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Journal Article

Prediction of Spray Behavior in Injected by Urea SCR Injector and the Reaction Products

In the urea SCR system, urea solution is injected by injector installed in the front stage of the SCR catalyst, and NOx can be purified on the SCR catalyst by using NH3 generated by the chemical reaction of urea. NH3 is produced by thermolysis of urea and hydrolysis of isocyanic acid after evaporation of water in the urea solution. But, biuret and cyanuric acid which may cause deposit are sometimes generated by the chemical reactions without generating NH3. Spray behavior and chemical reaction of urea solution injected into the tail-pipe are complicated. The purpose of this study is to reveal the spray behavior and NH3 generation process in the tail-pipe, and to construct the model capable of predicting those accurately. In this report, the impingement spray behavior is clarified by scattered light method in high temperature flow field. Liquid film adhering to the wall and deposit generated after evaporation of water from the liquid film are photographed by the digital camera.
Technical Paper

Chemical Kinetics Study on Ignition Characteristics of Biodiesel Surrogates

Methyl butanoate (MB) and methyl decanoate (MD) are surrogates for biodiesel fuels. According to computational results with their detailed reaction mechanisms, MB and MD indicate shorter ignition delays than long alkanes such as n-heptane and n-dodecane do at an initial temperature over 1000 K. The high ignitability of these methyl esters was computationally analyzed by means of contribution matrices proposed by some of the authors. Due to the high acidity of an α-H atom in a carbonyl compound, hydroperoxy radicals are generated out of the equilibrium between forward and backward reactions of O₂ addition to methyl ester radicals by the internal transfer of an α-H atom in the initial stage of an ignition process. Some of the hydroperoxy methyl ester radicals can generate OH to activate initial reactions. MB has an efficient CH₃O formation path via CH₃ generated by the β-scission of an MB radical which has a radical site on the α-C atom to the carbonyl group.
Technical Paper

Detailed Chemical Kinetic Modeling of Diesel Spray Combustion with Oxygenated Fuels

This paper confirms a structure for the soot formation process inside a burning diesel jet plume of oxygenated fuels. An explanation of how the soot formation process changes by the use of oxygenated fuel in comparison with that for using a conventional diesel fuel, and why oxygenated fuel drastically suppresses the soot formation has been derived from the chemical kinetic analysis. A detailed chemical kinetic mechanism, which is combined with various proposed chemical kinetic models including normal paraffinic hydrocarbon oxidation, oxygenated hydrocarbon oxidation, and poly-aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) formation, was developed in present study. The calculated results are presented to elucidate the influence of fuel mixture composition and fuel structure, especially relating to oxygenated fuels, on PAH formation. The analysis also provides a new insight into the initial soot formation process in terms of the temperature range of PAH formation.
Technical Paper

A Numerical Approach to Analyze the Power Transmitting Mechanisms of a Metal Pushing V-Belt Type CVT

Some theories on the behaviour of CVT using metal pushing V-belts have been recently drawn. However, our previous experiments did not well prove their prediction. A numerical model which can calculate all block motions of the belt was developed in this paper. Using this model, some steady states of power transmitting of CVT were calculated and compared with the previous experimental results. Satisfactory agreements were obtained between two results in all ratio. This model is effective to estimate the CVT response at steady states.
Technical Paper

A Study on a Metal Pushing V-Belt Type CVT (Part 4: Forces Act on Metal Blocks when the Speed Ratio is Changing)

Six forces act on the block of a metal pushing V-belt. Previously, we successfully measured these forces at steady states using devised blocks and a telemeter system. In this paper, six forces are measured using the same testing and measuring systems at transitional states where a speed ratio varies from low to high, or vice versa. The experimental results reveal that distributions of four forces at transitional states except normal and frictional forces between rings and blocks are different in shape from those at steady states.
Technical Paper

A Study on a Metal Pushing V-Belt Type CVT (Part 3: What Forces Act on Metal Blocks?)

Block compression force and ring tension of a metal pushing V-belt type CVT have been experimentally measured at steady states. The peculiar transmitting mechanisms for this type of belts has also been outlined based on the experimental results in the previous works. In this paper, other forces simultaneously acting on a block at steady states were measured using newly developed devised blocks. These forces are frictional force between blocks and rings, normal force between blocks and pulleys, frictional forces between blocks and pulleys in radial and tangential directions. The transmitting mechanisms for the metal pushing V-belt type CVT were drawn in detail based on new experimental data. The following conclusions are emphasized in the present work. (1) A cohesive point where the block coheres with the ring exists in the pulley having a larger pitch radius at all conditions. This is not dependent on speed ratio and transmitting torque.
Technical Paper

A Study of a Metal Pushing V-Belt Type CVT-Part 2: Compression Force Between Metal Blocks and Ring Tension

In this study, distributions of block compression force on the driving and driven pulleys were measured using a tiny load-cell inserted between two blocks and a telemeter system, under several constant speed ratios. Ring tension distributions were also measured using a specially devised block. From the experimental results, the following conclusions were drawn: (1) Block compression force distribution on the driving pulley is significantly different from that on the driven pulley. (2) Ring tension takes different value at each side of strings. It is considered that this phenomenon is caused by difference of saddle surface speed between two pulleys.
Technical Paper

A Study of a Metal Pushing V-Belt Type CVT-Part 1: Relation Between Transmitted Torque and Pulley Thrust

Transmitted torque, thrusts of driving and driven pulleys, and axial force between two pulleys were measured on a metal pushing V-belt type CVT. Thrust ratios between driving and driven pulleys at several different speed ratios were plotted with respect to torque ratio and compared with each other. It was found that the relation between thrust ratio and speed ratio was almost independent of rotational speed of the pulley and the maximum transmittable torque at a constant torque ratio. The thrust ratio is primarily a function of speed ratio. It also depends on torque ratio and coefficient of friction between blocks and a pulley. An empirical equation for pulley thrust balance was derived. The equation is expressed in an explicit form. It is so simple that it can be applicable for electronic control of CVT.