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Technical Paper

Quantification of Diesel Engine Vibration Using Cylinder Deactivation for Exhaust Temperature Management and Recipe for Implementation in Commercial Vehicles

2018-04-03
2018-01-1284
Commercial vehicles require continual improvements in order to meet fuel emission standards, improve diesel aftertreatment system performance and optimize vehicle fuel economy. Aftertreatment systems, used to remove engine NOx, are temperature dependent. Variable valve actuation in the form of cylinder deactivation (CDA) has been shown to manage exhaust temperatures to the aftertreatment system during low load operation (i.e., under 3-4 bar BMEP). During cylinder deactivation mode, a diesel engine can have higher vibration levels when compared to normal six cylinder operation. The viability of CDA needs to be implemented in a way to manage noise, vibration and harshness (NVH) within acceptable ranges for today’s commercial vehicles and drivelines. A heavy duty diesel engine (inline 6 cylinder) was instrumented to collect vibration data in a dynamometer test cell.
Technical Paper

Effect of Intake Valve Profile Modulation on Passenger Car Fuel Consumption

2018-04-03
2018-01-0379
Variable valve actuation is a focus to improve fuel efficiency for passenger car engines. Various means to implement early and late intake valve closing (E/LIVC) at lower load operating conditions is investigated. The study uses GT Power to simulate on E/LIVC on a 2.5 L gasoline engine, in-line four cylinder, four valve per cylinder engine to evaluate different ways to achieve Atkinson cycle performance. EIVC and LIVC are proven methods to reduce the compression-to-expansion ratio of the engine at part load and medium load operation. Among the LIVC strategies, two non-traditional intake valve lift profiles are investigated to understand their impact on reduction of fuel consumption at low engine loads. Both the non-traditional lift profiles retain the same maximum lift as a normal intake valve profile (Otto-cycle) unlike a traditional LIVC profile (Atkinson cycle) which needs higher maximum lift.
Technical Paper

Frictional Differences between Rolling and Sliding Interfaces for Passenger Car Switching Roller Finger Followers

2018-04-03
2018-01-0382
The demand for improving fuel economy in passenger cars is continuously increasing. Eliminating energy losses within the engine is one method of achieving fuel economy improvement. Frictional energy losses account for a noticeable portion of the overall efficiency of an engine. Valvetrain friction, specifically at the camshaft interface, is one area where potential for friction reduction is evident. Several factors can impact the friction at the camshaft interface. Some examples include: camshaft lobe profile, rocker arm interface geometry, valve spring properties, material properties, oil temperature, and oil pressure. This paper discusses the results of a series of tests that experimented the changes in friction that take place as these factors are altered. The impact of varying testing conditions such as oil pressure and oil temperature was evaluated throughout the duration of the testing and described herein.
Technical Paper

Cylinder Deactivation for Increased Engine Efficiency and Aftertreatment Thermal Management in Diesel Engines

2018-04-03
2018-01-0384
Diesel engine cylinder deactivation (CDA) can be used to reduce petroleum consumption and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions of the global freight transportation system. Heavy duty trucks require complex exhaust aftertreatment (A/T) in order to meet stringent emission regulations. Efficient reduction of engine-out emissions require a certain A/T system temperature range, which is achieved by thermal management via control of engine exhaust flow and temperature. Fuel efficient thermal management is a significant challenge, particularly during cold start, extended idle, urban driving, and vehicle operation in cold ambient conditions. CDA results in airflow reductions at low loads. Airflow reductions generally result in higher exhaust gas temperatures and lower exhaust flow rates, which are beneficial for maintaining already elevated component temperatures. Airflow reductions also reduce pumping work, which improves fuel efficiency.
Technical Paper

In-Duct Acoustic Source Data for Roots Blowers

2017-06-05
2017-01-1792
Increased demands for reduction of fuel consumption and CO2 emissions are driven by the global warming. To meet these challenges with respect to the passenger car segment the strategy of utilizing IC-engine downsizing has shown to be effective. In order to additionally meet requirements for high power and torque output supercharging is required. This can be realized using e.g. turbo-chargers, roots blowers or a combination of several such devices for the highest specific power segment. Both turbo-chargers and roots blowers can be strong sources of sound depending on the operating conditions and extensive NVH abatements such as resonators and encapsulation might be required to achieve superior vehicle NVH. For an efficient resonator tuning process in-duct acoustic source data is required. No published studies exists that describe how the gas exchange process for roots blowers can be described by acoustic sources in the frequency domain.
Technical Paper

