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Technical Paper

Engine Braking: A Perspective in Terms of Brake Power

2019-01-09
2019-26-0288
Engine braking is a supplemental retarding technology in addition to foundational friction brakes in commercial vehicles. This technology is in use in Europe & Americas for several decades now. In engine braking, the engine acts as a compressor, thus producing the required braking power. The braking power is generated by either reducing the volumetric efficiency or increasing the pressure difference across the cylinder. This is usually achieved by means of exhaust valve lift modulation. There are dominantly two types of engine brakes viz. bleeder brake and compression release brake. The present work uses GT-Power® model to study the braking performance of a 4-cylinder, medium duty diesel engine at different engine RPMs and valve lifts. The work brings out a comprehensive understanding of different lift events and their effects on braking performance.
Technical Paper

Quantification of Diesel Engine Vibration Using Cylinder Deactivation for Exhaust Temperature Management and Recipe for Implementation in Commercial Vehicles

2018-04-03
2018-01-1284
Commercial vehicles require continual improvements in order to meet fuel emission standards, improve diesel aftertreatment system performance and optimize vehicle fuel economy. Aftertreatment systems, used to remove engine NOx, are temperature dependent. Variable valve actuation in the form of cylinder deactivation (CDA) has been shown to manage exhaust temperatures to the aftertreatment system during low load operation (i.e., under 3-4 bar BMEP). During cylinder deactivation mode, a diesel engine can have higher vibration levels when compared to normal six cylinder operation. The viability of CDA needs to be implemented in a way to manage noise, vibration and harshness (NVH) within acceptable ranges for today’s commercial vehicles and drivelines. A heavy duty diesel engine (inline 6 cylinder) was instrumented to collect vibration data in a dynamometer test cell.
Technical Paper

Effect of Intake Valve Profile Modulation on Passenger Car Fuel Consumption

2018-04-03
2018-01-0379
Variable valve actuation is a focus to improve fuel efficiency for passenger car engines. Various means to implement early and late intake valve closing (E/LIVC) at lower load operating conditions is investigated. The study uses GT Power to simulate on E/LIVC on a 2.5 L gasoline engine, in-line four cylinder, four valve per cylinder engine to evaluate different ways to achieve Atkinson cycle performance. EIVC and LIVC are proven methods to reduce the compression-to-expansion ratio of the engine at part load and medium load operation. Among the LIVC strategies, two non-traditional intake valve lift profiles are investigated to understand their impact on reduction of fuel consumption at low engine loads. Both the non-traditional lift profiles retain the same maximum lift as a normal intake valve profile (Otto-cycle) unlike a traditional LIVC profile (Atkinson cycle) which needs higher maximum lift.
Technical Paper

Frictional Differences between Rolling and Sliding Interfaces for Passenger Car Switching Roller Finger Followers

2018-04-03
2018-01-0382
The demand for improving fuel economy in passenger cars is continuously increasing. Eliminating energy losses within the engine is one method of achieving fuel economy improvement. Frictional energy losses account for a noticeable portion of the overall efficiency of an engine. Valvetrain friction, specifically at the camshaft interface, is one area where potential for friction reduction is evident. Several factors can impact the friction at the camshaft interface. Some examples include: camshaft lobe profile, rocker arm interface geometry, valve spring properties, material properties, oil temperature, and oil pressure. This paper discusses the results of a series of tests that experimented the changes in friction that take place as these factors are altered. The impact of varying testing conditions such as oil pressure and oil temperature was evaluated throughout the duration of the testing and described herein.
Technical Paper

Cylinder Deactivation for Increased Engine Efficiency and Aftertreatment Thermal Management in Diesel Engines

2018-04-03
2018-01-0384
Diesel engine cylinder deactivation (CDA) can be used to reduce petroleum consumption and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions of the global freight transportation system. Heavy duty trucks require complex exhaust aftertreatment (A/T) in order to meet stringent emission regulations. Efficient reduction of engine-out emissions require a certain A/T system temperature range, which is achieved by thermal management via control of engine exhaust flow and temperature. Fuel efficient thermal management is a significant challenge, particularly during cold start, extended idle, urban driving, and vehicle operation in cold ambient conditions. CDA results in airflow reductions at low loads. Airflow reductions generally result in higher exhaust gas temperatures and lower exhaust flow rates, which are beneficial for maintaining already elevated component temperatures. Airflow reductions also reduce pumping work, which improves fuel efficiency.
Technical Paper

