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Technical Paper

Benefits of LS-Design™, a Structured Metal Foil for Two and Three Wheelers Catalyst Substrates, to Minimize Catalyst Volumes, PGM Loads and the Route Towards Low NOx Emissions

More efficient and durable catalytic converters for the two- and three-wheeler industry in developing countries are required at an affordable cost to reduce vehicle emissions, to maintain them at a low level and therefore to participate in a cleaner and healthier environment. This particularly is true nowadays, because the demand and prices of Platinum Group Metal (PGM) for catalyst are continuously increasing due to i) the worldwide progressive implementation of motorcycles emission legislations similar to Euro 3 Stage requiring catalysts, ii) the need for non-road diesel vehicles to be equipped now with catalyst systems, and iii) the constant increase of the worldwide automobile market. A new generation of metallic substrates with structured foils for catalytic converters is proven to be capable of improving conversion behavior, even with smaller catalyst size.
Technical Paper

SCR and SCRi® as After-treatment Systems for Low CO2 and Low NOx Vehicles

On one hand, latest worldwide emissions legislation developments aim to reduce NOx and Particulate Matter (PM) emissions of all diesel engines, while on the other hand lower fuel consumption diesel engines are still required for lower fleet average CO₂ emissions. As a consequence of the chosen CO₂ optimized combustion mode, the raw NOx emission increases and as such Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) technology will be the future choice for high efficiency NOx aftertreatment. This paper deals with SCR technology and its derivative SCRi® technology, when diesel particle reduction is required, especially for heavy-duty applications. Alongside the developed metal catalyst technologies, a complete SCR reducing agent dosing system is presented. Emission results gained with the SCR or SCRi® technologies on European commercial engines illustrate the potential of these technologies for conversion of NOx and PM emissions.
Technical Paper

PM Metalit® - A Continuously Regenerating Partial Flow Particulate Filter - Concept and Experience with Korean Retrofit Programme

Emission legislations for the light / medium and heavy duty vehicles are becoming more and more stringent worldwide. Tightening of NOx and Particulate Matter (PM) limits further from Euro III to Euro IV levels has provoked the need of either controlling NOx from the engine measures and use PM control after-treatment devices such as Partial Flow Filters, or, controlling PM from the engine measures and use NOx control devices such as Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) systems. Manufacturers have adopted different strategies, depending upon the suitability, cost factors, infrastructure development and ease of maintenance of these systems. PM Metalit®, is a partial flow filter, which captures particulates coming out of the exhaust and re-generates on a continuous basis with the help of Nitrogen Dioxide (NO2) in the exhaust.
Technical Paper

Innovative Metallic Substrate Technology to Meet Future Emission Limits

Exhaust after-treatment systems will have to become increasingly efficient in order to comply with the strict emission limits that will apply in the European Union and worldwide in future. Moreover, space constraints, weight and low pressure drop are just some of the issues that have to be addressed by an EU III-compliant catalytic system. The development of metallic substrates over the past few years has shown that turbulent-like substrates increase specific catalytic efficiency. This has made it possible to enhance overall performance for a specific catalytic volume or reduce the volume while keeping catalytic efficiency constant. This paper focuses on the emission efficiency of standard, TS and PE metallic substrates. A simulation tool and flow bench measurements were used to develop a test matrix with catalyst similar pressure drop in order to examine different cell densities, substrate lengths and coating technologies.
Technical Paper

Optimisation Development of Advanced Exhaust Gas After-treatment Systems for Automotive Applications

Future emission legislation can be met through substantial improvement in the effectiveness of the exhaust gas after-treatment system, the engine and the engine management system. For the catalytic converter, differentiation is necessary between the cold start behavior and the effectiveness at operating temperature. To be catalytically effective, a converter must be heated by the exhaust gas up to its light-off temperature. The major influential parameter for the light-off still is the supply of heat from the exhaust gas. Modification of the cold start calibration of engine control such as spark retard or increased idle speed can increase the temperature level of the exhaust gas. One further possibility is represented by a reduction of the critical mass ahead of the catalyst (exhaust manifold and pipe). Nevertheless the best measure to obtain optimal cold start effectiveness still seems to be locating the converter close to the engine.
Technical Paper

