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Technical Paper

Measurement of Liquid Water Content for Supercooled Large Drop Conditions in the NRC’s Altitude Icing Wind Tunnel

2019-06-10
2019-01-2007
As a result of new regulations pertaining to the airworthiness of aircraft exposed to in-flight icing conditions where maximum water drop size is greater than 100 microns (referred to as Supercooled Large Droplet (SLD) conditions), updates are required to the test facilities and simulations that will enable manufactures to certify their products under these new rules. While a number of facilities report achieving some of the conditions specified in the new regulations, questions remain as to the suitability of the instrumentation used to measure the Liquid Water Content (LWC) and drop size distributions of the SLD icing cloud. This study aims to provide baseline LWC data through ice accretion measurement techniques on a NACA 0012 airfoil and rotating cylinders of varying diameters.
Technical Paper

Icing Test and Measurement Capabilities of the NRC’s Gas Turbine Laboratory

2019-06-10
2019-01-1943
The National Research Council’s Gas Turbine Laboratory provides industry leading icing facilities that allow manufacturers to develop, validate and certify new products for flight in adverse conditions. This paper shows how NRC measurement techniques are used across the facilities, and presents a literature-review of recently developed capabilities. The overview includes new details on some facilities, and future capabilities that are in development or planned for the near future. Methods developed at the NRC for characterizing inclement conditions are discussed and include the Isokinetic Probe, Particle Shadow Velocimetry, the Particle Detection Probe, and a size-binned real-time thermodynamic evaporation model.
Technical Paper

Thermo-Mechanical Fatigue Testing of Welded Tubes for Exhaust Applications

2018-04-03
2018-01-0090
Selected ferritic stainless steel sheets for exhaust applications were tested under thermo-mechanical fatigue (TMF) condition in the temperature range of 400-800 °C with partial constraint. Straight welded tubes were used as the testing coupons to withstand large compression without buckling, and to understand the effect of welding as well. Repeated tests confirmed the observed failure scenario for each material type. The hysteresis loop behaviors were also simulated using the mechanism-based integrated creep and fatigue theory (ICFT) model. Although more development work is needed, for quick material screening purpose this type of testing could be a very cost effective solution for materials and tube weld development for exhaust applications.
Technical Paper

Aluminum Extrusions for Automotive Crash Applications

2017-03-28
2017-01-1272
One of the main applications for aluminum extrusions in the automotive sector is crash structures including crash rails, crash cans, bumpers and structural body components. The objective is usually to optimize the energy absorption capability for a given structure weight. The ability to extrude thin wall multi-void extrusions contributes to this goal. However, the alloy used also plays a significant role in terms of the ability to produce the required geometry, strength - which to a large extent controls the energy absorption capability and the “ductility” or fracture behavior which controls the strain that can be applied locally during crush deformation before cracking. This paper describes results of a test program to examine the crush behavior of a range of alloys typically supplied for automotive applications as a function of processing parameters including artificial ageing and quench rate.
Technical Paper

Evaluation of Kinetics Process in CFD Model and Its Application in Ignition Process Analysis of a Natural Gas-Diesel Dual Fuel Engine

2017-03-28
2017-01-0554
Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model has been widely applied in internal combustion (IC) engine research. The integration of chemical kinetic model with CFD provides an opportunity for researchers to investigate the detailed chemical reactions for better understanding the combustion process of IC engines. However, the simulation using CFD has generally focused on the examination of primary parameters, such as temperature and species distributions. The detailed investigation on chemical reactions is limited. This paper presents the development of a post-processing tool capable of calculating the rate of production (ROP) of interested species with the known temperature, pressure, and concentration of each species in each cell simulated using CONVERGE-SAGE CFD model.
Journal Article

Characterization of the Ultrafine and Black Carbon Emissions from Different Aviation Alternative Fuels

2015-09-15
2015-01-2562
This study reports gaseous and particle (ultrafine and black carbon (BC)) emissions from a turbofan engine core on standard Jet A-1 and three alternative fuels, including 100% hydrothermolysis synthetic kerosene with aromatics (CH-SKA), 50% Hydro-processed Esters and Fatty Acid paraffinic kerosene (HEFA-SPK), and 100% Fischer Tropsch (FT-SPK). Gaseous emissions from this engine for various fuels were similar but significant differences in particle emissions were observed. During the idle condition, it was observed that the non-refractory mass fraction in the emitted particles were higher than during higher engine load condition. This observation is consistent for all test fuels. The 100% CH-SKA fuel was found to have noticeable reductions in BC emissions when compared to Jet A-1 by 28-38% by different BC instruments (and 7% in refractory particle number (PN) emissions) at take-off condition.
Technical Paper

