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Technical Paper

The Auto-Generation of Calibration Guides from MATLAB® Simulink®

2019-03-19
2019-01-1332
With the inception of model-based design and automatic code generation, many organizations are developing controls and diagnostics algorithms in model-based development tools to meet customer and regulatory requirements. Advances in model-based design have made it easier to generate C code from models and help software engineers streamline their workflow. Typically, after the software has been developed, the models are handed over to a calibration team responsible for calibrating the features to meet specified customer and regulatory requirements. However, once the models are handed over to the calibration team, the calibration engineers are unaware of how to calibrate the features because documentation is not available. Typically, model documentation trails behind the software process because it is created manually, most of this time is spent on formatting. As a result, lack of model documentation or up-to date documentation causes a lot of pain for OEM’s and Tier 1 suppliers.
Technical Paper

Closed Loop Pressure Control System Requirements and Implementation

2011-04-12
2011-01-0391
Electro-hydraulic actuation has been used widely in automatic transmission designs. With greater demand for premium shift quality of automatic transmissions, higher pressure control accuracy of the transmission electro-hydraulic control system has become one of the main factors for meeting this growing demand. This demand has been the driving force for the development of closed loop pressure controls technology. This paper presents the further research done based upon a previously developed closed loop system. The focus for this research is on the system requirements, such as solenoid driver selection and system latency handling. Both spin-stand and test vehicle setups are discussed in detail. Test results for various configurations are given.
Journal Article

Gasoline Direct Injection Compression Ignition (GDCI) - Diesel-like Efficiency with Low CO2 Emissions

2011-04-12
2011-01-1386
A single-cylinder engine was used to study the potential of a high-efficiency combustion concept called gasoline direct-injection compression-ignition (GDCI). Low temperature combustion was achieved using multiple injections, intake boost, and moderate EGR to reduce engine-out NOx and PM emissions engine for stringent emissions standards. This combustion strategy benefits from the relatively long ignition delay and high volatility of regular unleaded gasoline fuel. Tests were conducted at 6 bar IMEP - 1500 rpm using various injection strategies with low-to-moderate injection pressure. Results showed that triple injection GDCI achieved about 8 percent greater indicated thermal efficiency and about 14 percent lower specific CO2 emissions relative to diesel baseline tests on the same engine. Heat release rates and combustion noise could be controlled with a multiple-late injection strategy for controlled fuel-air stratification. Estimated heat losses were significantly reduced.
Journal Article

Effects of Fuel Type on Dual SCR Aftertreatment for Lean NOx Reduction

2009-11-02
2009-01-2818
Global demand for alternative fuels to combat rising energy costs has sparked a renewed interest in catalysts that can effectively remediate NOx emissions resulting from combustion of a range of HC based fuels. Because many of these new engine technologies rely on lean operating environments to produce efficient power, the resulting emissions are also present in a lean atmosphere. While HCs are easily controlled in such environments, achieving high NOx conversion to N2 has continued to elude fully satisfactory solution. Until recently, most approaches have relied on catalysts with precious metals to either store NOx and subsequently release it as N2 under rich conditions, or use NH3 SCR catalysts with urea injection to reduce NOx under lean conditions. However, new improvements in Ag based technologies also look very promising for NOx reduction in lean environments.
Technical Paper

Spray Pattern Recognition for Multi-Hole Gasoline Direct Injectors Using CFD Modeling

2009-04-20
2009-01-1488
This paper describes a correlation study on fuel spray pattern recognition of multi-hole injectors for gasoline direct injection (GDi) engines. Spray pattern is characterized by patternation length, which represents the distance of maximum droplet concentration from the axis of the injector. Five fuel injectors with different numbers and sizes of nozzle holes were considered in this study. Experimental data and CFD modeling results were used separately to develop regression models for spray patternation. These regressions predicted the influence of a number of injector operating and design parameters, including injection system operating pressure, valve lift, injector hole length-to-diameter ratio (L/d) and the orientation of the injector hole. The regression correlations provided a good fit with both experimental and CFD spray simulation results. Thus CFD offers a good complement to experimental validation during development efforts to meet a desired injector spray pattern.
Technical Paper