Next Generation Catalysts are Turbulent:Development of Support and Coating

Future catalyst systems need to be highly efficient in a limited packaging space. This normally leads to a design where the flow distribution, in front of the catalyst, is not perfectly uniform. Measurements on the flow test bench show that the implementation of perforated foils for the corrugated and flat foils has the capability to distribute the flow within the channels in the radial direction so that the maximum of the given catalyst surface is of use, even under very poor uniformity indices. Therefore a remarkable reduction in back pressure is measured. Emission results demonstrate cold start improvement due to reduced heat capacity. The use of LS - structured ( Longitudinal structured ) corrugated foils creates a high turbulence level within the single channels. The substrate lights-up earlier and the maximum conversion efficiency is reached more quickly.
Technical Paper

A Metal Substrate with Integrated Oxygen Sensor; Functionality and Influence on Air/Fuel Ratio Control

In order to achieve ultra low emission levels with three-way catalysts, an early accurate air/fuel ratio control is essential. Positioning the oxygen sensor in the first part of the substrate helps to protect the oxygen sensor from being splashed by water during cold start, so that early heating and activation becomes a less limiting factor. For emission control purpose, a position of a rear sensor in the warm part of the catalyst gives improved possibilities for oxygen buffer control during catalyst warming up conditions. This enhances balancing HC and NOx in an early phase. In addition, for OBD reasons it is possible to locate the sensor in any axial position in the catalyst, which improves design possibilities for cold start detection, even for single brick catalyst systems. The paper describes the construction of the catalyst with an integrated oxygen sensor.
Technical Paper

Advanced Performance of Metallic Converter Systems Demonstrated on a Production V8 Engine

It has been shown within the catalyst industry that the emission performance with higher cell density technology and therefore with higher specific geometric area is improved. The focus of this study was to compare the overall performance of high cell density catalysts, up to 1600cpsi, using a MY 2001 production vehicle with a 4.7ltr.V8 engine. The substrates were configured to be on the edge of the design capability. The goal was to develop cost optimized systems with similar emission and back pressure performance, which meet physical and production requirements. This paper will present the results of a preliminary computer simulation study and the final emission testing of a production vehicle. For the pre-evaluation a numerical simulation model was used to compare the light-off performance of different substrate designs in the cold start portion of the FTP test cycle.
Technical Paper

A Computational and Experimental Analysis for Optimization of Cell Shape in High Performance Catalytic Converters

The effects of the internal geometry of catalytic converter channels on flow characteristics; exhaust backpressure and overall conversion efficiency have been investigated by means of both numerical simulations and experimental investigations. The numerical work has been carried out by means of a micro scale numerical tool specifically tailored for flow characteristics within converter channels. The results are discussed with aid of flow distribution patterns within the single cell and backpressure figures along the catalyst channel. The results of the numerical investigation provide information about the most efficient channel shapes. An experimental validation of the simulated results has been carried out with a production 3.6 liter, 6-cylinder engine on a dynamic test bench. Both modal and bag emission data have been measured during the FTP-Cycle.
Technical Paper

Application of metal-supported catalysts for diesel engines

Nearly all real diesel engines operations are leading to low exhaust temperatures. Standard catalyst technique remains therefore for significant time below light-off. To improve the conversion behavior two approaches were made: placement of tailor-fitted catalysts as close as possible to the engine exhaust port before turbocharger and usage of close coupled catalysts with the so-called hybrid design. Both measures are providing visible progress in reducing diesel engine emissions. Tests were made with modern diesel engines both for passenger cars and heavy-duty vehicles.
Technical Paper

New Approaches to Catalyst Substrate Application for Diesel Engines

Nearly all real Diesel engine operation is leading to low exhaust temperatures. Standard catalyst technique remains therefore for significant time below light off. To improve the conversion behavior two approaches were made: placement of tailor fitted catalysts as close as possible to the engine exhaust port before turbocharger and usage of close coupled catalysts with the so-called hybrid design. Both measures are providing visible progress in reducing Diesel engine emissions. Tests were made with modern Diesel engines both for passenger cars and heavy duty vehicles.
Technical Paper

Study of Modern Application Strategies for Catalytic Aftertreatment Demonstrated on a Production V6 Engine

A study was performed to develop optimum design strategies for a production V6 engine to maximize catalyst performance at minimum pressure loss and at minimum cost. Test results for an advanced system, designed to meet future emission limits on a production V6 vehicle, are presented based on FTP testing. The on-line pressure loss and temperature data serves to explain the functioning of the catalyst.
Technical Paper

