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Journal Article

Development of an Improved NOx Reaction Mechanism for Low Temperature Diesel Combustion Modeling

2008-10-06
2008-01-2413
The development of a new Nitric Oxide (NOx) reaction mechanism has been conducted by adding species, including hydrogen cyanide (HCN) and the CH radical to a reduced chemistry diesel combustion model. The additional chemical reactions were added to the ERC's reduced 12-step NOx mechanism, which consists of N, NO, N2O, and NO2. The new NOx mechanism was implemented into the KIVA/ERC-CHEMKIN code and was found to be able to predict the experimentally observed trend that the amount of engine-out NOx decreases as engine load is increased, which is not reproduced by the current reduced NOx mechanism. HCN and CH were found to be species that bridge CxHy products and N radicals via the reaction CH+N2→HCN+N under high equivalence ratio conditions, and Zeldovich NO formation is suppressed by the formation of HCN, a species in the Fenimore NO formation pathway. The additional species and reactions were also found to influence the prediction of engine-out soot emissions.
Journal Article

A Computational Investigation of Two-Stage Combustion in a Light-Duty Engine

2008-10-06
2008-01-2412
The objective of this investigation is to optimize light-duty diesel engine operating parameters using Adaptive Injection Strategies (AIS) for optimal fuel preparation. A multi-dimensional Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) code with detailed chemistry, the KIVA-CHEMKIN code, is employed and a Multi-Objective Genetic Algorithm (MOGA) is used to study a Two-Stage Combustion (TSC) concept. The combustion process is considered at a light load operating condition (nominal IMEP of 5.5 bar and high speed (2000 rev/min)), and two combustion modes are combined in this concept. The first stage is ideally Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) combustion and the second stage is diffusion combustion under high temperature and low oxygen concentration conditions. Available experimental data on a 1.9L single-cylinder research engine is used for model validation.
Technical Paper

A Numerical Investigation of Nozzle Geometry and Injection Condition Effects on Diesel Fuel Injector Flow Physics

2008-04-14
2008-01-0936
A three-dimensional homogeneous equilibrium model (HEM) has been developed and implemented into an engine computational fluid dynamics (CFD) code KIVA-3V. The model was applied to simulate cavitating flow within injector nozzle passages. The effects of nozzle passage geometry and injection conditions on the development of cavitation zones and the nozzle discharge coefficient were investigated. Specifically, the effects of nozzle length (L/D ratio), nozzle inlet radius (R/D ratio) and K or KS factor (nozzle passage convergence) were simulated, and the effects of injection and chamber pressures, and time-varying injection pressure were also investigated. These effects are well captured by the nozzle flow model, and the predicted trends are consistent with those from experimental observations and theoretical analyses.
Technical Paper

Soot Structure in a Conventional Non-Premixed Diesel Flame

2006-04-03
2006-01-0196
An analysis of the soot formation and oxidation process in a conventional direct-injection (DI) diesel flame was conducted using numerical simulations. An improved multi-step phenomenological soot model that includes particle inception, particle coagulation, surface growth and oxidation was used to describe the soot formation and oxidation process. The soot model has been implemented into the KIVA-3V code. Other model Improvements include a piston-ring crevice model, a KH/RT spray breakup model, a droplet wall impingement model, a wall-temperature heat transfer model, and the RNG k-ε turbulence model. The Shell model was used to simulate the ignition process, and a laminar-and-turbulent characteristic time combustion model was used for the post-ignition combustion process. Experimental data from a heavy-duty, Cummins N14, research DI diesel engine operated with conventional injection under low-load conditions were selected as a benchmark.
Technical Paper

A Study of the Effects of High EGR, High Equivalence Ratio, and Mixing Time on Emissions Levels in a Heavy-Duty Diesel Engine for PCCI Combustion

2006-04-03
2006-01-0026
Experiments were performed on a single-cylinder heavy-duty Caterpillar SCOTE 3401E engine at high speed (1737 rev/min) and loads up to 60% of full load for fully Premixed Charge Compression Ignition (PCCI) combustion. The engine was equipped with a high pressure (150 MPa) Caterpillar 300B HEUI fuel injection system. The engine was run with EGR levels up to 75% and with equivalence ratios up to 0.95. These experiments resulted in compliance of NOx and PM emissions to 2010 emissions mandates levels up to the tested load. The set of experiments also demonstrated the importance of cylinder charge preparation by way of optimized start-of-combustion timing for sufficient in-cylinder mixing. It was found that increased EGR rates, even with the correspondingly increased equivalence ratios, increase mixing time and substantially decrease PM emissions.
Technical Paper