Fuel Economy Comparison Studies of Forklift Transmission Architecture

2015-09-29
2015-01-2830
Fuel economy is one of the major challenges for both on and off-road vehicles. Inefficient engine operation and loss of kinetic energy in the form of heat during braking are two of the major sources of wasted fuel energy. Rising energy costs, stringent emission norms and increased environmental awareness demand efficient drivetrain designs for the next generation of vehicles. This paper analyzes three different types of powertrain concepts for efficient operation of a forklift truck. Starting from a conventional torque convertor transmission, hydrostatic transmission and a hydraulic hybrid transmission (Eaton architecture) are compared for their fuel economy performance. Eaton hydraulic hybrid system is seen to perform much better compared to other two architectures. Improved fuel economy is attributed to efficient engine operation and regeneration of vehicle kinetic energy during braking.
Technical Paper

Development and Validation of Diamond-Like Carbon Coating for a Switching Roller Finger Follower

2012-09-24
2012-01-1964
An advanced variable valve actuation system is developed that requires a coating with high stress loading capability on the sliding interfaces to enable compact packaging solutions for gasoline passenger car applications. The valvetrain system consists of a switching roller bearing finger follower (SRFF) combined with a dual feed hydraulic lash adjuster and an oil control valve. The SRFF contains two slider pads and a single roller to provide discrete variable valve lift capability on the intake valves. These components are installed on a four cylinder gasoline engine. The motivation for designing this type of variable valve actuation system is targeted to improve fuel economy by reducing the air pumping losses during partial load engine operation. This paper addresses the technology developed to utilize a Diamond-like carbon (DLC) coating on the slider pads of the SRFF.
Journal Article

Design and Development of a Switching Roller Finger Follower for Discrete Variable Valve Lift in Gasoline Engine Applications

2012-09-10
2012-01-1639
Global environmental and economic concerns regarding increasing fuel consumption and greenhouse gas emission are driving changes to legislative regulations and consumer demand. As regulations become more stringent, advanced engine technologies must be developed and implemented to realize desired benefits. Discrete variable valve lift technology is a targeted means to achieve improved fuel economy in gasoline engines. By limiting intake air flow with an engine valve, as opposed to standard throttling, road-load pumping losses are reduced resulting in improved fuel economy. This paper focuses on the design and development of a switching roller finger follower system which enables two mode discrete variable valve lift on end pivot roller finger follower valvetrains. The system configuration presented includes a four-cylinder passenger car engine with an electro-hydraulic oil control valve, dual feed hydraulic lash adjuster, and switching roller finger follower.
Technical Paper

Switching Roller Finger Follower Meets Lifetime Passenger Car Durability Requirements

2012-09-10
2012-01-1640
An advanced variable valve actuation (VVA) system is characterized following end-of-life testing to enable fuel economy solutions for passenger car applications. The system consists of a switching roller finger follower (SRFF) combined with a dual feed hydraulic lash adjuster and an oil control valve that are integrated into a four cylinder gasoline engine. The SRFF provides discrete valve lift capability on the intake valves. The motivation for designing this type of VVA system is targeted to improve fuel economy by reducing the air pumping losses during part load engine operation. This paper addresses the durability of a SRFF for meeting passenger car durability requirements. Extensive durability tests were conducted for high speed, low speed, switching, and cold start operation. High engine speed test results show stable valvetrain dynamics above 7000 engine rpm. System wear requirements met end-of-life criteria for the switching, sliding, rolling and torsion spring interfaces.
Technical Paper

Downspeeding and Supercharging a Diesel Passenger Car for Increased Fuel Economy

2012-04-16
2012-01-0704
The effects of downspeeding and supercharging a passenger car diesel engine were studied through laboratory investigation and vehicle simulation. Changes in the engine operating range, transmission gearing, and shift schedule resulted in improved fuel consumption relative to the baseline turbocharged vehicle while maintaining performance and drivability metrics. A shift schedule optimization technique resulted in fuel economy gains of up to 12% along with a corresponding reduction in transmission shift frequency of up to 55% relative to the baseline turbocharged configuration. First gear acceleration, top gear passing, and 0-60 mph acceleration of the baseline turbocharged vehicle were retained for the downsped supercharged configuration.
Video

