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Technical Paper

Performance and Emission Studies in a Heavy-Duty Diesel Engine Fueled with an N-Butanol and N-Heptane Blend

2019-04-02
2019-01-0575
N-butanol, as a biomass-based renewable fuel, has many superior fuel properties. It has a higher energy content and cetane number than its alcohol competitors, methanol and ethanol. Previous studies have proved that n-butanol has the capability to achieve lower emissions without sacrifice on thermal efficiency when blended with diesel. However, most studies on n-butanol are limited to low blending ratios, which restricts the improvement of emissions. In this paper, 80% by volume of n-butanol was blended with 20% by volume of n-heptane (namely BH80). The influences of various engine parameters (combustion phasing, EGR ratio, injection timing and intake pressure, respectively) on its combustion and emission characteristics are tested at different loads. The results showed that when BH80 uses more than 40% EGR, the emitted soot and nitrogen oxides (NOx) emissions are below the EURO VI legislation.
Technical Paper

Effects of Different Injection Strategies and EGR on Partially Premixed Combustion

2018-09-10
2018-01-1798
Premixed Charge Compression Ignition concepts are promising to reduce NOx and soot simultaneously and keeping a high thermal efficiency. Partially premixed combustion is a single fuel variant of this new combustion concepts applying a fuel with a low cetane number to achieve the necessary long ignition delay. In this study, multiple injection strategies are studied in the partially premixed combustion approach to reach stable combustion and ultra-low NOx and soot emission at 15.5 bar gross indicated mean effective pressure. Three different injection strategies (single injection, pilot-main injection, main-post injection) are experimentally investigated on a heavy duty compression ignition engine. A fuel blend (70 vol% n-butanol and 30 vol% n-heptane) was tested. The effects of different pilot and post-injection timing, as well as Exhaust-gas Recirculation rate on different injection strategies investigated.
Technical Paper

Investigation of Late Stage Conventional Diesel Combustion - Effect of Additives

2018-09-10
2018-01-1787
The accepted model of conventional diesel combustion [1] assumes a rich premixed flame slightly downstream of the maximum liquid penetration. The soot generated by this rich premixed flame is burnt out by a subsequent diffusion flame at the head of the jet. Even in situations in which the centre of combustion (CA50) is phased optimally to maximize efficiency, slow late stage combustion can still have a significant detrimental impact on thermal efficiency. Data is presented on potential late-stage combustion improvers in a EURO VI compliant HD engine at a range of speed and load points. The operating conditions (e.g. injection timings, EGR levels) were based on a EURO VI calibration which targets 3 g/kWh of engine-out NOx. Rates of heat release were determined from the pressure sensor data. To investigate late stage combustion, focus was made on the position in the cycle at which 90% of the fuel had combusted (CA90). An EN590 compliant fuel was tested.
Technical Paper

The Impact of Operating Conditions on Post-Injection Efficacy; a Study Using Design-of-Experiments

2018-04-03
2018-01-0229
Post-injection strategies prove to be a valuable option for reducing soot emission, but experimental results often differ from publication to publication. These discrepancies are likely caused by the selected operating conditions and engine hardware in separate studies. Efforts to optimize not only engine-out soot, but simultaneously fuel economy and emissions of nitrogen oxides (NOx) complicate the understanding of post-injection effects even more. Still, the large amount of published work on the topic is gradually forming a consensus. In the current work, a Design-of-Experiments (DoE) procedure and regression analysis are used to investigate the influence of various operating conditions on post-injection scheduling and efficacy. The study targets emission reductions of soot and NOx, as well as fuel economy improvements. Experiments are conducted on a heavy-duty compression ignition engine at three load-speed combinations.
Technical Paper

Analysis of Transition from HCCI to CI via PPC with Low Octane Gasoline Fuels Using Optical Diagnostics and Soot Particle Analysis

2017-10-08
2017-01-2403
In-cylinder visualization, combustion stratification, and engine-out particulate matter (PM) emissions were investigated in an optical engine fueled with Haltermann straight-run naphtha fuel and corresponding surrogate fuel. The combustion mode was transited from homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI) to conventional compression ignition (CI) via partially premixed combustion (PPC). Single injection strategy with the change of start of injection (SOI) from early to late injections was employed. The high-speed color camera was used to capture the in-cylinder combustion images. The combustion stratification was analyzed based on the natural luminosity of the combustion images. The regulated emission of unburned hydrocarbon (UHC), carbon monoxide (CO) and nitrogen oxides (NOX) were measured to evaluate the combustion efficiency together with the in-cylinder rate of heat release.
Technical Paper

