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Technical Paper

Performance and Emission Studies in a Heavy-Duty Diesel Engine Fueled with an N-Butanol and N-Heptane Blend

2019-04-02
2019-01-0575
N-butanol, as a biomass-based renewable fuel, has many superior fuel properties. It has a higher energy content and cetane number than its alcohol competitors, methanol and ethanol. Previous studies have proved that n-butanol has the capability to achieve lower emissions without sacrifice on thermal efficiency when blended with diesel. However, most studies on n-butanol are limited to low blending ratios, which restricts the improvement of emissions. In this paper, 80% by volume of n-butanol was blended with 20% by volume of n-heptane (namely BH80). The influences of various engine parameters (combustion phasing, EGR ratio, injection timing and intake pressure, respectively) on its combustion and emission characteristics are tested at different loads. The results showed that when BH80 uses more than 40% EGR, the emitted soot and nitrogen oxides (NOx) emissions are below the EURO VI legislation.
Technical Paper

Effects of Different Injection Strategies and EGR on Partially Premixed Combustion

2018-09-10
2018-01-1798
Premixed Charge Compression Ignition concepts are promising to reduce NOx and soot simultaneously and keeping a high thermal efficiency. Partially premixed combustion is a single fuel variant of this new combustion concepts applying a fuel with a low cetane number to achieve the necessary long ignition delay. In this study, multiple injection strategies are studied in the partially premixed combustion approach to reach stable combustion and ultra-low NOx and soot emission at 15.5 bar gross indicated mean effective pressure. Three different injection strategies (single injection, pilot-main injection, main-post injection) are experimentally investigated on a heavy duty compression ignition engine. A fuel blend (70 vol% n-butanol and 30 vol% n-heptane) was tested. The effects of different pilot and post-injection timing, as well as Exhaust-gas Recirculation rate on different injection strategies investigated.
Technical Paper

Experimental Study on the Potential of Higher Octane Number Fuels for Low Load Partially Premixed Combustion

2017-03-28
2017-01-0750
The optimal fuel for partially premixed combustion (PPC) is considered to be a gasoline boiling range fuel with an octane number around 70. Higher octane number fuels are considered problematic with low load and idle conditions. In previous studies mostly the intake air temperature did not exceed 30 °C. Possibly increasing intake air temperatures could extend the load range. In this study primary reference fuels (PRFs), blends of iso-octane and n-heptane, with octane numbers of 70, 80, and 90 are tested in an adapted commercial diesel engine under partially premixed combustion mode to investigate the potential of these higher octane number fuels in low load and idle conditions. During testing combustion phasing and intake air temperature are varied to investigate the combustion and emission characteristics under low load and idle conditions.
Technical Paper

Combustion and Emission Characteristics of a Heavy Duty Engine Fueled with Two Ternary Blends of N-Heptane/Iso-Octane and Toluene or Benzaldehyde

2016-04-05
2016-01-0998
In this work, the influences of aromatics on combustion and emission characteristics from a heavy-duty diesel engine under various loads and exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) conditions are investigated. Tests were performed on a modified single-cylinder, constant-speed and direct-injection diesel engine. An engine exhaust particle sizer (EEPS) was used in the experiments to measure the size distribution of engine-exhaust particle emissions in the range from 5.6 to 560 nm. Two ternary blends of n-heptane, iso-octane with either toluene or benzaldehyde denoted as TRF and CRF, were tested, diesel was also tested as a reference. Test results showed that TRF has the longest ignition delay, thus providing the largest premixed fraction which is beneficial to reduce soot. However, as the load increases, higher incylinder pressure and temperature make all test fuels burn easily, leading to shorter ignition delays and more diffusion combustion.
Journal Article

