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Technical Paper

Investigation of Transient Emissions and Mixed Mode Combustion for a Light Duty Diesel Engine

2009-04-20
2009-01-1347
The use of low temperature combustion (LTC) modes has demonstrated abilities to lower diesel engine emissions while maintaining good fuel consumption. LTC is assumed to be a viable solution to assist in meeting stringent upcoming diesel engine emissions targets, particularly nitric oxides (NOx) and particulate matter (PM). However, LTC is currently limited to low engine loads and is not a feasible solution at higher loads on production engines. A mixed mode combustion strategy must be implemented to take advantage of the benefits offered from LTC at the low loads and speeds while switching to a conventional diesel combustion strategy at higher loads and speeds and thus allowing full range use of the engine under realistic driving conditions. Experiments were performed to characterize engine out emissions during transient engine operating conditions involving LTC combustion strategies.
Technical Paper

Efficient Multidimensional Simulation of HCCI and DI Engine Combustion with Detailed Chemistry

2009-04-20
2009-01-0701
This paper presents three approaches that can be used for efficient multidimensional simulations of HCCI and DI engine combustion. The first approach uses a newly developed Adaptive Multi-grid Chemistry (AMC) model. The AMC model allows a fine mesh to be used to provide adequate resolution for the spray simulation, while dramatically reducing the number of cells that need to be computed by the chemistry solver. The model has been implemented into the KIVA3v2-CHEMKIN code and it was found that computer time was reduced by a factor of ten for HCCI cases and a factor of three to four for DI cases without losing prediction accuracy. The simulation results were compared with experimental data obtained from a Honda engine operated with n-heptane under HCCI conditions for which directly measured in-cylinder temperature and H2O mole fraction data are available.
Technical Paper

Heavy-Duty Diesel Combustion Optimization Using Multi-Objective Genetic Algorithm and Multi-Dimensional Modeling

2009-04-20
2009-01-0716
A multi-objective genetic algorithm methodology was applied to a heavy-duty diesel engine at three different operating conditions of interest. Separate optimizations were performed over various fuel injection nozzle parameters, piston bowl geometries and swirl ratios (SR). Different beginning of injection (BOI) timings were considered in all optimizations. The objective of the optimizations was to find the best possible fuel economy, NOx, and soot emissions tradeoffs. The input parameter ranges were determined using design of experiment methodology. A non-dominated sorting genetic algorithm II (NSGA II) was used for the optimization. For the optimization of piston bowl geometry, an automated grid generator was used for efficient mesh generation with variable geometry parameters. The KIVA3V release 2 code with improved ERC sub-models was used. The characteristic time combustion (CTC) model was employed to improve computational efficiency.
Technical Paper

Validation of Advanced Combustion Models Applied to Two-Stage Combustion in a Heavy Duty Diesel Engine

2009-04-20
2009-01-0714
Two advanced combustion models have been validated with the KIVA-3V Release 2 code in the context of two-stage combustion in a heavy duty diesel engine. The first model uses CHEMKIN to directly integrate chemistry in each computational cell. The second model accounts for flame propagation with the G-equation, and CHEMKIN predicts autoignition and handles chemistry ahead of and behind the flame front. A Damköhler number criterion was used in flame containing cells to characterize the local mixing status and determine whether heat release and species change should be a result of flame propagation or volumetric heat release. The purpose of this criterion is to make use of physical and chemical time scales to determine the most appropriate chemistry model, depending on the mixture composition and thermodynamic properties of the gas in each computational cell.
Journal Article

Optimization of a HSDI Diesel Engine for Passenger Cars Using a Multi-Objective Genetic Algorithm and Multi-Dimensional Modeling

2009-04-20
2009-01-0715
A multi-objective genetic algorithm coupled with the KIVA3V release 2 code was used to optimize the piston bowl geometry, spray targeting, and swirl ratio levels of a high speed direct injected (HSDI) diesel engine for passenger cars. Three modes, which represent full-, mid-, and low-loads, were optimized separately. A non-dominated sorting genetic algorithm II (NSGA II) was used for the optimization. High throughput computing was conducted using the CONDOR software. An automated grid generator was used for efficient mesh generation with variable geometry parameters, including open and reentrant bowl designs. A series of new spray models featuring reduced mesh dependency were also integrated into the code. A characteristic-time combustion (CTC) model was used for the initial optimization for time savings. Model validation was performed by comparison with experiments for the baseline engine at full-, mid-, and low-load operating conditions.
Journal Article

An Experimental Investigation into Diesel Engine Size-Scaling Parameters

2009-04-20
2009-01-1124
With recent increases in global fuel prices there has become a growing interest in expanding the use of diesel engines in the transportation industry. However, new engine development is costly and time intensive, requiring many hours of expensive engine tests. The ability to accurately predict an engine's performance based on existing models would reduce the expense involved in creating a new engine of different size. In the present study experimental results from two single-cylinder direct injection diesel engines were used to examine previously developed engine scaling models. The first scaling model was based on an equal spray penetration correlation. The second model considered both equal spray penetration and flame lift-off length. The engines used were a heavy-duty Caterpillar engine with a 2.44L displacement and a light-duty GM engine with a 0.48L displacement.
Technical Paper

Discussion of the Role of Fuel-Oil Diffusion in the Hydrocarbon Emissions from a Small Engine

