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Journal Article

The Thermodynamics of Exhaust Gas Condensation

2017-06-29
2017-01-9281
Water vapor is, aside from carbon dioxide, the major fossil fuel combustion by-product. Depending on its concentration in the exhaust gas mixture as well as on the exhaust gas pressure, its condensation temperature can be derived. For typical gasoline engine stoichiometric operating conditions, the water vapor dew point lies at about 53 °C. The exhaust gas mixture does however contain some pollutants coming from the fuel, engine oil, and charge air, which can react with the water vapor and affect the condensation process. For instance, sulfur trioxide present in the exhaust, reacts with water vapor forming sulfuric acid. This acid builds a binary system with water vapor, which presents a dew point often above 100 °C. Exhaust composition after leaving the combustion chamber strongly depends on fuel type, engine concept and operation point. Furthermore, the exhaust undergoes several chemical after treatments.
Journal Article

Development and Demonstration of LNT+SCR System for Passenger Car Diesel Applications

2014-04-01
2014-01-1537
The regulations for mobile applications will become stricter in Euro 6 and further emission levels and require the use of active aftertreatment methods for NOX and particulate matter. SCR and LNT have been both used commercially for mobile NOX removal. An alternative system is based on the combination of these two technologies. Developments of catalysts and whole systems as well as final vehicle demonstrations are discussed in this study. The small and full-size catalyst development experiments resulted in PtRh/LNT with optimized noble metal loadings and Cu-SCR catalyst having a high durability and ammonia adsorption capacity. For this study, an aftertreatment system consisting of LNT plus exhaust bypass, passive SCR and engine independent reductant supply by on-board exhaust fuel reforming was developed and investigated. The concept definition considers NOX conversion, CO2 drawback and system complexity.
Technical Paper

Gasoline HCCI/CAI on a Four-Cylinder Test Bench and Vehicle Engine - Results and Conclusions for the Next Investigation Steps

2010-05-05
2010-01-1488
Internal combustion engines with lean homogeneous charge and auto-ignition combustion of gasoline fuels have the capability to significantly reduce fuel consumption and realize ultra-low engine-out NOx emissions. Group research of Volkswagen AG has therefore defined the Gasoline Compression Ignition combustion (GCI®) concept. A detailed investigation of this novel combustion process has been carried out on test bench engines and test vehicles by group research of Volkswagen AG and IAV GmbH Gifhorn. Experimental results confirm the theoretically expected potential for improved efficiency and emissions behavior. Volkswagen AG and IAV GmbH will utilize a highly flexible externally supercharged variable valve train (VVT) engine for future investigations to extend the understanding of gas exchange and EGR strategy as well as the boost demands of gasoline auto-ignition combustion processes.
Technical Paper

Comparison of Different EGR Solutions

2008-04-14
2008-01-0206
This paper compares 4 different EGR systems by means of simulation in GT-Power. The demands of optimum massive EGR and fresh air rates were based on experimental results. The experimental data were used to calibrate the model and ROHR, in particular. The main aim was to investigate the influence of pumping work on engine and vehicle fuel consumption (thus CO2 production) in different EGR layouts using optimum VG turbine control. These EGR systems differ in the source of pressure drop between the exhaust and intake pipes. Firstly, the engine settings were optimized under steady operation - BSFC was minimized while taking into account both the required EGR rate and fresh air mass flow. Secondly, transient simulations (NEDC cycle) were carried out - a full engine model was used to obtain detailed information on important parameters. The study shows the necessity to use natural pressure differences or renewable pressure losses if reasonable fuel consumption is to be achieved.
Technical Paper

Locally Resolved Measurement of Gas-Phase Temperature and EGR-Ratio in an HCCI-Engine and Their Influence on Combustion Timing

2007-04-16
2007-01-0182
Laser-based measurements of charge temperature and exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) ratio in an homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI) engine are demonstrated. For this purpose, the rotational coherent anti-Stokes Raman spectroscopy technique (CARS) was used. This technique allows temporally and locally resolved measurements in combustion environments through only two small line-of-sight optical accesses and the use of standard gasoline as a fuel. The investigated engine is a production-line four-cylinder direct-injection gasoline engine with the valve strategy modified to realize HCCI-operation. CARS-measurements were performed in motored and fired operation and the results are compared to polytropic calculations. Studies of engine speed, load, valve timing, and injection pressure were conducted showing the strong influence of charge temperature on the combustion timing.
Technical Paper