Model-Based Approach to Estimate Fuel Savings from Series Hydraulic Hybrid Vehicle: Model Development and Validation

2011-12-05
A simulation framework with a validated system model capable of estimating fuel consumption is a valuable tool in analysis and design of the hybrid vehicles. In particular, the framework can be used for (1) benchmarking the fuel economy achievable from alternate hybrid powertrain technologies, (2) investigating sensitivity of fuel savings with respect to design parameters (for example, component sizing), and (3) evaluating the performance of various supervisory control algorithms for energy management. Presenter Chinmaya Patil, Eaton Corporation
Technical Paper

Model-Based Approach to Estimate Fuel Savings from Series Hydraulic Hybrid Vehicle: Model Development and Validation

2011-09-13
2011-01-2274
A simulation framework with a validated system model capable of estimating fuel consumption is a valuable tool in analysis and design of the hybrid vehicles. In particular, the framework can be used for (1) benchmarking the fuel economy achievable from alternate hybrid powertrain technologies, (2) investigating sensitivity of fuel savings with respect to design parameters (for example, component sizing), and (3) evaluating the performance of various supervisory control algorithms for energy management. This paper describes such a simulation framework that can be used to predict fuel economy of series hydraulic hybrid vehicle for any specified driver demand schedule (drive cycle), developed in MATLAB/Simulink. The key components of the series hydraulic hybrid vehicle are modeled using a combination of first principles and empirical data. A simplified driver model is included to follow the specified drive cycle.
Technical Paper

Simulation and Experimental Study of Torque Vectoring on Vehicle Handling and Stability

2009-12-13
2009-28-0062
This paper discusses the effect of torque vectoring differential on improving vehicle handling and stability performance. The torque vectoring concept has been analyzed. The vehicle discussed in this paper is an AWD vehicle with torque vectoring differential in the rear and a torque biasing center differential. First, simulation results with vehicle model in CarSim® and torque vectoring control algorithm in Matlab®/Simulink® is discussed. Then, experimental results for vehicle tested at winter and summer test facility is presented. Both simulation and experimental results demonstrate the effectiveness of torque vectoring differential on vehicle handling & stability.
Technical Paper

On-board Measurements of City Buses with Hybrid Electric Powertrain, Conventional Diesel and LPG Engines

2009-11-02
2009-01-2719
On-board measurements of fuel consumption and vehicle exhaust emissions of NOx, HC, CO, CO2, and PM are being conducted for three types of commercially available city buses in Guangzhou, China. The selected vehicles for this test include a diesel bus with Eaton hybrid electric powertrain, a conventional diesel bus with automated mechanical transmission (AMT), and a LPG powered city bus with manual transmission (MT). All of the tested vehicles were instrumented with on-board measurements. Horiba OBS-2200 was used for measuring NOx, HC, and CO emissions; ELPI (Electrical Low Pressure Impactor) was used for PM measurement. The vehicles were tested at Hainan National Proving Ground in southern China. Test data of fuel consumption and exhaust emissions were analyzed. The city bus with Eaton hybrid electric powertrain demonstrated more than 27% fuel consumption reduction over the conventional diesel powered bus, and over 68% over the LPG bus.
Journal Article

Performance of a Fuel Reformer, LNT and SCR Aftertreatment System Following 500 LNT Desulfation Events

2009-10-06
2009-01-2835
An advanced exhaust aftertreatment system is characterized following end-of-life catalyst aging to meet final Tier 4 off-highway emission requirements. This system consists of a fuel dosing system, mixing elements, fuel reformer, lean NOx trap (LNT), diesel particulate filter (DPF), and a selective catalytic reduction (SCR) catalyst. The fuel reformer is used to generate hydrogen (H2) and carbon monoxide (CO) from injected diesel fuel. These reductants are used to regenerate and desulfate the LNT catalyst. NOx emissions are reduced using the combination of the LNT and SCR catalysts. During LNT regeneration, ammonia (NH3) is intentionally released from the LNT and stored on the downstream SCR catalyst to further reduce NOx that passed through the LNT catalyst. This paper addresses system durability as the catalysts were aged to 500 desulfation events using an off-highway diesel engine.
Technical Paper

