within the HIL consists of an engine model and a detailed automatic transmission dynamics model. The model runs in an OPAL-RT TestDrive based HIL system.
Technical Paper

Non-Intrusive Engine Speed Sensor

2007-04-16
2007-01-0960
In the field of vehicle diagnostics accurate instantaneous engine speed information enables the detection and diagnosis of many engine problems, even subtle ones. Currently, there is a limited choice in the ways of obtaining such information. For example, it is known that one can tap into the crank sensor wiring, or use a separate, intrusive method, such as mounting a sensor in the bell housing to sense the rotation of the ring gear. However, the shortcomings of these approaches are locating and gaining access to the crank sensor connector, the location of which varies from vehicle to vehicle. Thus, authors proposed a novel, robust and manufacturing friendly speed sensor. The concept is based on the Villari effect. The sensor, which is attached to the front end of the engine crankshaft, consists of a coil of magnetostrictive wire supplied with AC current. During engine rotation the magnetostrictive wire become stressed due to centrifugal force.
Technical Paper

The Potential of Switched Reluctance Motor Technology for Electro-Mechanical Brake Applications

2006-04-03
2006-01-0296
Electro-mechanical brakes (EMBs) are emerging as a new approach to enhance brake system features as well as braking performance. This paper takes a fresh look at the switched reluctance (SR) drive as a possible prime mover technology for EMB applications. The switched reluctance motor has attractive potential, in view of its robustness, dynamic bandwidth and fault tolerance. An overall assessment of the approach is made based on bench performance of a prototype EMB caliper with an SR drive executing typical braking patterns. It is shown that the SR motor can provide the required overall brake actuator performance. Various implementation options are examined to lower cost, with particular focus on electronic design, control algorithms and motor position sensing.
Technical Paper

Sensitivity of Contact Electronic Throttle Control Sensor to Control System Variation

2006-04-03
2006-01-0763
The purpose of this paper is to improve the understanding of the advantages of a non-contact electronic throttle control (ETC) air control valve position sensor over the potentiometer technology of contacting position sensors. The non-contact position sensing offers the industry an opportunity to take advantage of an improved ability to assess reliability of the product and utilize accelerated testing techniques with improved robustness to control system perturbations. Specifically; eliminating the contact wear failure mechanism reduces the complexity, and duration of ETC air control valve life testing and increases the robustness of the ETC system to noise factors from the control system variation.
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