Development and Application of an Impedance-Based Instrument for Measuring the Liquid Fraction and Thickness of Ice Crystal Accretions

2015-06-15
2015-01-2134
Ice crystals ingested by a jet engine at high altitude can partially melt and then accrete within the forward stages of the compressor, potentially causing performance loss, damage and/or flameout. Recent research into this ice crystal icing (ICI) phenomenon conducted at the National Research Council of Canada suggests that the liquid water content vliq of an accretion significantly affects the accretion's susceptibility to erosion by ice crystals, and therefore accretion growth. This paper describes the development and application of an instrument for measuring vliq, potentially providing a method for correlating erosion behavior (e.g. as ductile or brittle) and properties. The instrument measures the complex admittance Y* of a mixed-phase deposit bridging a pair of electrodes, which is modeled as a resistor and capacitor in parallel, and calculates the deposit's relative permittivity εr from the capacitance.
Technical Paper

Simulation of Ice Particle Melting in the NRCC RATFac Mixed-Phase Icing Tunnel

2015-06-15
2015-01-2107
Ice crystals ingested by a jet engine at high altitude can partially melt and then accrete within the compressor, potentially causing performance loss, damage and/or flameout. Several studies of this ice crystal icing (ICI) phenomenon conducted in the RATFac (Research Altitude Test Facility) altitude chamber at the National Research Council of Canada (NRCC) have shown that liquid water is required for accretion. CFD-based tools for ICI must therefore be capable of predicting particle melting due to heat transfer from the air warmed by compression and possibly also due to impact with warm surfaces. This paper describes CFD simulations of particle melting and evaporation in the RATFac icing tunnel for the former mechanism, conducted using a Lagrangian particle tracking model combined with a stochastic random walk approach to simulate turbulent dispersion. Inter-phase coupling of heat and mass transfer is achieved with the particle source-in-cell method.
Journal Article

Effect of Chill Parameters on the Residual Strain in Cast 319 Aluminum Alloy: A Neutron Diffraction Study

2014-04-01
2014-01-0836
The demand for light weight vehicles continues to stimulate extensive research into the development of light weight casting alloys and optimization of their manufacturing processes. Of primary relevance are Aluminum (Al) and Magnesium (Mg) based alloys, which have successfully replaced selected iron based castings in automobiles. However, optimization of as-cast microstructure, processing and performance remains a challenge for some Al-based alloys. In this context, placement of chills in castings has been frequently used to locally manipulate the solidification conditions and microstructure of a casting. In this work, the effect of using an active copper chill on the residual strain profile of a sand-cast B319 aluminum alloy was investigated. Wedge-shaped castings were produced with three different cooling conditions: copper plate chill, copper pipe with cooling water and no chill (baseline).
Journal Article

Residual Stress Mapping along the Cylinder Bores of Al Alloy Engine Blocks Subjected to Production Solution Heat Treatment Schedule

2014-04-01
2014-01-0837
The development of an optimized heat treatment schedule, with the aim of maximizing strength and relieving tensile residual stress, is important to prevent in-service cylinder distortion in Al alloy engine blocks containing cast-in gray iron liners. However, to effectively optimize the engine block heat treatment schedule, the current solutionizing parameters must be analyzed and compared to the as-cast condition to establish a baseline for residual stress relief. In this study, neutron diffraction was carried out to measure the residual stress along the aluminum cylinder bridge following solution heat treatment. The stresses were measured in the hoop, radial and axial orientations and compared to a previous measured as-cast (TSR) engine block. The results suggest that solution heat treatment using the current production parameters partially relieved tensile residual stress in the Al cylinder bridge, with stress relief being more effective near the bottom of the cylinder.
Journal Article

Analysis of Residual Strain Profiles in Distorted Aluminum Engine Blocks by Neutron Diffraction