An Experimental Investigation of Partially Premixed Combustion Strategies Using Multiple Injections in a Heavy-Duty Diesel Engine

2006-04-03
2006-01-0917
Optimizations were performed on a single-cylinder heavy-duty Caterpillar SCOTE 3401E engine for NOx, PM and BSFC reductions. The engine was equipped with a Caterpillar 300B HEUI fuel injection system capable of up to four injections with timings from 90 BTDC to 90 ATDC. The engine was operated at a medium load (57%), high speed (1737 rev/min) operation point. A micro-genetic algorithm was utilized to optimize a hybrid, double-injection strategy, which incorporated an early, premixed pilot injection with a late main injection. The fuel injection parameters, intake boost pressure, and EGR were considered in the optimization. The optimization produced a parameter set that met the 2007 and 2010 PM emissions mandate of 0.0134 g/kW-hr, and was within the 1.5x not to exceed NOx + HC mandate of 2.694 g/kW-hr. Following the optimization exercise, further parametric interaction studies were performed to reveal the underlying interactions and phenomena.
Technical Paper

Optimizing HSDI Diesel Combustion and Emissions Using Multiple Injection Strategies

2005-04-11
2005-01-0212
Multiple injection strategies have been experimentally and computationally studied for simultaneously reducing diesel engine NOx and particulate emissions. However, injection strategies featuring three or more pulses per engine cycle have not been sufficiently studied previously. The large number of parameters to be considered, in addition to the complicated interactions among them, challenge the capability of experimental hardware, computational models, and optimization methods. In the present work, multiple injection strategies including up to five pulses per engine cycle, are computationally investigated to optimize High Speed Direct Injection (HSDI) diesel engine combustion and emissions at a single part-load operating condition. The KIVA-3V code coupled with a Genetic Algorithm were used as the modeling and optimization tools, respectively. It was found that widely separated injection with two-stage combustion appears to provide optimal HSDI diesel performance at part load.
Technical Paper

Modeling the Effects of EGR and Injection Pressure on Soot Formation in a High-Speed Direct-Injection (HSDI) Diesel Engine Using a Multi-Step Phenomenological Soot Model

2005-04-11
2005-01-0121
Low-temperature combustion concepts that utilize cooled EGR, early/retarded injection, high swirl ratios, and modest compression ratios have recently received considerable attention. To understand the combustion and, in particular, the soot formation process under these operating conditions, a modeling study was carried out using the KIVA-3V code with an improved phenomenological soot model. This multi-step soot model includes particle inception, surface growth, surface oxidation, and particle coagulation. Additional models include a piston-ring crevice model, the KH/RT spray breakup model, a droplet wall impingement model, a wall heat transfer model, and the RNG k-ε turbulence model. The Shell model was used to simulate the ignition process, and a laminar-and-turbulent characteristic time combustion model was used for the post-ignition combustion process.
Technical Paper

Experimental Optimization of a Heavy-Duty Diesel Engine Using Automated Genetic Algorithms

2002-03-04
2002-01-0960
A micro-genetic algorithm (μGA) optimization method was applied to a heavy-duty, direct-injected diesel engine via an automated test bed system. The goal of this application was to demonstrate the feasibility and advantages of automated optimization experiments. With the genetic algorithm, no user input was required other than the factors of interest and their allowable ranges. This means that once the routine was initiated, it was essentially run undisturbed until a preset objective level was reached or a preset number of generations had been run. The automated μGA was successfully demonstrated at all points of the six-mode transient cycle simulation, excluding idle. To accomplish the automated experiments, an automated testing system was developed around a Caterpillar single-cylinder diesel engine.
Technical Paper

Investigating the Effect of Spray Targeting and Impingement on Diesel Engine Cold Start

2000-03-06
2000-01-0269
Analysis of the cold-starting performance of diesel engines requires the development of advanced models to describe the multicomponent nature of the fuel as well as the spray impingement and wall film behavior. A new approach to modeling the multicomponent nature of commercial fuels was implemented. This model is based on a continuous distribution using a probability density function, rather than the use of discrete components, to capture more accurately the entire range of composition in commercial fuels. The model was applied to single droplet calculations to validate the predictions against experimental results. Previous discrete component wall-film modeling has been extended to include the continuous multicomponent fuel representation. A significant factor that has received little attention in analyzing the cold-start performance of diesel engines is the spray impingement angle and location. This has been investigated using the modified KIVA code.
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