Preliminary Investigation of a Bio-Based Low Sulfur Heavy Fuel Oil

2017-09-04
2017-24-0114
Recently introduced sulfur caps on marine fuels in so-called sulfur emission control areas (SECAs) are forcing shipping companies to sail on more or less automotive grade diesel in lieu of the considerably less expensive, but sulfur-laden heavy fuel oil (HFO) to which they were accustomed. This development is an opportunity for a bio-based substitute, given that most biomass is sulfur free by default. Moreover, given that biomass is typically solid to start with, cracking it to an HFO grade, which is highly viscous in nature, will involve fewer and/or less harsh process steps than would be the case if an automotive grade fuel were to be targeted. In this study, a renewable low sulfur heavy fuel oil (LSHFO) has been produced by means of subcritical water assisted lignin depolymerization in the presence of a short length surfactant, ethylene glycol monobutyl ether (EGBE).
Technical Paper

Numerical Investigation of PPCI Combustion at Low and High Charge Stratification Levels

2017-03-28
2017-01-0739
Partially premixed compression ignition combustion is one of the low temperature combustion techniques which is being actively investigated. This approach provides a significant reduction of both soot and NOx emissions. Comparing to the homogeneous charge compression ignition mode, PPCI combustion provides better control on ignition timing and noise reduction through air-fuel mixture stratification which lowers heat release rate compared to other advanced combustion modes. In this work, CFD simulations were conducted for a low and a high air-fuel mixture stratification cases on a light-duty optical engine operating in PPCI mode. Such conditions for PRF70 as fuel were experimentally achieved by injection timing and spray targeting at similar thermodynamic conditions.
Technical Paper

Combustion and Emission Characteristics of a Heavy Duty Engine Fueled with Two Ternary Blends of N-Heptane/Iso-Octane and Toluene or Benzaldehyde

2016-04-05
2016-01-0998
In this work, the influences of aromatics on combustion and emission characteristics from a heavy-duty diesel engine under various loads and exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) conditions are investigated. Tests were performed on a modified single-cylinder, constant-speed and direct-injection diesel engine. An engine exhaust particle sizer (EEPS) was used in the experiments to measure the size distribution of engine-exhaust particle emissions in the range from 5.6 to 560 nm. Two ternary blends of n-heptane, iso-octane with either toluene or benzaldehyde denoted as TRF and CRF, were tested, diesel was also tested as a reference. Test results showed that TRF has the longest ignition delay, thus providing the largest premixed fraction which is beneficial to reduce soot. However, as the load increases, higher incylinder pressure and temperature make all test fuels burn easily, leading to shorter ignition delays and more diffusion combustion.
Technical Paper

A First Implementation of an Efficient Combustion Strategy in a Multi Cylinder Two-Stage Turbo CI-Engine Producing Low Emissions While Consuming a Gasoline/EHN Blend

2013-09-08
2013-24-0103
A Gasoline Compression Ignition combustion strategy was developed and showed its capabilities in the heavy duty single cylinder test-cell, resulting in indicated efficiencies up to 50% and low engine out emissions applying to EU VI and US 10 legislations while the soot remained at a controllable 1.5 FSN. For this concept a single-cylinder CI-engine was used running at a lambda of ∼1.6 and EGR levels of ∼50% and a modified injection strategy. Part of this strategy was also the use of a gasoline blended with an ignition improver, giving the blend a cetane number in the range of regular diesel; ∼50. In this paper a step is taken towards implementation of this combustion concept into a multi-cylinder light duty standalone CI-engine. A standard CI-engine was modified so that its gas-exchange system could deliver the requested amounts of EGR and lambda.
Journal Article

Butanol-Diesel Blends for Partially Premixed Combustion

2013-04-08
2013-01-1683
Partially Premixed Combustion has shown the potential of high efficiency, emissions of nitrogen oxides (NOx) and soot below future emissions regulations, and acceptable acoustic noise. Low-octane-number gasoline fuels were shown to be most suitable for this concept, with the reactivity determining the possible load range. Other researchers have used several refinery streams, which might be produced by a refinery if they were required to do so without additional investment. Some of refinery streams are, however, not expected to be commercially available on the short term. For the present investigation, n-butanol (BuOH) has been selected as a blend component in diesel, and is used from 50 - 100%. The blends then have a reactivity range similar to the refinery streams, so single-cylinder engine tests for their emission and efficiency performance can also be used to determine their applicable load range.
Journal Article