2013-04-08
2013-01-0171
In recent years, light weight components have been an area of significant importance in automotive design. This has led to the replacement of steel and cast iron with aluminum alloys for many automotive components. For instance, Al-Si alloys have successfully replaced nodular and gray cast iron in the production of large automotive components such as engine blocks. However, excessive residual strain along the cylinder bores of these engine blocks may result in cylinder distortion during engine operation. Therefore, in this study, neutron diffraction was used to evaluate residual strain along the aluminum cylinder bridge and the gray cast iron liners of distorted and undistorted engine blocks. The strains were measured in the hoop, radial, and axial orientations. The results suggest that the residual strain along the aluminum cylinder bridge of the distorted engine block was tensile for all three measured components.
Technical Paper

Failure Mechanisms and Damage Model of Ductile Cast Iron under Low-Cycle Fatigue Conditions

2013-04-08
2013-01-0391
Strain-controlled low-cycle fatigue (LCF) experiments were conducted on ductile cast iron at total strain rates of 1.2/min, 0.12/min and 0.012/min in a temperature range of RT ~ 800°C. An integrated creep-fatigue (ICF) life prediction framework is proposed, which embodies a deformation mechanism based constitutive model and a thermomechanical damage model. The constitutive model is based on the decomposition of inelastic deformation into plasticity and creep mechanisms, which can describe both rate-independent and rate-dependent cyclic responses under wide strain rate and temperature conditions. The damage model takes into consideration of i) plasticity-induced fatigue, ii) intergranular embrittlement, iii) creep and iv) oxidation. Each damage form is formulated based on the respective physical mechanism/strain.
Journal Article

Evaluation of a Gasoline Particulate Filter to Reduce Particle Emissions from a Gasoline Direct Injection Vehicle

2012-09-10
2012-01-1727
Gaseous compounds, particle number and size distribution measurements on a gasoline direct injection (GDI) vehicle and a port fuel injection (PFI) vehicle were conducted over the U.S. Federal Test Procedure 75 (FTP-75) and US06 Supplemental Federal Test Procedure (US06) on Tier 2 certification gasoline (E0) and a 10% by volume ethanol (E10). Overall the GDI test vehicle was observed to have lower fuel consumption than the PFI test vehicle by 6% and 3% for the FTP-75 and US06 drive cycles, respectively. When using E10, this GDI vehicle had a better fuel consumption than the PFI vehicle by 7% and 5% for the FTP-75 and US06 drive cycles, respectively. For particle emissions, the solid particle number emission rates for the GDI, equipped with a 3-way catalyst in its original equipment manufacturer configuration (i.e., stock GDI), were 10 and 31 times higher than the PFI vehicle for the FTP-75 and US06 drive cycles, respectively.
Journal Article

Neutron Diffraction Study on Residual Stress in Aluminum Engine Blocks Following Machining and Service Testing

2012-04-16
2012-01-0188
Development of lightweight alloys suitable for automobile applications has been of great importance to the automotive industry in recent years. The use of 319 type aluminum alloy in the production of gasoline engine blocks is an example of this shift towards light alloys for large automobile components. However, excessive residual stress along the cylinder bores of these engine blocks may cause problems during engine operation. Therefore, in this study, neutron diffraction was used to evaluate residual stresses along the aluminum cylinder bridge and the gray cast iron liners. The strains were measured in the hoop, radial, and axial orientations, while stresses were subsequently calculated using generalized Hooke's law. The results suggest that the residual stress magnitude for the aluminum cylinder bridge was tensile for all three measured components and gradually increased with cylinder depth towards the bottom of the cylinder.
Technical Paper

Hot Forming of 7075 Aluminium Alloy Tubes to Produce Complex and Strong Components

2012-04-16
2012-01-0539
Lightweight tubular products offering enhanced stiffness and strength have always been of major concern for transportation and recreational applications. Hence, industries have turned to complex-shaped tubes to increase product performance and reduce energy costs. High-performance aluminum alloys, like 7075 for instance, have good mechanical properties such as high strength, but low formability at ambient temperature. Fortunately, hot tensile tests on 7075 samples have yielded an increase in formability with temperature. Therefore, testing has recently been launched at the Aluminum Technology Center to develop a new product application. More precisely, a 1,000-ton hydraulic press was equipped with +600°C heating plates and fitted with a bicycle handlebar mold. The plates provide 10 separate heating zones that can be adjusted independently. A thermo-mechanical model was also developed using LS-DYNA to determine tube temperatures around the heating zones.
Technical Paper

Gaseous and Particle Emissions from a Turbo-Jet Engine Operating on Alternative Fuels at Simulated Altitudes