An Analytical and Experimental Study of a High Pressure Single Piston Pump for Gasoline Direct Injection (GDi) Engine Applications

2009-04-20
2009-01-1504
In recent years, gasoline direct injection (GDi) engines have been popular due to their inherent potential for reduction of exhaust emissions and fuel consumption to meet stringent EPA standards. These engines require high-pressure fuel injection in order to improve the atomization process and accelerate mixture preparation. The high-pressure fuel pump is an essential component in the GDi system. Therefore, understanding the flow characteristics of this device and its associated behavior is critical for improving the performance of this category of engines. In this paper, the fluid flow characteristics in a high-pressure single-piston pump for use in GDi engines are analyzed using 1-D LMS Imagine.Lab AMESim system and 3-D Ansys Fluent computational fluid dynamics (CFD) models. The flow rate of the fuel pump under various cam speeds has been examined along with characteristics of the pump's control valve.
Technical Paper

A Closed-Loop Drive-train Model for HIL Test Bench

2009-04-20
2009-01-1139
This paper presents a hardware-in-the-loop (HIL) test bench for the validation of production transmission controls software, with a focus on a closed-loop vehicle drive-train model incorporating a detailed automatic transmission plant dynamics model developed for certain applications. Specifically, this paper presents the closed-loop integration of a 6-speed automatic transmission model developed for our HIL transmission controller and algorithm test bench (Opal-RT TestDrive based). The model validation, integration and its application in an HIL test environment are described in details.
Technical Paper

Closed Loop Pressure Control System Development for an Automatic Transmission

2009-04-20
2009-01-0951
This paper presents the development of a transmission closed loop pressure control system. The objective of this system is to improve transmission pressure control accuracy by employing closed-loop technology. The control system design includes both feed forward and feedback control. The feed forward control algorithm continuously learns solenoid P-I characteristics. The closed loop feedback control has a conventional PID control with multi-level gain selections for each control channel, as well as different operating points. To further improve the system performance, Robust Optimization is carried out to determine the optimal set of control parameters and controller hardware design factors. The optimized design is verified via an L18 experiment on spin dynamometer. The design is also tested on vehicle.
Technical Paper

Improving Time-To-Collision Estimation by IMM Based Kalman Filter

2009-04-20
2009-01-0162
In a CAS system, the distance and relative velocity between front and host vehicles are estimated to calculate time-to-collision (TTC). The distance estimates by different methods will certainly include noise which should be removed to ensure the accuracy of TTC calculations. Kalman filter is a good tool to filter such type of noise. Nevertheless, Kalman filter is a model based filter, which means a correct model is important to get the good filtering results. Usually, a vehicle is either moving with a constant velocity (CV) or constant acceleration (CA) maneuvers. This means the distance data between front and host vehicles can be described by either constant velocity or constant acceleration model. In this paper, first, CV and CA models are used to design two Kalman filters and an interacting multiple model (IMM) is used to dynamically combine the outputs from two filters.
Technical Paper

Impact of Biodiesel Emission Products from a Multi-Cylinder Direct Injection Diesel Engine on Particulate Filter Performance

2009-04-20
2009-01-1184
As diesel emission regulations continue to increase, the use of exhaust aftertreatment systems containing, for example the diesel oxidation catalyst (DOC) and diesel particulate filter (DPF) will become necessary in order to meet these stringent emission requirements. The addition of a DOC and DPF in conjunction with utilizing biodiesel fuels requires extensive research to study the implications that biodiesel blends have on emissions as well as to examine the effect on aftertreatment devices. The proceeding work discusses results from a 2006 VM Motori four-cylinder 2.8L direct injection diesel engine coupled with a diesel oxidation catalyst and catalyzed diesel particulate filter. Tests were done using ultra low sulfur diesel fuel blended with 20% choice white grease biodiesel fuel to evaluate the effects of biodiesel emission products on the performance and effectiveness of the aftertreatment devices and the effect of low temperature combustion modes.
Journal Article

Energy-Efficient Air Conditioning Systems Utilizing Pneumatic Variable Compressors