Commercial Naphtha Blends for Partially Premixed Combustion

2013-04-08
2013-01-1681
Partially Premixed Combustion has shown the potential of low emissions of nitrogen oxides (NOx) and soot with a simultaneous improvement in fuel efficiency. Several research groups have shown that a load range from idle to full load is possible, when using low-octane-number refinery streams, in the gasoline boiling range. As such refinery streams are not expected to be commercially available on the short term, the use of naphtha blends that are commercially available could provide a practical solution. The three blends used in this investigation have been tested in a single-cylinder engine for their emission and efficiency performance. Besides a presentation of the sensitivity to injection strategies, dilution levels and fuel pressure, emission performance is compared to legislated emission levels. Conventional diesel combustion benchmarks are used for reference to show possible improvements in indicated efficiency.
Technical Paper

Combustion Phasing Controllability with Dual Fuel Injection Timings

2012-09-10
2012-01-1575
Reactivity controlled compression ignition through in-cylinder blending gasoline and diesel to a desired reactivity has previously been shown to give low emission levels and a clear simultaneous efficiency advantage. To determine the possible viability of the concept for on-road application, the control space of injection parameters with respect to combustion phasing is presented. Four injection strategies have been investigated, and for each the respective combustion phasing response is presented. Combustion efficiency is shown to be greatly affected by both the injection-timing and injection-strategy. All injection strategies are shown to break with the common soot-NOx trade-off, with both smoke and NOx emissions being near or even below upcoming legislated levels. Lastly, pressure rise rates are comparable with conventional combustion regimes with the same phasing. The pressure rise rates are effectively suppressed by the high dilution rates used.
Technical Paper

Correlating Flame Location and Ignition Delay in Partially Premixed Combustion

2012-09-10
2012-01-1579
Controlling ignition delay is the key to successfully enable partially premixed combustion in diesel engines. This paper presents experimental results of partially premixed combustion in an optically accessible engine, using primary reference fuels in combination with artificial exhaust gas recirculation. By changing the fuel composition and oxygen concentration, the ignition delay is changed. To determine the position of the flame front, high-speed visualization of OH-chemiluminescence is used, enabling a cycle-resolved analysis of OH formation. A clear correlation is observed between ignition delay and flame location. The mixing of fuel and air during the ignition delay period defines the local equivalence ratio, which is estimated based on a spherical combustion volume for each spray. The corresponding emission measurements using fast-response analyzers of CO, HC and NOX confirm the decrease in local equivalence ratio as a function of ignition delay.
Technical Paper

Review on the Effects of Dual-Fuel Operation, Using Diesel and Gaseous Fuels, on Emissions and Performance

2012-04-16
2012-01-0869
In recent years the automotive industry has been forced to reduce the harmful and pollutant emissions emitted by direct-injected diesel engines. To accomplish this difficult task various solutions have been proposed. One of these proposed solutions is the usage of gaseous fuels in addition to the use of liquid diesel. These gaseous fuels have more gasoline-like properties, such as high octane numbers, and thereby are resistant against auto-ignition. Diesel on the other hand, has a high cetane number which makes it prone to auto-ignition. In this case the gaseous fuel is injected in the inlet manifold, and the diesel is direct injected in the cylinder at the end of the compression stroke. Thereby the diesel fuel spontaneously ignites and acts as an ignition source. The main goals for the use of a dual-fuel operation with diesel and gaseous fuels are the reduction of particulate matter (PM) and nitrogen oxides (NOx) emission.
Technical Paper

Gasoline-Diesel Dual Fuel: Effect of Injection Timing and Fuel Balance

2011-12-15
2011-01-2437
Recently, some studies have shown high efficiencies using controlled auto-ignition by blending gasoline and diesel to a desired reactivity. This concept has been shown to give high efficiency and, because of the largely premixed charge, low emission levels. The origin of this high efficiency, however, has only partly been explained. Part of it was attributed to a lower temperature combustion, originating in lower heat losses. Another part of the gain was attributed to a faster, more Otto-like (i.e. constant volume) combustion. Since the concept was mainly demonstrated on one single test setup so far, an experimental study has been performed to reproduce these results and gain more insight into their origin. Therefore one cylinder of a heavy duty test engine has been equipped with an intake port gasoline injection system, primarily to investigate the effects of the balance between the two fuels, and the timing of the diesel injection.
Technical Paper