New Catalyst Preparation Procedure for OBDII-Monitoring Requirements

In order to match catalyst OBDII conditions the common procedure is oven aging with air, which is not suitable for complete converter systems due to mantle corrosion. The goal was, therefore, to find an alternative procedure to ensure a defined catalyst aging that would match 1,75 times the emission standard and is also good for SULEV. The new procedure currently being developed allows the aging of metal and ceramic catalysts as well as complete catalyst systems. The paper will present the aging process, emission data of fresh and aged catalysts and the feedback to the test car OBDII system.
Technical Paper

Application Guideline to Define Catalyst Layout for Maximum Catalytic Efficiency

The influence of physical parameters of the catalyst's substrate such as thermal mass, hydraulic diameter and geometric surface area on catalyst's efficiency is well known as published in numerous works. This paper will show interactions of these parameters and will provide a guideline on how to design the optimum system for a specific application, taking into account system's back pressure and system costs. Based on engine test bench results that show the influence of the physical parameters, the results for the optimized design regarding emission tests and maximum conversion rate at higher loads will be demonstrated.
Technical Paper

Particulate Trap Technology for Light Duty Vehicles with a New Regeneration Strategy

A particulate trap with combined regeneration has been developed for use in light duty vehicles with diesel engines. This new system was tested first on an engine test rig. On-road vehicle tests are going on since August 1998. The results obtained clearly demonstrate the feasibility of this system. With this system trap regeneration has to be ensured under worst case conditions (exhaust gas temperature<400° C). To meet this requirement electrical heating in combination with a fuel-borne catalyst is applied. Different filter materials such as cordierite wall flow and silicon carbide monoliths were tested on the engine test rig. The paper reports on results from the engine test rig as well as from on-road vehicle testing. An overview about pre-heating and regeneration examples are given and energy balances are presented.
Technical Paper

Design Criteria of Catalyst Substrates for NOx Adsorber Function

Against the background of the current discussions on the reduction in CO2 emissions, the development of lean-burn engines is acquiring increasing importance. In order to meet future emissions limits, new strategies are required, especially for NOx conversion. One technique developed in recent years for the conversion of NOx in lean exhaust gases is the NOx adsorber catalyst, which stores NOx in lean operating conditions and must periodically be regenerated with rich exhaust gas. In this paper, the influence of catalyst substrate design on NOx conversion is described. In addition NOx conversion measurements with NOx adsorbers of various cell densities, variable diameter/length ratios as well as smooth and structured channel walls are carried out.
Technical Paper

Recycling Technology for Metallic Substrates: A Closed Cycle

Emissions during the useage phase of vehicles are of increasing interest in environmental protection, and consequently, there is considerable interest in exhaust systems. The automotive exhaust system including the catalytic converter is, because of the precious metals in the catalyst, of particular interest for the recycling of automotive parts. The paper will describe the recycling technology of ceramic and metal catalyst substrates. The process will be analyzed in detail with the example of metal supports. As a result the complete life cycle and the recycling efficiency are presented.
Technical Paper

The Conical Catalytic Converter-Potential for Improvement of Catalytic Effectiveness

The development of the S-designed metallic catalytic converter and the flexibility of its production paved the way for the first conical converter with continuous cell enlargement. This type of conical converter, installed upstream from a standard catalytic conversion system exerts a positive influence on flow distribution and converter efficiency, both during the cold start and under operating conditions. The study results outlined in the following text demonstrate the potential for increased catalytic effectiveness, taking the example of the close-coupled application.
Technical Paper

Electrically Heated Catalytic Converter (EHC) in the BMW ALPINA B12 5.7 Switch-Tronic

The production of the BMW ALPINA B12 5.7 with Switch-Tronic transmission provides the markets of Europe and Japan with an exclusive, luxury-orientated, high performance limited series limousine. This is the first vehicle worldwide to be fitted with the progressive exhaust gas aftertreatment technology known as the Electrically Heated Catalyst (EHC), in which the effectiveness of the power utilized is increased significantly by an alternating heating process for both catalytic converters. Only since this achievement has the implementation of the EHC been viable without extensive modification to the battery and alternator. With this exhaust gas aftertreatment concept, the emissions of this high performance vehicle will fall to less than half the maximum permissible for compliance with 1996 emission standards.