2009-04-20
2009-01-0539
Air Conditioning systems with reheat reduction based for energy efficiency have generally been implemented with either electronic variable compressors through active stroke control or with fixed displacement compressors through modifying the cycling set point. The present work demonstrates a unique concept of achieving energy efficiency via cycling a pneumatic variable compressor at elevated set points. The energy efficiency of such a system approaches that of an electronic variable but significantly higher than that of a fixed displacement compressor system. The cost of the system, on the other hand, is substantially lower than that of an electronic compressor. Secondary benefits include a softer start than with a fixed compressor and a considerably simpler control scheme than that required by an electronic variable compressor.
Journal Article

Dual SCR Aftertreatment for Lean NOx Reduction

2009-04-20
2009-01-0277
Low-cost lean NOx aftertreatment is one of the main challenges facing high-efficiency gasoline and diesel engines operating with lean mixtures. While there are many candidate technologies, they all offer tradeoffs. We have investigated a multi-component Dual SCR aftertreatment system that is capable of obtaining NOx reduction efficiencies of greater than 90% under lean conditions, without the use of precious metals or urea injection into the exhaust. The Dual SCR approach here uses an Ag HC-SCR catalyst followed by an NH3-SCR catalyst. In bench reactor studies from 150 °C to 500 °C, we have found, for modest C/N ratios, that NOx reacts over the first catalyst to predominantly form nitrogen. In addition, it also forms ammonia in sufficient quantities to react on the second NH3-SCR catalyst to improve system performance. The operational window and the formation of NH3 are improved in the presence of small quantities of hydrogen (0.1–1.0%).
Journal Article

Fuel Efficiency Improvements from Lean, Stratified Combustion with a Solenoid Injector

2009-04-20
2009-01-1485
In light of the growing emphasis on CO2 emissions reduction, Delphi has undertaken an internal development program to show the fuel economy benefits of lean, stratified combustion with its outwardly-opening solenoid injector in a vehicle environment. This paper presents the status of this ongoing development activity which is not yet completed. Progress to date includes a logical progression from single- and multi-cylinder dynamometer engines to the vehicle environment. The solenoid-actuated injector used in this development has an outwardly-opening valve group to generate a hollow-cone spray with a stable, well-defined recirculation zone to support spray-guided stratification in the combustion chamber. The engine management system of the development vehicle was modified from series-production configuration by changing the engine control unit to permit function development and calibration.
Journal Article

Analysis of E-85 Fuel for Formic, Acetic, Propionic, Butyric, Glycolic and Citric Acids using Reversed Phase High Performance Liquid Chromatography

2008-10-06
2008-01-2509
An HPLC (High Performance Liquid Chromatography) method to measure the concentration of six organic acids in E-85 fuel has been developed. A three point calibration curve is established using standard solutions of the following organic acids: formic acid, acetic acid, propionic acid, butyric acid, glycolic acid and citric acid. An internal standard (maleic acid) is used to monitor HPLC system suitability and peak retention time stability. The method utilizes UV detection at 210 nm to detect and quantify the levels of each acid in E-85 fuel. Test results from nine commercially available E-85 fuel samples are reported. Analytical method validation was achieved by performing and confirming system suitability or injection repeatability (percent relative standard deviation ≤ 3%), calibration curve linearity (R2 ≥ 0.999), analysis repeatability (standard deviation < 1 mg/L) and recovery (percent recovery 91 - 102%).
Technical Paper

A Vehicle-to-Vehicle Communication Database for Infrastructureless Routing

2008-04-14
2008-01-1254
Traffic engineers use time-of-day travel time databases to characterize normal travel times on roads. This information is used by traffic management centers together with information from sensors in the highway to identify problems and to make alternate route recommendations. In this paper, the travel time database concept is extended to a vehicle-to-vehicle communications network for traffic and safety information, wherein the travel time database is generated and stored by vehicles in the network, and used by the vehicles to identify abnormal traffic conditions. This infrastructure-free approach is attractive due to the potential to eliminate highway sensor and sensor maintenance costs, which are major factors that limit the growth of traffic information beyond major roadways in urban regions. Initial work indicates that database storage requirements in the vehicle should be manageable.
Technical Paper