2011-10-18
2011-01-2597
Gaseous and particle emission assessments on a 1.15 kN-thrust turbojet engine were conducted at five altitudes in an altitude chamber with Jet A-1 fuel, pure Fischer Tropsch (FT), and two mixed fuels of JP-8 with FT or Camelina-based hydro-processed jet fuels. In general, lower emissions in CO₂, NOx, and particle number as well as higher emissions in CO and THC were observed at higher altitudes compared to lower altitudes. These observations, which were similar for all test fuels, were attributed to the reduced combustion efficiency and temperature at higher altitudes. The use of alternative fuels resulted in lower CO₂ emissions, ranging from 0.7% to 1.7% for 50% to 100% synthetic fuel in the fuel mixture at various altitudes. In terms of CO, the use of 100% FT fuel resulted in CO reduction up to 9.7% at 1525 m altitude and up to 5.9% at 9145 m altitude.
Technical Paper

Development of a Unique Icing Spray System for a New Facility for Certification of Large Turbofan Engines

2011-06-13
2011-38-0099
The Global Aerospace Centre for Icing and Environmental Research (GLACIER) facility has been constructed in Thompson, Manitoba, Canada. This project involves the construction and operation of a facility which will provide icing certification tests for large gas turbine engines, as well as performance, endurance and other gas turbine engine qualification testing. MDS Aero Support, in partnership with the National Research Council of Canada (NRC), Pratt and Whitney Canada, and Rolls Royce Canada, has developed a globally unique outdoor engine test and certification facility. The prime purpose of this facility is for icing certification of aviation gas turbine engines, initially for Rolls-Royce and Pratt & Whitney, two of the three largest gas turbine manufacturers in the world.
Technical Paper

Mechanical Property Behaviour of Rheocast 319 Alloys with and without Iron Additions

2011-04-12
2011-01-1089
Cast aluminum-silicon alloys have witnessed a notable increase in use in the automotive and transport industry. The ability of these alloys to be easily cast into complex shapes coupled with a favorable strength-to-weight ratio has given them an edge over cast irons. One particular area of casting which has received further and further attention is the area of semi-solid casting, where an alloy casting is prepared as slurry with flow properties that resemble both solid and liquid. In the present work, the effects of iron additions on the mechanical properties of a 319 semi-solid alloy were studied. This alloy was prepared using the SEED process, as developed by Rio Tinto Alcan in collaboration with the Aluminum Technology Centre of NRC Canada. The SEED (Swirled Enthalpy Equilibration Device) process is a novel rheocasting method which yields a semi-solid slurry from the mechanical stirring and cooling of the molten aluminum.
Journal Article

Analysis of Residual Stress Profiles in the Cylinder Web Region of an As-Cast V6 Al Engine Block with Cast-In Fe Liners Using Neutron Diffraction

2011-04-12
2011-01-0036
Continuous efforts to develop a lightweight alloy suitable for the most demanding applications in automotive industry resulted in a number of advanced aluminum (Al) and magnesium alloys and manufacturing routes. One example of this is the application of 319 Al alloy for production of 3.6L V6 gasoline engine blocks. Aluminum is sand cast around Fe-liner cylinder inserts, prior to undergoing the T7 heat treatment process. One of the critical factors determining the quality of the final product is the type, level, and profile of residual stresses along the Fe liners (or extent of liner distortion) that are always present in a cast component. In this study, neutron diffraction was used to characterize residual stresses along the Al and the Fe liners in the web region of the cast engine block. The strains were measured both in Al and Fe in hoop, radial, and axial orientations. The stresses were subsequently determined using generalized Hooke's law.
Technical Paper

Effects of Cetane Number, Aromatic Content and 90% Distillation Temperature on HCCI Combustion of Diesel Fuels

2010-10-25
2010-01-2168
The effects of cetane number, aromatics content and 90% distillation temperature (T90) on HCCI combustion were investigated using a fuel matrix designed by the Fuels for Advanced Combustion Engines (FACE) Working Group of the Coordinating Research Council (CRC). The experiments were conducted in a single-cylinder, variable compression ratio, Cooperative Fuel Research (CFR) engine. The fuels were atomized and partially vaporized in the intake manifold. The engine was operated at a relative air/fuel ratio of 1.2, 60% exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) and 900 rpm. The compression ratio was varied over the range of 9:1 to 15:1 to optimize the combustion phasing for each fuel, keeping other operating parameters constant. The results show that cetane number and T90 distillation temperature significantly affected the combustion phasing. Cetane number was clearly found to have the strongest effect.
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