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Technical Paper

Catalyzed Soot Filters in Close Coupled Position for Passenger Vehicles

2006-04-03
2006-01-1091
Recently, catalyzed soot filters (CSF) for passenger vehicles have been introduced into the marketplace to comply with the European environmental requirements and future emission standards. The initial system consisted of one or two diesel oxidation catalysts (DOC) to meet the regulated HC and CO standards along with an under floor CSF to treat the particulate emissions. In order to meet the cold start requirements and to reduce system costs with a CSF only unit, converters are placed closer to the engine to minimize heat losses and more of the DOC functionality is integrated into the filter substrate. This work describes the development of such DOC-integrated CSF systems. One major challenge in the design of such systems is to ensure that there is sufficient catalyst functionality within the wall-flow substrate while maintaining an acceptable exhaust gas backpressure across the filter.
Technical Paper

Pushing the Envelope to Near-Zero Emissions on Light-duty Gasoline Vehicles

2001-03-05
2001-01-3840
The integration of advanced emission control technologies including advanced three-way catalysts and advanced, high cell density, ultra-thin wall substrates with advanced gasoline powertrains and advanced engine controls is necessary to achieve near-zero tailpipe emission requirements like California's SULEV or PZEV light-duty certification categories. The first gasoline vehicles meeting these near-zero regulations have been introduced in California in 2001. Advanced three-way catalysts targeted for these near-zero regulations feature layered architectures, thermally stable oxygen storage components, and segregated precious metal impregnation strategies. Engine calibration strategies focused on tight stoichiometric air/fuel control and fast catalyst heat-up immediately after engine start are important enablers to achieve near-zero hydrocarbon and NOx emissions.
Technical Paper

Plasma-Assisted Catalytic Reduction of NOx

1998-10-19
982508
Many studies suggest that lean-NOx SCR proceeds via oxidation of NO to NO2 by oxygen, followed by the reaction of the NO2 with hydrocarbons. On catalysts that are not very effective in catalyzing the equilibration of NO+O2 and NO2, the rate of N2 formation is substantially higher when the input NOx is NO2 instead of NO. The apparent bifunctional mechanism in the SCR of NOx has prompted the use of mechanically mixed catalyst components, in which one component is used to accelerate the oxidation of NO to NO2, and another component catalyzes the reaction between NO2 and the hydrocarbon. Catalysts that previously were regarded as inactive for NOx reduction could therefore become efficient when mixed with an oxidation catalyst. Preconverting NO to NO2 opens the opportunity for a wider range of SCR catalysts and perhaps improves the durability of these catalysts. This paper describes the use of a non-thermal plasma as an efficient means for selective partial oxidation of NO to NO2.
Technical Paper

Effects of Sulfur on Performance of Catalytic Aftertreatment Devices

1992-02-01
920557
In the effort to design reliable diesel engines which meet the strict US Federal Regulations for emissions, considerable progress has been made by engine manufacturers. Particulate emissions are now below 0.25 g/BHPh and after 1994 will be below 0.1 g/BHPh. Diesel fuel has a revised specification limit of 0.05% sulfur as a means to assist diesel engine manufacturers in complying with the 1994 standard. Diesel oxidation catalysts (DOC) have been chosen as another means. A DOC can efficiently oxidize soluble organic particulate matter (SOF) and gaseous hydrocarbons while easily oxidizing SO2 to SO3-the latter being a particulate and undesirable. Selective DOCs have been developed which maintain the activity for SOF and minimize the undesirable SO2 oxidation step. However, performance for gaseous hydrocarbons may be negatively affected.
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