Engine-Independent Exhaust Gas Aftertreatment Using a Burner Heated Catalyst

2006-10-16
2006-01-3401
Meeting current exhaust emission standards requires rapid catalyst light-off. Closed-coupled catalysts are commonly used to reduce light-off time by minimizing exhaust heat loss between the engine and catalyst. However, this exhaust gas system design leads to a coupling of catalyst heating and engine operation. An engine-independent exhaust gas aftertreatment can be realized by combining a burner heated catalyst system (BHC) with an underfloor catalyst located far away from the engine. This paper describes some basic characteristics of such a BHC system and the results of fitting this system into a Volkswagen Touareg where a single catalyst was located about 1.8 m downstream of the engine. Nevertheless, it was possible to reach about 50% of the current European emission standard EU 4 without additional fuel consumption caused by the BHC system.
Technical Paper

Development and Verification of In-Vehicle Networks in a Virtual Environment

2005-04-11
2005-01-1534
Due to the increase in demand for comfort and safety features in today's automobiles, the internal vehicle communication networks necessary to accommodate these features are very complex. These networks represent a heterogeneous architecture consisting of several ECUs exchanging information via bus systems such as CAN, LIN, MOST, or FlexRay buses. Development and verification of internal vehicle networks include multiple design layers. These layers are the logical layer represented by the software application, the associated data link layer, and the physical connection layer containing bus interfaces, wires, and termination. Verification of these systems in the early stages of the design process (before a physical network is available for testing) has become a critical need. As a result, the need to simulate these designs at all their levels of complexity has become critically important.
Technical Paper

NO Laser-Induced Fluorescence Imaging in the Combustion Chamber of a Spray-Guided Direct-Injection Gasoline Engine

2004-06-08
2004-01-1918
In direct-injection gasoline (GDI) engines with charge stratification, minimizing engine-out nitrogen oxide (NOx) emission is crucial since exhaust-gas aftertreatment tolerates only limited amounts of NOx. Reduced NOx production directly lowers the frequency of energy-inefficient catalyst regeneration cycles. In this paper we investigate NO formation in a realistic GDI engine. Quantitative in-cylinder measurements of NO concentrations are carried out via laser-induced fluorescence imaging with excitation of NO (A-X(0,2) band at 248 nm), and subsequent fluorescence detection at 220-240 nm. Engine modifications were kept to a minimum in order to provide results that are representative of practical operating conditions. Optical access via a sapphire ring enabled identical engine geometry as a production line engine. The engine is operated with commercial gasoline (“Super-Plus”, RON 98).
Technical Paper

A Study of the Thermochemical Conditions in the Exhaust Manifold Using Secondary Air in a 2.0 L Engine

2002-05-06
2002-01-1676
The California LEV1 II program will be introduced in the year 2003 and requires a further reduction of the exhaust emissions of passenger cars. The cold start emissions represent the main part of the total emissions of the FTP2-Cycle. Cold start emissions can be efficiently reduced by injecting secondary air (SA) in the exhaust port making compliance with the most stringent standards possible. The thermochemical conditions (mixing rate and temperature of secondary air and exhaust gas, exhaust gas composition, etc) prevailing in the exhaust system are described in this paper. This provides knowledge of the conditions for auto ignition of the mixture within the exhaust manifold. The thus established exothermal reaction (exhaust gas post-combustion) results in a shorter time to light-off temperature of the catalyst. The mechanisms of this combustion are studied at different engine idle conditions.
Technical Paper

Exhaust Gas Aftertreatment of Volkswagen FSI Fuel Stratified Injection Engines

2002-03-04
2002-01-0346
For substantial reduction of fuel consumption of their vehicle fleet, Volkswagen AG has decided to develop spark-ignition engines with direct fuel injection. To launch this new engine concept with stratified lean operation mode while at the same time meeting the stringent EU IV emission standards, it was necessary to develop a suitable exhaust gas aftertreatment system. This was achieved as part of an intensive co-operation between Volkswagen AG and OMG, formerly dmc2 Degussa Metals Catalysts Cerdec AG. The paper describes the demands for exhaust gas aftertreatment due to lean burn operation. In addition the main development steps of the exhaust gas aftertreatment system for Volkswagen FSI engines and catalyst durability over vehicle lifetime are discussed. Focus is laid on the catalyst system design and coating variations. Volkswagen developed a new closed-loop emission control management system which uses NOx-sensor signals for the first time worldwide.
Technical Paper

