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Technical Paper

Spray Combustion Analysis of Humins

Second generation biomass is an attractive renewable feedstock for transport fuels. Its sulfur content is generally negligible and the carbon cycle is reduced from millions to tens of years. One hitherto non-valorized feedstock are so-called humins, a residual product formed in the conversion of sugars to platform chemicals, such as hydroxymethylfurfural and methoxymethylfurfural, intermediates in the production of FDCA, a building block used to produce the polyethylene furanoate (PEF) bottle by Avantium. The focus of this study is to investigate the spray combustion behavior of humins as a renewable alternative for heavy fuel oil (HFO) under large two-stroke engine-like conditions in an optically accessible constant volume chamber.
Journal Article

Lignin Derivatives as Potential Octane Boosters

Owing to environmental and health concerns, tetraethyl lead was gradually phased out from the early 1970's to mid-1990's in most developed countries. Advances in refining, leading to more aromatics (via reformate) and iso-paraffins such as iso-octane, along with the introduction of (bio) oxygenates such as MTBE, ETBE and ethanol, facilitated the removal of lead without sacrificing RON and MON. In recent years, however, legislation has been moving in the direction of curbing aromatic and olefin content in gasoline, owing to similar concerns as was the case for lead. Meanwhile, concerns over global warming and energy security have motivated research into renewable fuels. Amongst which are those derived from biomass. The feedstock of interest in this study is lignin, which, together with hemicellulose and cellulose, is amongst the most abundant organic compounds on the planet.
Technical Paper

Spray Analysis of the PFAMEN Injector

In an earlier study, a novel type of diesel fuel injector was proposed. This prototype injects fuel via porous (sintered) micro pores instead of via the conventional 6-8 holes. The micro pores are typically 10-50 micrometer in diameter, versus 120-200 micrometer in the conventional case. The expected advantages of the so-called Porous Fuel Air Mixing Enhancing Nozzle (PFAMEN) injector are lower soot- and CO2 emissions. However, from previous in-house measurements, it has been concluded that the emissions of the porous injector are still not satisfactory. Roughly, this may have multiple reasons. The first one is that the spray distribution is not good enough, the second one is that the droplet sizing is too big due to the lack of droplet breakup. Furthermore air entrainment into the fuel jets might be insufficient. All reasons lead to fuel rich zones and associated soot formation.
Technical Paper

Literature Study and Feasibility Test Regarding a Gasoline/EHN Blend Consumed by Standard CI-Engine Using a Non-PCCI Combustion Strategy

A literature and experimental study was done to create an overview of the behavior of gasoline combusted in a CI-engine. This paper creates a first overview of the work to be done before implementing this Gasoline Compression Ignition concept in a multi-cylinder engine. According to literature the gasoline blend will have advantages over diesel. First the shorter molecular chain of the gasoline makes it less prone to soot. Second the lower density gives the gasoline a higher nozzle exit speed resulting in better mixing capabilities. Third the lower density and higher volatility lets the spray length decrease. This lowers the chance of wall-impingement, but creates worse mixing conditions looking from a spray point of view. The CO and HC emissions tend to increase relative to operation with diesel fuel, NOx emissions largely depend on the choice of combustion strategy and could be influenced by the nitrogen bound to the EHN molecule that is used as an ignition improver.
Technical Paper

A First Implementation of an Efficient Combustion Strategy in a Multi Cylinder Two-Stage Turbo CI-Engine Producing Low Emissions While Consuming a Gasoline/EHN Blend

A Gasoline Compression Ignition combustion strategy was developed and showed its capabilities in the heavy duty single cylinder test-cell, resulting in indicated efficiencies up to 50% and low engine out emissions applying to EU VI and US 10 legislations while the soot remained at a controllable 1.5 FSN. For this concept a single-cylinder CI-engine was used running at a lambda of ∼1.6 and EGR levels of ∼50% and a modified injection strategy. Part of this strategy was also the use of a gasoline blended with an ignition improver, giving the blend a cetane number in the range of regular diesel; ∼50. In this paper a step is taken towards implementation of this combustion concept into a multi-cylinder light duty standalone CI-engine. A standard CI-engine was modified so that its gas-exchange system could deliver the requested amounts of EGR and lambda.
Technical Paper

Styrofoam Precursors as Drop-in Diesel Fuel

Styrene, or ethylbenzene, is mainly used as a monomer for the production of polymers, most notably Styrofoam. In the synthetis of styrene, the feedstock of benzene and ethylene is converted into aromatic oxygenates such as benzaldehyde, 2-phenyl ethanol and acetophenone. Benzaldehyde and phenyl ethanol are low value side streams, while acetophenone is a high value intermediate product. The side streams are now principally rejected from the process and burnt for process heat. Previous in-house research has shown that such aromatic oxygenates are suitable as diesel fuel additives and can in some cases improve the soot-NOx trade-off. In this study acetophenone, benzaldehyde and 2-phenyl ethanol are each added to commercial EN590 diesel at a ratio of 1:9, with the goal to ascertain whether or not the lower value benzaldehyde and 2-phenyl ethanol can perform on par with the higher value acetophenone. These compounds are now used in pure form.
Technical Paper

On-Board Plasma Assisted Fuel Reforming

It is well known that the addition of gaseous fuels to the intake manifold of diesel engines can have significant benefits in terms of both reducing emissions of hazardous gases and soot and improving fuel economy. Particularly, the addition of LPG has been investigated in numerous studies. Drawbacks, however, of such dual fuel strategies can be found in storage complexity and end-user inconvenience. It is for this reason that on-board refining of a single fuel (for example, diesel) could be an interesting alternative. A second-generation fuel reformer has been engineered and successfully tested. The reformer can work with both gaseous and liquid fuels and by means of partial oxidation of a rich fuel-air mix, converts these into syngas: a mixture of H₂ and CO. The process occurs as partial oxidation takes place in an adiabatic ceramic reaction chamber. High efficiency is ensured by the high temperature inside the chamber due to heat release.