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Split-Spray Piston Geometry Optimized for HSDI Diesel Engine Combustion

A combustion chamber geometry design optimization study has been performed on a high-speed direct-injection (HSDI) automotive diesel engine at a part-load medium-speed operating condition using both modeling and experiments. A model-based optimization was performed using the KIVA-GA code. This work utilized a newly developed 6-parameter automated grid generation technique that allowed a vast number of piston geometries to be considered during the optimization. Other salient parameters were included that are known to have an interaction with the chamber geometry. They included the start of injection (SOI) timing, swirl ratio (SR), exhaust gas recirculation percentage (EGR), injection pressure, and the compression ratio (CR). The measure of design fitness used included NOx, soot, unburned hydrocarbon (HC), and CO emissions, as well as the fuel consumption. Subsequently, an experimental parametric study was performed using the piston geometry found by the numerical optimization.