Hydraulic Hybrid Vehicle Energy Management System

2009-10-06
2009-01-2834
Eaton has developed a prototype hydraulic hybrid vehicle energy management system that substantially improves fuel economy and reduces harmful emissions. The system was developed cooperatively with the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), Navistar Inc., and the U.S. Army. The system has demonstrated fuel economy improvements in real world use of up to 50 percent while simultaneously reducing carbon emissions by up to 30 percent. The first real world application of the technology will be in parcel delivery vehicles owned by United Parcel Service (UPS). The hybrid vehicle energy management system components will be described and principles of operation explained. Major properties of the system will be examined and it will be shown why the hydraulic hybrid system is well suited for the parcel delivery vehicle application. Several secondary beneficial properties of the system will also be discussed.
Technical Paper

Hydraulic Hybrid Vehicle Energy Management System

2009-06-15
2009-01-1772
Eaton has developed a prototype hydraulic hybrid vehicle energy management system that substantially improves fuel economy and reduces harmful emissions. The system was developed cooperatively with the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), Navistar Inc., and the U.S. Army. The system has demonstrated fuel economy improvements in real world use of up to 50 percent while simultaneously reducing carbon emissions by up to 30 percent. The first real world application of the technology will be in parcel delivery vehicles owned by United Parcel Service (UPS). The hybrid vehicle energy management system components will be described and principles of operation explained. Major properties of the system will be examined and it will be shown why the hydraulic hybrid system is well suited for the parcel delivery vehicle application. Several secondary beneficial properties of the system will also be discussed.
Technical Paper

Multi-Objective Design Optimization Using a Damage Material Model Applied to Light Weighting a Formula SAE Car Suspension Component

2009-04-20
2009-01-0348
The Mississippi State University Formula SAE race car upright was optimized using radial basis function metamodels and an internal state variable (ISV) plasticity damage material model. The weight reduction of the upright was part of a goal to reduce the weight of the vehicle by 25 percent. Using an optimization routine provided an upright design that is lighter that helps to improve vehicle fuel economy, acceleration, and handling. Finite element (FE) models of the upright were produced using quadratic tetrahedral elements. Using tetrahedral elements provided a quick way to produce the multiple FE models of the upright required for the multi-objective optimization. A design of experiments was used to determine how many simulations were required for the optimization. The loads for the simulations included braking, acceleration, and corning loads seen by the car under track conditions.
Journal Article

NOx Performance of an LNT+SCR System Designed to Meet EPA 2010 Emissions: Results of Engine Dynamometer Emission Tests

2008-10-07
2008-01-2642
The paper covers the NOx performance evaluation of an LNT + SCR system designed to meet the 2010 on-highway heavy-duty (HD) US EPA emission standards. The system combines a fuel reformer catalyst (REF), lean NOx trap (LNT), diesel particulate filter (DPF), and selective catalytic reduction (SCR) in series, to reduce engine-out NOx and PM. System NOx reduction performance was verified in an engine dynamometer test cell, using a 2007 7.6L medium-duty engine. System NOx performance was characterized using fresh LNT and SCR along with hydrothermal aged LNT and fresh SCR. Test results show levels consistent with EPA 2010 limits under various test conditions. Catalysts performance was characterized at eight steady engine-operating conditions (A100, B50, B75, A75, B100, C100, C75, C50, across a 13-mode Supplemental Emission Test (SET), and an on-highway Heavy Duty Federal Test Procedure (HD-FTP).
Journal Article

Transient On-Road Emission Reduction of an LNT + SCR Aftertreatment System

2008-10-07
2008-01-2641
An LNT + SCR diesel aftertreatment system was developed in order to meet the 2010 US HD EPA on-road, and tier 4 US HD EPA off-road emission standards. This system consists of a fuel reformer (REF), lean NOx trap (LNT), catalyzed diesel particulate filter (DPF), and selective catalytic reduction (SCR) catalyst arranged in series to reduce tailpipe nitrogen oxides (NOx) and particulate matter (PM). This system utilizes a REF to produce hydrogen (H2), carbon monoxide (CO) and heat to regenerate the LNT, desulfate the LNT, and actively regenerate the DPF. The NOx stored on the LNT is reduced by the H2 and CO generated in the REF converting it to nitrogen (N2) and ammonia (NH3). NH3, which is normally an undesired byproduct of LNT regeneration, is stored in the downstream SCR which is utilized to further reduce NOx that passes through the LNT. Engine exhaust PM is filtered and trapped by the DPF reducing the tailpipe PM emissions.
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