Lignin Derivatives as Potential Octane Boosters

2015-04-14
2015-01-0963
Owing to environmental and health concerns, tetraethyl lead was gradually phased out from the early 1970's to mid-1990's in most developed countries. Advances in refining, leading to more aromatics (via reformate) and iso-paraffins such as iso-octane, along with the introduction of (bio) oxygenates such as MTBE, ETBE and ethanol, facilitated the removal of lead without sacrificing RON and MON. In recent years, however, legislation has been moving in the direction of curbing aromatic and olefin content in gasoline, owing to similar concerns as was the case for lead. Meanwhile, concerns over global warming and energy security have motivated research into renewable fuels. Amongst which are those derived from biomass. The feedstock of interest in this study is lignin, which, together with hemicellulose and cellulose, is amongst the most abundant organic compounds on the planet.
Technical Paper

Spray Analysis of the PFAMEN Injector

2013-09-08
2013-24-0036
In an earlier study, a novel type of diesel fuel injector was proposed. This prototype injects fuel via porous (sintered) micro pores instead of via the conventional 6-8 holes. The micro pores are typically 10-50 micrometer in diameter, versus 120-200 micrometer in the conventional case. The expected advantages of the so-called Porous Fuel Air Mixing Enhancing Nozzle (PFAMEN) injector are lower soot- and CO2 emissions. However, from previous in-house measurements, it has been concluded that the emissions of the porous injector are still not satisfactory. Roughly, this may have multiple reasons. The first one is that the spray distribution is not good enough, the second one is that the droplet sizing is too big due to the lack of droplet breakup. Furthermore air entrainment into the fuel jets might be insufficient. All reasons lead to fuel rich zones and associated soot formation.
Technical Paper

Styrofoam Precursors as Drop-in Diesel Fuel

2013-09-08
2013-24-0108
Styrene, or ethylbenzene, is mainly used as a monomer for the production of polymers, most notably Styrofoam. In the synthetis of styrene, the feedstock of benzene and ethylene is converted into aromatic oxygenates such as benzaldehyde, 2-phenyl ethanol and acetophenone. Benzaldehyde and phenyl ethanol are low value side streams, while acetophenone is a high value intermediate product. The side streams are now principally rejected from the process and burnt for process heat. Previous in-house research has shown that such aromatic oxygenates are suitable as diesel fuel additives and can in some cases improve the soot-NOx trade-off. In this study acetophenone, benzaldehyde and 2-phenyl ethanol are each added to commercial EN590 diesel at a ratio of 1:9, with the goal to ascertain whether or not the lower value benzaldehyde and 2-phenyl ethanol can perform on par with the higher value acetophenone. These compounds are now used in pure form.
Technical Paper

Modeling of Conventional and Early Diesel Injection Combustion Characteristics using FGM Approach

2013-04-08
2013-01-1108
The wide range of diesel engine operating conditions demand for a robust combustion model to account for inherent changes. In this work, the Flamelet Generate Manifold (FGM) approach is applied, in STAR-CD framework, to simulate the conventional injection- and early injection-timing (PCCI like) combustion regimes. Igniting Counter flow Diffusion Flamelets (ICDFs) and Homogeneous Reactors (HRs) are used to tabulate chemistry for conventional and PCCI combustion modes, respectively. The validation of the models with experimental data shows that the above consideration of chemistry tabulation results in accurate ignition delay predictions. The study reveals that a moderate amount of 5 different pressure levels is necessary to include in the FGM database to capture the ignition delay in both combustion regimes.
Technical Paper

Modeling Fuel Spray Auto-ignition using the FGM Approach: Effect of Tabulation Method

2012-04-16
2012-01-0157
The Flamelet Generated Manifold (FGM) method is a promising technique in engine combustion modeling to include tabulated chemistry. Different methodologies can be used for the generation of the manifold. Two approaches, based on igniting counterflow diffusion flamelets (ICDF) and homogeneous reactors (HR) are implemented and compared with Engine Combustion Network (ECN) experimental database for the baseline n-heptane case. Before analyzing the combustion results, the spray model is optimized after performing a sensitivity study with respect to turbulence models, cell sizes and time steps. The standard High Reynolds (Re) k-ε model leads to the best match of all turbulence models with the experimental data. For the convergence of the mixture fraction field an appropriate cell size is found to be smaller than that for an adequate spray penetration length which appears to be less influenced by the cell size.
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