PremAir® Catalyst System - OBD Concepts

2001-03-05
2001-01-1302
Traditional approaches to pollution control have been to develop benign, non-polluting processes or to abate emissions at the tailpipe or stack before release to the atmosphere. A new technology called PremAir® Catalyst Systems1 takes a different approach and directly reduces ambient, ground level ozone. For mobile applications, the new system involves coating a heat exchange device in a vehicle, such as the radiator or air conditioning condenser. The catalyst converts ozone to oxygen as ozone-containing ambient air passes over the coated surface of the radiator. The technology is relatively simple and provides a positive benefit to the environment while being totally passive to the end user application. Volvo Car Corporation was the first automobile manufacturer to voluntarily introduce the technology on their S80 luxury sedan. Nissan Motor Corporation is also using the technology on their new Sentra CA (Clean Air) certified PZEV vehicle for California.
Technical Paper

An Assessment of the Plasma Assisted Catalytic Reactor (PACR) Approach to Lean NOx Abatement: The Relative Reducibility of NO and NO2 using #2 Diesel fuel as the Reductant

2000-10-16
2000-01-2962
The plasma assisted catalytic reactor (PACR) approach to lean NOx abatement is a two step process. The non-thermal plasma oxidizes the engine out NO to NO2, which is then reduced to N2 over a catalyst using a hydrocarbon reductant. Whereas it was once believed that the plasma itself directly reduces NOx to N2, it has been shown that the plasma's principle function is to oxidize NO to NO2. This is accomplished without oxidizing SO2 to SO3, resulting in lower sulfate particulate when compared to standard lean NOx catalysis using platinum or reducible oxide catalysts. We have performed reactor studies comparing the relative reducibility of NO2 and NO in a synthetic diesel exhaust using diesel fuel as the hydrocarbon reductant, with attention to time-on stream behavior and determination of NOx reversibly adsorbed on the catalyst. We find that at 200°C, 50% of the NO2 disappearance over Na-ZSM5 is attributable to reversible adsorption on the catalyst.
Technical Paper

Study of Factors Influencing the Performance of a NOx Trap in a Light-Duty Diesel Vehicle

2000-10-16
2000-01-2911
A NOx trap catalyst was evaluated in a light-duty diesel engine bench under steady-state speed/load conditions with alternating lean and rich exhaust streams. The NOx conversion was correlated with several engine operating and control parameters, such as speed, lean / rich timing and catalyst temperature. The NOx conversion is a result of balance between stored NOx in a lean stream and the quantity of reductant applied in a rich transient pulse. The conversion is inversely proportional to the lean / rich ratio, R, (at R< 17) and engine speed. At a given speed and lean/rich ratio, the conversion is proportional to the catalyst inlet temperature. If the temperature is too high, thermal NOx release may decrease the overall NOx conversion. With a fully regenerated NOx trap catalyst, its cumulative NOx storage, at a given trapping period (or an instantaneous NOx trapping efficiency), is proportional to engine speed.
Technical Paper

Research Results and Progress in LeaNOx II -A Co-operation for Lean NOx Abatement

2000-10-16
2000-01-2909
In a consortium of European industrial partners and research institutes, a combination of industrial development and scientific research was organised. The objective was to improve the catalytic NOx conversion for lean burn cars and heavy-duty trucks, taking into account boundary conditions for the fuel consumption. The project lasted for three years. During this period parallel research was conducted in research areas ranging from basic research based on a theoretical approach to full scale emission system development. NOx storage catalysts became a central part of the project. Catalysts were evaluated with respect to resistance towards sulphur poisoning. It was concluded that very low sulphur fuel is a necessity for efficient use of NOx trap technology. Additionally, attempts were made to develop methods for reactivating poisoned catalysts. Methods for short distance mixing were developed for the addition of reducing agent.
Technical Paper

Understanding Sulfur Interaction Key to OBD of Low Emission Vehicles

2000-10-16
2000-01-2929
As the automobiles move closer to the ULEV, ULEV-2 and SULEV requirements, OBD (on board diagnostic) will become a design challenge. The present OBD II designs involve the use of dual oxygen sensors to monitor the hydrocarbon performance of the catalytic converter. The aim of this study was twofold: to determine the interaction of fuel sulfur and ceria in the catalyst formulation on the performance of a Pd/Rh TWC (three-way catalyst) to elucidate the sulfur and ceria interaction on the ability of the Pd/Rh catalyst to monitor the state of the catalyst relative to hydrocarbon activity and therefore it's utility in the OBD system. Catalyst samples were aged on a spark ignited engine using a “fuel cut” engine aging cycle operated for 50 hours. Maximum catalyst temperatures during this aging cycle were 850-870°C. The effect of sulfur was determined by measuring aged catalyst performance using both indolene (∼100 ppm sulfur) and premium unleaded gasoline (∼350 ppm sulfur).
Technical Paper