Innovative Design - Route to Functionally Graded Structures

2017-01-10
2017-26-0157
Functionally graded materials enable structures to have distribution of different properties (physical, thermal, electrical, mechanical, etc.) across its volume; achievable via material/ design/ process engineering. These functionally graded materials can find an application in systems which demand localized variation or enhancement in properties in different regions of the same component. In this paper, we focus on the potential ways of designing functionally graded polymer composite structure by injection molding process. Advanced mold designs for injection molding process can be effectively used to manufacture the functionally graded structures. Innovative design approach has been explored to control the distribution of the filler content /orientation to impart distinctive properties across the cross section / geometry without affecting the bulk properties.
Technical Paper

Light Weight Structures - Structural Analysis for Weight Optimization and Joining Techniques of Dissimilar Materials

2016-04-05
2016-01-1394
Light weight structures give significant advantages to products in the Industrial sector. Component weight-saving plays a major role in improving the efficiency and performance of assembled systems. The introduction of lighter materials into products using dissimilar material joining techniques can create more weight savings and leads to lighter structures. Structural optimization is another method to optimize the material layout without affecting overall performance of the product. This paper discusses the methods to create lighter structures by the introduction of lighter materials in structures and structural optimization methods. Lighter materials are introduced in the structure using dissimilar material joining techniques. Joining processes such as thermal shrink-fit and mechanical press-fit are useful for metal to metal components. Similarly, adhesively bonded joints are useful for both metal and non-metal (plastics and composites) components.
Technical Paper

Downspeeding and Supercharging a Diesel Passenger Car for Increased Fuel Economy

2012-04-16
2012-01-0704
The effects of downspeeding and supercharging a passenger car diesel engine were studied through laboratory investigation and vehicle simulation. Changes in the engine operating range, transmission gearing, and shift schedule resulted in improved fuel consumption relative to the baseline turbocharged vehicle while maintaining performance and drivability metrics. A shift schedule optimization technique resulted in fuel economy gains of up to 12% along with a corresponding reduction in transmission shift frequency of up to 55% relative to the baseline turbocharged configuration. First gear acceleration, top gear passing, and 0-60 mph acceleration of the baseline turbocharged vehicle were retained for the downsped supercharged configuration.
Video

Model-Based Approach to Estimate Fuel Savings from Series Hydraulic Hybrid Vehicle: Model Development and Validation

2011-12-05
A simulation framework with a validated system model capable of estimating fuel consumption is a valuable tool in analysis and design of the hybrid vehicles. In particular, the framework can be used for (1) benchmarking the fuel economy achievable from alternate hybrid powertrain technologies, (2) investigating sensitivity of fuel savings with respect to design parameters (for example, component sizing), and (3) evaluating the performance of various supervisory control algorithms for energy management. Presenter Chinmaya Patil, Eaton Corporation
Technical Paper

Final Tier 4 Emission Solution Using An Aftertreatment System With A Fuel Reformer, LNT, DPF And Optional SCR

2011-09-13
2011-01-2197
Diesel exhaust aftertreatment systems are required for meeting Final Tier 4 emission regulations. This paper addresses an aftertreatment system designed to meet the Final Tier 4 emission standards for nonroad vehicle markets. The aftertreatment system consists of a fuel dosing system, mixing elements, fuel vaporizer, fuel reformer, lean NOx trap (LNT), diesel particulate filter (DPF), and an optional selective catalytic reduction (SCR) catalyst. Aftertreatment system performance, both with and without the SCR, was characterized in an engine dynamometer test cell, using a 4.5 liter, pre-production diesel engine. The engine out NOx nominally ranged between 1.6 and 2.0 g/kW-hr while all operating modes ranged between 1.2 and 2.8 g/kW-hr. The engine out particulate matter was calibrated to approximately 0.1 g/kW-hr for various power ratings. Three engine power ratings of 104 kW, 85 kW and 78 kW were evaluated.
Technical Paper

Model-Based Approach to Estimate Fuel Savings from Series Hydraulic Hybrid Vehicle: Model Development and Validation

