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Technical Paper

The Auto-Generation of Calibration Guides from MATLAB® Simulink®

2019-03-19
2019-01-1332
With the inception of model-based design and automatic code generation, many organizations are developing controls and diagnostics algorithms in model-based development tools to meet customer and regulatory requirements. Advances in model-based design have made it easier to generate C code from models and help software engineers streamline their workflow. Typically, after the software has been developed, the models are handed over to a calibration team responsible for calibrating the features to meet specified customer and regulatory requirements. However, once the models are handed over to the calibration team, the calibration engineers are unaware of how to calibrate the features because documentation is not available. Typically, model documentation trails behind the software process because it is created manually, most of this time is spent on formatting. As a result, lack of model documentation or up-to date documentation causes a lot of pain for OEM’s and Tier 1 suppliers.
Technical Paper

High-Speed Imaging Studies of Gasoline Fuel Sprays at Fuel Injection Pressures from 300 to 1500 bar

2018-04-03
2018-01-0294
High-pressure gasoline fuel injection is a means to improve combustion efficiency and lower engine-out emissions. The objective of this study was to quantify the effects of fuel injection pressure on transient gasoline fuel spray development for a wide range of injection pressures, including over 1000 bar, using a constant volume chamber and high-speed imaging. Reference grade gasoline was injected at fuel pressures of 300, 600, 900, 1200, and 1500 bar into the chamber, which was pressurized with nitrogen at 1, 5, 10, and 20 bar at room temperature (298 K). Bulk spray imaging data were used to quantify spray tip penetration distance, rate of spray tip penetration and spray cone angle. Near-nozzle data were used to evaluate the early spray development.
Technical Paper

Effects of Engine Speed on Spray Behaviors of the Engine Combustion Network “Spray G” Gasoline Injector

2018-04-03
2018-01-0305
Non-reacting spray behaviors of the Engine Combustion Network “Spray G” gasoline fuel injector were investigated at flash and non-flash boiling conditions in an optically accessible single cylinder engine and a constant volume spray chamber. High-speed Mie-scattering imaging was used to determine transient liquid-phase spray penetration distances and observe general spray behaviors. The standardized “G2” and “G3” test conditions recommended by the Engine Combustion Network were matched in this work and the fuel was pure iso-octane. Results from the constant volume chamber represented the zero (stationary piston) engine speed condition and single cylinder engine speeds ranged from 300 to 2,000 RPM. As expected, the present results indicated the general spray behaviors differed significantly between the spray chamber and engine. The differences must be thoughtfully considered when applying spray chamber results to guide spray model development for engine applications.
Technical Paper

A Control Algorithm for Low Pressure - EGR Systems Using a Smith Predictor with Intake Oxygen Sensor Feedback

2016-04-05
2016-01-0612
Low-pressure cooled EGR (LP-cEGR) systems can provide significant improvements in spark-ignition engine efficiency and knock resistance. However, open-loop control of these systems is challenging due to low pressure differentials and the presence of pulsating flow at the EGR valve. This research describes a control structure for Low-pressure cooled EGR systems using closed loop feedback control along with internal model control. A Smith Predictor based PID controller is utilized in combination with an intake oxygen sensor for feedback control of EGR fraction. Gas transport delays are considered as dead-time delays and a Smith Predictor is one of the conventional methods to address stability concerns of such systems. However, this approach requires a plant model of the air-path from the EGR valve to the sensor.
Technical Paper

Diagnosing Sources of Automotive System Radio Frequency Interference (RFI) Using a Portable RF Detector Instrument

2016-04-05
2016-01-0055
Automotive systems can generate un-intentional radio frequency energy. The levels of these emissions must be below maximum values set by the Original Equipment Manufacturer (OEM) for customer satisfaction and/or in order to meet governmental requirements. Due to the complexity of electromagnetic coupling mechanisms that can occur on a vehicle, many times it is difficult to measure and identify the noise source(s) without the use of an electromagnetic interference (EMI) receiver or spectrum analyzer (SA). An efficient and effective diagnostic solution can be to use a low-cost portable, battery powered RF detector with wide dynamic range as an alternative for automotive electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) and design engineers to identify, locate, and resolve radio frequency (RF) noise problems. A practical circuit described here can be implemented easily with little RF design knowledge, or experience.
Journal Article

