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Technical Paper

Results of Breadboard Tests Withan Integrated CO2, Humidity and Thermal Control System

2003-07-07
2003-01-2348
Membrane gas absorption and desorption (MGA/MGD) for the removal of CO2 in manned spacecraft or other enclosed environment is subject of study by Stork and TNO for many years. The system is based on the combination of membrane separation and gas absorption. Advantage of this technology is that the system not only can be used to remove the carbon dioxide but also to control the relative humidity and temperature. Absorption of moisture and heat is achieved by cooling the absorption liquid below the dewpoint temperature of the gas stream. From the start in 1995, the Crew Transfer Vehicle is used as a basis for the design (1,2). Compared to the planned air conditioning system, consisting of a condensing heat exchanger, LiOH cartridges and a water evaporator assembly, MGA/MGD shows advantage in volume, mass and power consumption. The absorption liquid circulates through the spacecraft thermal control loop, replacing the coolant water.
Technical Paper

MELFI Cooling Performance Characterization and Verification

2000-07-10
2000-01-2308
The Minus Eighty (Degrees Celsius) Laboratory Freezer for the International Space Station (MELFI) is one of the freezers developed by ESA on behalf of NASA. Peculiar requirements for that facility are the long-term storage at low temperature, the rapid freezing of specimen to the required temperature, the large cold volume (300 l) and the low power consumption. To verify those requirements before the manufacturing of the flight hardware, a dedicated test campaign was performed on a ground model. This paper will start with a system overview, showing the main features of MELFI. The test set-up as well as their results will be presented and discussed, with particular emphasis on the methods used to predict the on-orbit (0-gravity) behaviour, by avoiding the sample internal convection and dewar internal convection during the test execution.
Technical Paper

Integrated CO2, Humidity and Thermal Control by Membrane Gas Absorption

2000-07-10
2000-01-2353
Membrane gas absorption for the control of CO2 in manned spacecrafts is studied by Stork and TNO. Membrane Gas Absorption (MGA) is based on the combination of membrane separation and gas absorption. The cabin air of a spacecraft is fed along one side of a hydrophobic membrane. The air diffuses through the membrane and the CO2 is selectively absorbed by an absorption liquid. Experiments showed that the MGA system can not only be used for the removal of the carbon dioxide but also can be applied to control the relative humidity and temperature of the cabin atmosphere. Absorption of moisture and heat is achieved by cooling the absorption liquid below the dewpoint temperature of the gas stream. This paper deals with the design aspects of a MGA system for combined CO2, humidity and thermal control aboard the Crew Transfer Vehicle. Furthermore, design data are presented for a similar system aboard the International Space Station.
Technical Paper

Integrated CO2 and Humidity Control by Membrane Gas Absorption

1997-07-14
972560
In a harmonized ESA/NIVR project the performance of membrane gas absorption for the simultaneous removal of carbon dioxide and moisture has been determined experimentally at carbon dioxide and humidity concentration levels representative for spacecraft conditions. Performance data at several experimental conditions have been collected. Removal of moisture can be controlled by the temperature of the absorption liquid. Removal of carbon dioxide is slightly affected by the temperature of the absorption liquid. Based on these measurements a conceptual design for a carbon dioxide and humidity control system for the Crew Transport Vehicle (CTV) is made. For the regeneration step in this design a number of assumptions have been made. The multifunctionality of membrane gas absorption makes it possible to combine a number of functions in one compact system.
Technical Paper

First Use of ECOSIM in Air Management Systems

1992-07-01
921292
ECOSIM is a software tool for the simulation of Environmental Control and Life Support (ECLS) systems which has been developed for the European Space Agency. A preliminary model of the Hermes Air Management System has been developed during the ECOSIM testing in order to assess the functionality of the software and to verify its results with those obtained from previous simulation tools. The model represents the Hermes cabin with its crew and it includes submodels for the sub-systems performing the following functions: Temperature and Humidity Control. Total Pressure and Composition Control. Air revitalisation. The interactions between these different subsystem are taken into account by the model, while many of the previous simulations made assumptions to decouple the different subsystems (e.g: a constant cabin temperature has been assumed during cabin depressurization transients, to decouple the pressure control section from the air conditioning section).
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