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Advanced NOx Aftertreatment System And Controls For On-Highway Heavy Duty Diesel Engines

This paper describes a NOx aftertreatment system and control strategy for heavy-duty diesel engines to achieve US EPA 2010 emissions regulations. The NOx aftertreatment system comprises of a fuel reformer catalyst, a LNT catalyst, and a SCR catalyst. The only reductant required to operate this system is diesel fuel; hence, no urea infrastructure is required to support this approach. The fuel reformer is used to generate reformate which is a combination of hydrogen, carbon monoxide and unburned hydrocarbons. This reformate provides a more efficient feedstock to improve LNT NOx regeneration efficiency. Engine out NOx is reduced using a two-step process. First, NOx is stored in the LNT catalyst during lean operation. During rich operation, portions of the stored NOx are converted to nitrogen and ammonia. Next, the ammonia released from the LNT is captured by the downstream SCR catalyst. The stored ammonia is further used to reduce the NOx that slips past the LNT catalyst.