(R)evolution of E/E Architectures

2015-04-14
2015-01-0196
This paper presents an overview of the evolution & revolution of automotive E/E architectures and how we at Bosch, envision the technology in the future. It provides information on the bottlenecks for current E/E architectures and drivers for their evolution. Functionalities such as automated driving, connectivity and cyber-security have gained increasing importance over the past few years. The importance of these functionalities will continue to grow as these cutting-edge technologies mature and market acceptance increases. Implementation of these functionalities in mainstream vehicles will demand a paradigm shift in E/E architectures with respect to in-vehicle communication networks, power networks, connectivity, safety and security. This paper expounds on these points at a system level.
Technical Paper

Characterization of SACI Combustion for Use in Model Based Controls

2014-04-01
2014-01-1289
Spark Assisted Compression Ignition (SACI) aims to increase the load limit of homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI) engines, enabling the benefits of dilute combustion over a larger engine operation range. Compared to HCCI, SACI exhibits higher cyclic variation of several combustion features. Due to the necessity of control of the timing of the auto-ignition event during SACI operation, a suitable characterization of the combustion at a given set of actuator inputs is required to enable robust model-based controls of combustion. This paper investigates statistical approaches to analyze in-cylinder pressure data of SACI in order to find a real or reconstructed cycle that will represent the important characteristics of combustion. To determine the representativeness of such a cycle, several combustion characteristics were compared that could serve as operational limits.
Journal Article

Design of a 4-Cylinder GTDI Engine with Part-Load HCCI Capability

2013-04-08
2013-01-0287
This paper focuses on the engine design portion of the Advanced Combustion Controls Enabling Systems and Solutions (ACCESS) project, a joint research project partially funded by a Department of Energy grant. The main goal of the project is to improve fuel economy in a gasoline fueled light-duty vehicle by 25% while maintaining similar performance and meeting SULEV emission standards. A Cadillac CTS with a high-feature naturally-aspirated 3.6L V6 engine was chosen as the baseline vehicle. To achieve the target fuel economy improvement over the baseline engine configuration, gasoline turbocharged direct-injection (GTDI) technology was utilized for engine downsizing in combination with part-load lean homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI) operation for further fuel economy gains. The GM 2.0L I4 GTDI Ecotec engine was used as the platform for the basis of this design.
Technical Paper

Efficiency of Safety-Related Non-Functional Software Unit Test

2013-04-08
2013-01-0188
This paper describes an investigation about the efficiency of safety-related non-functional software unit tests (NFSWUT). Well defined design, implementation and test processes are widely used in the respective industry. In order to fulfill the ISO 26262[1] requirement, additional effort is necessary to execute the NFSWUT. However, the efficiency of these tests is still not confirmed. This paper will provide an overview about an investigation of the effort-benefit ratio of the NFSWUT.
Technical Paper

Effort Reduction for Analysis of Safety Critical Software with Criticality Analysis

2013-04-08
2013-01-0183
With the publication of ISO26262 [1] and the concept of Functional Safety, being able to identify the required safety integrity level for software components and defining the respective development steps has become increasingly important. A number of Tier 1 automotive suppliers, including Robert Bosch LLC, have been developing software for safety relevant systems, and have experience with a number of methods and tools for software analysis. This paper will focus on the pros and cons of the Criticality Analysis method. Criticality Analysis (CA) is a method that rates outputs, sub-components and inputs to a function based on the ASIL rating of the function. Faller [2] proposed the use of CA in conjunction with IEC 61508 safety standard, and this author proposes that the CA can also be used in conjunction with ISO 26262. CA allows taking a function with any ASIL rating and breaking down the signal chain to develop safety requirements at each stage (see [2, 3]).
Technical Paper