2011-09-13
2011-01-2274
A simulation framework with a validated system model capable of estimating fuel consumption is a valuable tool in analysis and design of the hybrid vehicles. In particular, the framework can be used for (1) benchmarking the fuel economy achievable from alternate hybrid powertrain technologies, (2) investigating sensitivity of fuel savings with respect to design parameters (for example, component sizing), and (3) evaluating the performance of various supervisory control algorithms for energy management. This paper describes such a simulation framework that can be used to predict fuel economy of series hydraulic hybrid vehicle for any specified driver demand schedule (drive cycle), developed in MATLAB/Simulink. The key components of the series hydraulic hybrid vehicle are modeled using a combination of first principles and empirical data. A simplified driver model is included to follow the specified drive cycle.
Journal Article

Aftertreatment System Performance of a Fuel Reformer, LNT and SCR System Meeting EPA 2010 Emissions Standards on a Heavy-Duty Vehicle

2010-10-05
2010-01-1942
Diesel exhaust aftertreatment systems are required for meeting both EPA 2010 and final Tier 4 emission regulations. This paper addresses aftertreatment system performance of a fuel reformer, lean NOx trap (LNT) and selective catalytic reduction (SCR) system designed to meet the EPA 2010 emission standards for an on-highway heavy-duty vehicle. The aftertreatment system consists of a fuel dosing system, mixing elements, fuel reformer, LNT, diesel particulate filter (DPF), and SCR for meeting NOx and particulate emissions. System performance was characterized in an engine dynamometer test cell, using a development, 13L, heavy-duty engine. The catalyst performance was evaluated using degreened catalysts. Test results show that system performance met the EPA 2010 emission standards under a range of test conditions that were reflective of actual vehicle operation.
Technical Paper

Preliminary Numerical Analysis of Valve Fatigue in a Checkball Pump for Driveline Applications

2010-10-05
2010-01-2008
Recent studies have shown that hydraulic hybrid drivelines can significantly improve fuel savings for medium weight vehicles on stop-start drive cycles. In a series hydraulic hybrid (SHH) architecture, the conventional mechanical driveline is replaced with a hydraulic driveline that decouples vehicle speed from engine speed. In an effort to increase the design space, this paper explores the use of a fixed displacement checkball piston pump in an SHH driveline. This paper identifies the potential life-limiting components of a fixed displacement checkball piston pump and examines the likelihood of surface fatigue in the check valves themselves. Numerical analysis in ABAQUS software suggests that under worst case operating conditions, cyclic pressure loading will result in low-cycle plastic deformation of check valve surfaces.
Technical Paper

Simulation and Experimental Study of Torque Vectoring on Vehicle Handling and Stability

2009-12-13
2009-28-0062
This paper discusses the effect of torque vectoring differential on improving vehicle handling and stability performance. The torque vectoring concept has been analyzed. The vehicle discussed in this paper is an AWD vehicle with torque vectoring differential in the rear and a torque biasing center differential. First, simulation results with vehicle model in CarSim® and torque vectoring control algorithm in Matlab®/Simulink® is discussed. Then, experimental results for vehicle tested at winter and summer test facility is presented. Both simulation and experimental results demonstrate the effectiveness of torque vectoring differential on vehicle handling & stability.
Technical Paper

Hardware-In-the-Loop (HIL) Modeling and Simulation for Diesel Aftertreatment Controls Devlopment

2009-10-06
2009-01-2928
This paper addresses Hardware-In-the-Loop modeling and simulation for Diesel aftertreatment controls system development. Lean NOx Trap (LNT) based aftertreatment system is an efficient way to reduce NOx emission from diesel engines. From control system perspective, the main challenge in aftertreatment system is to predict temperature at various locations and estimate the stored NOx in LNT. Accurate estimation of temperatures and NOx stored in the LNT will result in an efficient system control with less fuel penalty while still maintaining the emission requirements. The optimization of the controls will prolong the lifespan of the system by avoiding overheating the catalysts, and slow the progressive process of component aging. Under real world conditions, it is quite difficult and costly to test the performance of a such complex controller by using only vehicle tests and engine cells.
Journal Article

Performance of a Fuel Reformer, LNT and SCR Aftertreatment System Following 500 LNT Desulfation Events

2009-10-06
2009-01-2835
An advanced exhaust aftertreatment system is characterized following end-of-life catalyst aging to meet final Tier 4 off-highway emission requirements. This system consists of a fuel dosing system, mixing elements, fuel reformer, lean NOx trap (LNT), diesel particulate filter (DPF), and a selective catalytic reduction (SCR) catalyst. The fuel reformer is used to generate hydrogen (H2) and carbon monoxide (CO) from injected diesel fuel. These reductants are used to regenerate and desulfate the LNT catalyst. NOx emissions are reduced using the combination of the LNT and SCR catalysts. During LNT regeneration, ammonia (NH3) is intentionally released from the LNT and stored on the downstream SCR catalyst to further reduce NOx that passed through the LNT catalyst. This paper addresses system durability as the catalysts were aged to 500 desulfation events using an off-highway diesel engine.
Technical Paper