Fluid Dynamic Study of Hollow Cone Sprays

2008-04-14
2008-01-0131
An analytical study of spray from an outwardly opening pressure swirl injector has been presented in this paper. A number of model injectors with varying design configurations have been used in this study. The outwardly opening injection process has been modeled using a modified spray breakup model presented in an earlier study. It has been observed that simulation results from the study clearly capture the mechanism by which an outwardly opening conical spray interacts with the downstream flow field. Velocity field near the tip of the injector shows that the conical streams emanating from an outwardly opening injector have the tendency to entrap air into the flow stream which is responsible for finer spray. A deviation from the optimum set of physical parameters showed a high propensity to produce large spray droplets. This study also emphasizes the importance of computational fluid dynamics (CFD) as an engineering tool to understand the complex physical processes.
Technical Paper

A 6-Speed Automatic Transmission Plant Dynamics Model for HIL Test Bench

2008-04-14
2008-01-0630
During the production controller and software development process, one critical step is the controller and software verification. There are various ways to perform this verification. One of the commonly used methods is to utilize an HIL (hardware-in-the-loop) test bench to emulate powertrain hardware for development and validation of powertrain controllers and software. A key piece of an HIL bench is the plant dynamics model used to emulate the external environment of a modern controller, such as engine (ECM), transmission (TCM) or powertrain controller (PCM), so that the algorithms and their software implementation can be exercised to confirm the desired results. This paper presents a 6-speed automatic transmission plant dynamics model development for hardware-in-the-loop (HIL) test bench for the validation of production transmission controls software. The modeling method, model validation, and application in an HIL test environment are described in details.
Journal Article

Gasoline Fuel Injector Spray Measurement and Characterization - A New SAE J2715 Recommended Practice

2008-04-14
2008-01-1068
With increasingly stringent emissions regulations and concurrent requirements for enhanced engine thermal efficiency, a comprehensive characterization of the automotive gasoline fuel spray has become essential. The acquisition of accurate and repeatable spray data is even more critical when a combustion strategy such as gasoline direct injection is to be utilized. Without industry-wide standardization of testing procedures, large variablilities have been experienced in attempts to verify the claimed spray performance values for the Sauter mean diameter, Dv90, tip penetration and cone angle of many types of fuel sprays. A new SAE Recommended Practice document, J2715, has been developed by the SAE Gasoline Fuel Injection Standards Committee (GFISC) and is now available for the measurement and characterization of the fuel sprays from both gasoline direct injection and port fuel injection injectors.
Journal Article

Diagnostics based on the Statistical Correlation of Sensors

2008-04-14
2008-01-0129
The paper describes a new strategy for real-time sensor diagnostics that is based on the statistical correlation of various sensor signal pairs. During normal fault-free operation there is a certain correlation between the sensor signals which is lost in the event of a fault. The proposed algorithm quantifies the correlation between sensor signal pairs using real-time scalar metrics based on the Mahalanobis-distance concept. During normal operation all metrics follow a similar pattern, however in the event of a fault; metrics involving the faulty sensor would increase in proportion to the magnitude of the fault. Thus, by monitoring this pattern and using a suitable fault-signature table it is possible to isolate the faulty sensor in real-time. Preliminary simulation results suggest that the strategy can mitigate the false-alarms experienced by most model-based diagnostic algorithms due to an intrinsic ability to distinguish nonlinear vehicle behavior from actual sensor faults.
Technical Paper

E-85 Fuel Corrosivity: Effects on Port Fuel Injector Durability Performance

2007-10-29
2007-01-4072
A study was conducted to investigate the effects of commercial E-85 fuel properties on Port Fuel Injector (PFI) durability performance. E-85 corrosivity, not lubricity, was identified as the primary property affecting injector performance. Relatively high levels of water, chloride and organic acid contamination, detected in commercial E-85 fuels sampled in the U.S. in 2006, were the focus of the study. Analysis results and analytical techniques for determining contaminant levels in and corrosivity of commercial E-85 fuels are discussed. Studies were conducted with E-85 fuels formulated to represent worst-case field fuels. In addition to contamination with water, chloride and organic acids, fuels with various levels of a typical ethanol corrosion inhibitor were tested in the laboratory to measure the effects on E-85 corrosivity. The effects of these E-85 contaminants on injector durability performance were also evaluated.
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