Closed Loop Pressure Control System Requirements and Implementation

2011-04-12
2011-01-0391
Electro-hydraulic actuation has been used widely in automatic transmission designs. With greater demand for premium shift quality of automatic transmissions, higher pressure control accuracy of the transmission electro-hydraulic control system has become one of the main factors for meeting this growing demand. This demand has been the driving force for the development of closed loop pressure controls technology. This paper presents the further research done based upon a previously developed closed loop system. The focus for this research is on the system requirements, such as solenoid driver selection and system latency handling. Both spin-stand and test vehicle setups are discussed in detail. Test results for various configurations are given.
Technical Paper

Holistic Vehicle Energy Management - Moving Towards CAFE's Target

2011-04-12
2011-01-1014
EPA and NHTSA have harmonized Regulations for Greenhouse Gas (GHG) emissions and Corporate Average Fuel Economy (CAFE) for model year (MY) 2012-16, published on April 1st, 2010. This requirement applies to all passenger cars and light trucks. Therefore the reduction of CO₂ emissions will be a major challenge for the automotive industry in the coming years to achieve the targets (GHG & CAFE) of 250 g/mi CO₂ and 35.5 miles per gallon (mpg) for MY 2016. In addition to combustion engine improvements, vehicle energy management and operating strategies offer a huge potential to reduce CO₂ emissions through innovative electronic systems. The paper will show a possible implementation of a holistic vehicle energy management system including the operating strategy "Free wheeling." Starting from a top-down approach, we have developed operating strategies that offer the possibility to optimize the energy usage of the entire system.
Journal Article

Analysis of Pre-Crash Data Transferred over the Serial Data Bus and Utilized by the SDM-DS Module

2011-04-12
2011-01-0809
The primary function of an airbag control module is to detect crashes, discriminate and predict if a deployment is necessary, then deploy the restraint systems including airbags and where applicable, pretensioners. At General Motors (GM), the internal term for airbag control module is Sensing and Diagnostic Module (SDM). In the 1994 model year, GM introduced its SDM on some of its North American airbag-equipped vehicles. A secondary function of that SDM and all subsequent SDMs is to record crash related data. This data can include data regarding impact severity from internal accelerometers and pre-crash vehicle data from various chassis and powertrain modules. Previous researchers have addressed the accuracy of both the velocity change data, recorded by the SDM, and the pre-crash data, but the assessment of the timing of the pre-crash data has been limited to a single family of modules (Delphi SDM-G).
Journal Article

Sensor Data Fusion for Active Safety Systems

2010-10-19
2010-01-2332
Active safety systems will have a great impact in the next generation of vehicles. This is partly originated by the increasing consumer's interest for safety and partly by new traffic safety laws. Control actions in the vehicle are based on an extensive environment model which contains information about relevant objects in vehicle surroundings. Sensor data fusion integrates measurements from different surround sensors into this environment model. In order to avoid system malfunctions, high reliability in the interpretation of the situation, and therefore in the environment model, is essential. Hence, the main idea of data fusion is to make use of the advantages of using multiple sensors and different technologies in order to fulfill these requirements, which are especially high due to autonomous interventions in vehicle dynamics (e. g. automatic emergency braking).
Technical Paper

Ethanol Content Estimation in Flex Fuel Direct Injection Engines Using In-Cylinder Pressure Measurements

2010-04-12
2010-01-0166
Flexible fuel vehicles (FFVs) are able to operate on a blend of ethanol and gasoline in any volumetric concentration of up to 85% ethanol (93% in Brazil). The estimation of ethanol content is crucial for optimized and robust performance in such vehicles. Even if an ethanol sensor is utilized, an estimation scheme independent of the ethanol sensor measurement retains advantages in enhancing the reliability of ethanol estimation and allowing on-board diagnostics. It is well-known that an exhaust gas oxygen (EGO) sensor could be utilized to estimate the ethanol content, which exploits the difference in stoichiometric air-to-fuel ratio (SAFR) between ethanol (9.0) and gasoline (14.6). The SAFR-based ethanol estimation has been shown to be prone to large errors with mass air flow sensor bias and/or fuel injector shift.
Technical Paper