Multi-Objective Design Optimization Using a Damage Material Model Applied to Light Weighting a Formula SAE Car Suspension Component

2009-04-20
2009-01-0348
The Mississippi State University Formula SAE race car upright was optimized using radial basis function metamodels and an internal state variable (ISV) plasticity damage material model. The weight reduction of the upright was part of a goal to reduce the weight of the vehicle by 25 percent. Using an optimization routine provided an upright design that is lighter that helps to improve vehicle fuel economy, acceleration, and handling. Finite element (FE) models of the upright were produced using quadratic tetrahedral elements. Using tetrahedral elements provided a quick way to produce the multiple FE models of the upright required for the multi-objective optimization. A design of experiments was used to determine how many simulations were required for the optimization. The loads for the simulations included braking, acceleration, and corning loads seen by the car under track conditions.
Journal Article

Transient On-Road Emission Reduction of an LNT + SCR Aftertreatment System

2008-10-07
2008-01-2641
An LNT + SCR diesel aftertreatment system was developed in order to meet the 2010 US HD EPA on-road, and tier 4 US HD EPA off-road emission standards. This system consists of a fuel reformer (REF), lean NOx trap (LNT), catalyzed diesel particulate filter (DPF), and selective catalytic reduction (SCR) catalyst arranged in series to reduce tailpipe nitrogen oxides (NOx) and particulate matter (PM). This system utilizes a REF to produce hydrogen (H2), carbon monoxide (CO) and heat to regenerate the LNT, desulfate the LNT, and actively regenerate the DPF. The NOx stored on the LNT is reduced by the H2 and CO generated in the REF converting it to nitrogen (N2) and ammonia (NH3). NH3, which is normally an undesired byproduct of LNT regeneration, is stored in the downstream SCR which is utilized to further reduce NOx that passes through the LNT. Engine exhaust PM is filtered and trapped by the DPF reducing the tailpipe PM emissions.
Journal Article

NOx Performance of an LNT+SCR System Designed to Meet EPA 2010 Emissions: Results of Engine Dynamometer Emission Tests

2008-10-07
2008-01-2642
The paper covers the NOx performance evaluation of an LNT + SCR system designed to meet the 2010 on-highway heavy-duty (HD) US EPA emission standards. The system combines a fuel reformer catalyst (REF), lean NOx trap (LNT), diesel particulate filter (DPF), and selective catalytic reduction (SCR) in series, to reduce engine-out NOx and PM. System NOx reduction performance was verified in an engine dynamometer test cell, using a 2007 7.6L medium-duty engine. System NOx performance was characterized using fresh LNT and SCR along with hydrothermal aged LNT and fresh SCR. Test results show levels consistent with EPA 2010 limits under various test conditions. Catalysts performance was characterized at eight steady engine-operating conditions (A100, B50, B75, A75, B100, C100, C75, C50, across a 13-mode Supplemental Emission Test (SET), and an on-highway Heavy Duty Federal Test Procedure (HD-FTP).
Technical Paper

Advanced NOx Aftertreatment System Performance Following 150 LNT Desulfation Events

2008-06-23
2008-01-1541
An advanced exhaust aftertreatment system is being developed using a fuel dosing system, mixing elements, fuel reformer, lean NOx trap (LNT), diesel particulate filter (DPF) and a selective catalytic reduction (SCR) catalyst arranged in series for both on- and off- highway diesel engines to meet the upcoming emissions regulations. This system utilizes a fuel reformer to generate hydrogen (H2) and carbon monoxide (CO) from injected diesel fuel. These reductants are used to regenerate and desulfate the LNT catalyst. NOx emissions are reduced using the combination of the LNT and SCR catalysts. During LNT regeneration, ammonia is intentionally released from the LNT and stored on the downstream SCR catalyst to further reduce NOx that passed through the LNT catalyst. This paper addresses LNT and SCR catalyst degradation as these were subjected to 150 desulfation events using a pre-production 2007 medium heavy-duty, on-highway diesel engine.
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