PremAir® Catalyst System* - Long-term On-road Aging Results

2000-10-16
2000-01-2925
Recently Volvo Car Corporation introduced the new PremAir® catalyst system from Engelhard Corporation on their S80 luxury sedan and the new V70 estate wagon. In this paper, performance results of this catalyst system after long-term mileage accumulation will be presented. Urban taxi vehicles were used to test the catalyst over 110,000 miles. The rate of deactivation in long-term catalyst performance was found to be dependent on the radiator design, and was least for the radiator design with the highest total geometric surface area. Subsequently, a new catalyst version was developed in order to minimize the deactivation rate. This new catalyst has been evaluated under similar taxi driving conditions over 80,000 miles, and has shown improved durability performance.
Technical Paper

Experimental Approach to Optimize Catalyst Flow Uniformity

2000-03-06
2000-01-0865
A uniform flow distribution at converter inlet is one of the fundamental requirements to meet high catalytic efficiency. Commonly used tools for optimization of the inlet flow distribution are flow measurements as well as CFD analysis. This paper puts emphasis on the experimental procedures and results. The interaction of flow measurements and CFD is outlined. The exhaust gas flow is transient, compressible and hot, making in-situ flow measurements very complex. On the other hand, to utilize the advantages of flow testing at steady-state and cold conditions the significance of these results has to be verified first. CFD analysis under different boundary conditions prove that - in a first approach - the flow situation can be regarded as a sequence of successive, steady-state situations. Using the Reynolds analogy a formula for the steady-state, cold test mass flow is derived, taking into account the cylinder displacement and the rated speed.
Technical Paper

A New Approach to OBDII Monitoring of Catalyst Performance Using Dual Oxygen Sensors

2000-03-06
2000-01-0863
On-Board Diagnostics for emissions-related components require the monitoring of the catalytic converter performance. Currently, the dual Exhaust Gas Oxygen (EGO) sensor method is the only proven method for monitoring the catalyst performance for hydrocarbons (HC). The premise for using the dual oxygen sensor method is that a catalyst with good oxygen storage capacity (OSC) will perform better than a catalyst with lower OSC. A statistical relationship has been developed to correlate HC performance with changes in OSC. The current algorithms are susceptible to false illumination of the Malfunction Indication Light (MIL) due to: 1. The accuracy with which the diagnostic algorithm can predict a catalyst malfunction condition, and 2. The precision with which the algorithm can consistently predict a malfunction. A new algorithm has been developed that provides a significant improvement in correlation between the EGO sensor signals and hydrocarbon emissions.
Technical Paper

The New Diesel Engine in the New Beetle

1998-08-11
981950
With the introduction of the New Beetle, Volkswagen is offering the next generation of the 1.9l TDI engine. Several evolutionary changes have been made to the TDI concept to further improve its emissions, efficiency and performance. Emissions performance is improved with increased fuel injection pressure, optimized fuel injectors, calibration modifications, EGR cooling and reduced crevice volume in the combustion chamber. Efficiency is improved with new oil pump, vacuum pump and water pump drive systems and the elimination of an auxiliary driveshaft. Performance and efficiency is improved with the addition of a variable geometry turbocharger, which increases torque at lower engine speeds while preserving performance at higher engine speeds. This paper describes the many enhancements found in this latest generation TDI and gives a brief lookout to the future trends in diesel engine development such as a high pressure injection system with unit injectors.
Technical Paper

Interaction Between Gasoline Properties and Engine Management System and Effects on 3-Way Catalyst Efficiency

1997-10-01
972839
The EPEFE study (European Programme on Emissions, Fuels and Engine Technologies), /1/ and other programmes have identified an increase in tailpipe NOx emissions with reduced gasoline aromatics content for modern 3-way controlled catalyst vehicles. This effect occurs with fully warmed-up catalyst under closed-loop operation. In order to understand the reasons for this effect VW and Shell have mechanistically investigated the effects of fuel properties on EMS (engine management system) and catalyst performance. Fuels with independent variation of oxygen, aromatics and mid-range volatility were tested in different VW engines. λ was monitored using sensors located both pre and post catalyst. The results confirmed that reducing gasoline aromatics content reduced engine-out emissions but increased tailpipe NOx emissions. It could be shown that differences in H/C ratio led to differences in the hydrogen content of engine-out emissions which affected the reading of the λ sensor.
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