Braking Systems Creep Groan Noise: Detection and Evaluation

2009-05-19
2009-01-2103
“Creep groan” is a braking systems noise that is observed when a vehicle is starting to move from a stopped condition with brake pressure applied. Motion takes place when brake pressure is reduced while a motive force, such as an idling engine through an automatic transmission, or gravity due to the vehicle being on a slope, is present. The vibration causing the sound is commonly thought to result from friction force variation in stick-slip mode. Detection and evaluation of “creep groan” noise has been a challenge for NVH test groups. First, this sound typically is not purely tonal like the more common brake squeal, although ultimately it may produce a tonal subjective impression. In this work the authors study different methods that may be applied to “creep groan” detection and evaluation.
Technical Paper

Spray Pattern Recognition for Multi-Hole Gasoline Direct Injectors Using CFD Modeling

2009-04-20
2009-01-1488
This paper describes a correlation study on fuel spray pattern recognition of multi-hole injectors for gasoline direct injection (GDi) engines. Spray pattern is characterized by patternation length, which represents the distance of maximum droplet concentration from the axis of the injector. Five fuel injectors with different numbers and sizes of nozzle holes were considered in this study. Experimental data and CFD modeling results were used separately to develop regression models for spray patternation. These regressions predicted the influence of a number of injector operating and design parameters, including injection system operating pressure, valve lift, injector hole length-to-diameter ratio (L/d) and the orientation of the injector hole. The regression correlations provided a good fit with both experimental and CFD spray simulation results. Thus CFD offers a good complement to experimental validation during development efforts to meet a desired injector spray pattern.
Technical Paper

Closed Loop Pressure Control System Development for an Automatic Transmission

2009-04-20
2009-01-0951
This paper presents the development of a transmission closed loop pressure control system. The objective of this system is to improve transmission pressure control accuracy by employing closed-loop technology. The control system design includes both feed forward and feedback control. The feed forward control algorithm continuously learns solenoid P-I characteristics. The closed loop feedback control has a conventional PID control with multi-level gain selections for each control channel, as well as different operating points. To further improve the system performance, Robust Optimization is carried out to determine the optimal set of control parameters and controller hardware design factors. The optimized design is verified via an L18 experiment on spin dynamometer. The design is also tested on vehicle.
Journal Article

Energy-Efficient Air Conditioning Systems Utilizing Pneumatic Variable Compressors

2009-04-20
2009-01-0539
Air Conditioning systems with reheat reduction based for energy efficiency have generally been implemented with either electronic variable compressors through active stroke control or with fixed displacement compressors through modifying the cycling set point. The present work demonstrates a unique concept of achieving energy efficiency via cycling a pneumatic variable compressor at elevated set points. The energy efficiency of such a system approaches that of an electronic variable but significantly higher than that of a fixed displacement compressor system. The cost of the system, on the other hand, is substantially lower than that of an electronic compressor. Secondary benefits include a softer start than with a fixed compressor and a considerably simpler control scheme than that required by an electronic variable compressor.
Technical Paper

A Strategy to Partition Crash Data to Define Active-Safety Sensors and Product Solutions

2008-10-20
2008-21-0032
Both Crash-Avoidance and Pre-Crash active safety technologies are being developed to help reduce the number of crashes and minimize the severity of crashes. The root basis in the development of new and improved active safety technologies always begins with gaining further knowledge about crash kinds and causes. The dynamics of crashes are quite complex. The evolving precursor crash situation initiated in the Crash-Avoidance time-period will vary from the imminent crash situation in the Pre-Crash time-period. As such, in order to develop the appropriate requirements for both crash-avoidance and pre-crash technologies, they must be analyzed from their respective crash data. A data-driven methodology process has been developed which partitions the field data with a perspective to crash-avoidance and pre-crash.
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