Uncooled EGR as a Means of Limiting Wall-Wetting under Early Direct Injection Conditions

2009-04-20
2009-01-0665
Collision of injected fuel spray against the cylinder liner (wall-wetting) is one of the main hurdles that must be overcome in order for early direct injection Premixed Charge Compression Ignition (EDI PCCI) combustion to become a viable alternative for conventional DI diesel combustion. Preferably, the prevention of wall-wetting should be realized in a way of selecting appropriate (most favorable) operating conditions (EGR level, intake temperature, injection timing-strategy etc.) rather than mechanical modification of an engine (combustion chamber shape, injector replacement etc.). This paper presents the effect of external uncooled EGR (different fraction) on wall-wetting issues specified by two parameters, i.e. measured smoke number (experiment) and liquid spray penetration (model).
Technical Paper

Oxygenated Fuel Composition Impact on Heavy-Duty Diesel Engine Emissions

2007-07-23
2007-01-2018
This paper reports on a study of a large number of blends of a low-sulfur EN-590 type diesel fuel respectively of a Swedish Class 1 fuel and of a synthetic diesel with different types of oxygenates. Oxygen mass fraction of the blends varied between 0 and 15 %. For comparison, the fuel matrix was extended with non-oxygenated blends including a diesel/water emulsion. Tests were performed on a modern multi-cylinder HD DAF engine equipped with cooled EGR for enabling NOx-levels between 2.0 and 3.5 g/kWh on EN-590 diesel fuel. Additional tests were done on a Volvo Euro-2 type HD engine with very low PM emission. Finally, for some blends, combustion progress and soot illumination was registered when tested on a single cylinder research engine with optical access. The results confirm the importance of oxygen mass fraction of the fuel blend, but at the same time illustrate the effect of chemical structure: some oxygenates are twice as effective in reducing PM as other well-known oxygenates.
Technical Paper

Is Closed-Loop SCR Control Required to Meet Future Emission Targets?

2007-04-16
2007-01-1574
To meet 2010 emission targets, optimal SCR system performance is required. In addition, attention has to be paid to in-use compliance requirements. Closed-loop control seems an attractive option to meet the formulated goals. This study deals with the potential and limitations of closed-loop SCR control. High NOx conversion in combination with acceptable NH3 slip can be realized with an open-loop control strategy. However, closed-loop control is needed to make the SCR system robust for urea dosage inaccuracy, catalyst ageing and NOx engine-out variations. Then, the system meets conformity of production and in-use compliance norms. To demonstrate the potential of closed-loop SCR control, a NOx sensor based control strategy with cross-sensitivity compensation is compared with an adaptive surface coverage/NH3 slip control strategy and an open-loop strategy. The adaptive surface coverage/NH3 slip control strategy shows best performance over simulated ESC and ETC cycles.
Technical Paper

Development of a Model-Based Controller for a Three-Way Catalytic Converter

2002-03-04
2002-01-0475
The performance of a three-way catalytic converter under transient operation can be improved by controlling the level of oxygen stored on ceria at some optimal level. A model-based controller, with the model estimating the level of ceria coverage by oxygen, can achieve this goal. A simple, dynamic model is based on step responses of the converter and is used to train the controller off-line. The controller is a neuro-fuzzy approximation of a model predictive controller. Thus, it retains a high performance while being less computationally involving. The system performance has been experimentally tested by a specially designed, highly transient test cycle.
Technical Paper

On a Model-Based Control of a Three-Way Catalytic Converter

2001-03-05
2001-01-0937
Though very important for the system performance, the dynamic behavior of the catalytic converter has mainly been neglected in the design of exhaust emission control systems. Since the major dynamic effects stem from the oxygen storage capabilities of the catalytic converter, a novel model-based control scheme, with the explicit control of the converter's oxygen storage level is proposed. The controlled variable cannot be measured, so it has to be predicted by an on-line running model (inferential sensor). The model accuracy and adaptability are therefore crucial. A simple algorithm for the model parameter identification is developed. All tests are performed on a previously developed first principle model of the catalytic converter so that the controller effectiveness and performance can clearly be observed.
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