2008-09-09
2008-32-0014
The contribution of fuel adsorption in engine oil and its subsequent desorption following combustion to the engine-out hydrocarbon (HC) emissions of a spark-ignited, air-cooled, V-twin utility engine was studied by comparing steady state and cycle-resolved HC emission measurements from operation with a standard full-blend gasoline, and with propane, which has a low solubility in oil. Experiments were performed at two speeds and three loads, and for different mean crankcase pressures. The crankcase pressure was found to impact the HC emissions, presumably through the ringpack mechanism, which was largely unaltered by the different fuels. The average and cycle-resolved HC emissions were found to be in good agreement, both qualitatively and quantitatively, for the two fuels. Further, the two fuels showed the same response to changes in the crankcase pressure. The solubility of propane in the oil is approximately an order of magnitude lower than for gasoline.
Technical Paper

Adaptive Injection Strategies (AIS) for Ultra-Low Emissions Diesel Engines

2008-04-14
2008-01-0058
Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) combustion is being considered as a practical solution for diesel engines due to its high efficiency and low NOx and PM emissions. However, for diesel HCCI operation, there are still several problems that need to be solved. One is the spay-wall impingement issue associated with early injection, and a further problem is the extension of HCCI operation from low load to higher engine loads. In this study, a combination of Adaptive Injection Strategies (AIS) and a Two-Stage Combustion (TSC) strategy are proposed to solve the aforementioned problems. A multi-dimensional Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) code with detailed chemistry, the KIVA-CHEMKIN-GA code, was employed in this study, where Genetic Algorithms (GA) were used to optimize heavy-duty diesel engine operating parameters. The TSC concept was applied to optimize the combustion process at high speed (1737 rev/min) and medium load (57% load).
Journal Article

Modeling the Effects of In-Cylinder Flows on HSDI Diesel Engine Performance and Emissions

2008-04-14
2008-01-0649
In the present work the three-dimensional KIVA CFD code was used to simulate the combustion process in a HSDI diesel engine. State-of-the-art models, including the KH-RT spray breakup model, the RNG k-ε turbulence model, and a n-heptane reduced chemistry including reduced GRI NOx mechanism were used. The performances of two combustion models, KIVA-CHEMKIN and GAMUT (KIVA-CHEMKIN-G), coupled with 2-step and multi-step phenomenological soot models were compared. The numerical results were compared with available experimental data obtained from an optically accessible HSDI engine and good agreement was obtained. To assess the effects of the in-cylinder flow field on combustion and emissions, off-centered swirl flows were also considered. In these studies, the swirl center was initialized at different positions in the chamber for different cases to simulate the effects of different intake flow arrangements.
Technical Paper

An Improved Spray Model for Reducing Numerical Parameter Dependencies in Diesel Engine CFD Simulations

2008-04-14
2008-01-0970
Lagrangian-Droplet and Eulerian-Fluid (LDEF) based spray models are widely used in engine and combustion system computations. Numerical grid and time-step-dependencies of Discrete Droplet Lagrangian spray models have been identified by previous researchers [1, 2]. The two main sources of grid-dependency are due to errors in predicting the droplet-gas relative velocity, and errors in describing droplet-droplet collision and coalescence processes. For reducing grid-dependency due to the relative velocity effects, results from gas jet theory are introduced along with a Lagrangian collision model [1, 3] and applied to model diesel sprays. The improved spray model is implemented in the engine simulation code KIVA-3V [4] and is tested under various conditions, including constant volume chambers and various engine geometries with vaporizing and combusting sprays with detailed chemistry.
Journal Article

Assessment of Optimization Methodologies to Study the Effects of Bowl Geometry, Spray Targeting and Swirl Ratio for a Heavy-Duty Diesel Engine Operated at High-Load

2008-04-14
2008-01-0949
In the present paper optimization tools are used to recommend low-emission engine combustion chamber designs, spray targeting and swirl ratio levels for a heavy-duty diesel engine operated at high-load. The study identifies aspects of the combustion and pollution formation that are affected by mixing processes, and offers guidance for better matching of the piston geometry with the spray plume geometry for enhanced mixing. By coupling a GA (genetic algorithm) with the KIVA-CFD code, and also by utilizing an automated grid generation technique, multi-objective optimizations with goals of low emissions and fuel economy were achieved. Three different multi-objective genetic algorithms including a Micro-Genetic Algorithm (μGA), a Nondominated Sorting Genetic Algorithm II (NSGA II) and an Adaptive Range Multi-Objective Genetic Algorithm (ARMOGA) were compared for conducting the optimization under the same conditions.
Technical Paper

A Computational Analysis of Direct Fuel Injection During the Negative Valve Overlap Period in an Iso-Octane Fueled HCCI Engine

2007-04-16
2007-01-0227
This computational study compares predictions and experimental results for the use of direct injected iso-octane fuel during the negative valve overlap (NVO) period to achieve HCCI combustion. The total fuel injection was altered in two ways. First the pre-DI percent, (the ratio of direct injected fuel during the NVO period “pre-DI” to the secondary fuel supplied at the intake manifold “PI”), was varied at a fixed pre-DI injection timing, Secondly the timing of the pre-DI injection was varied while all of the fuel was supplied during the NVO period. A multi-zone, two-dimensional CFD simulation with chemistry was performed using KIVA-3V release 2 implemented with the CHEMKIN solver. The simulations were performed during the NVO period only.
Technical Paper

Experimental Investigation into the Effects of Direct Fuel Injection During the Negative Valve Overlap Period in an Gasoline Fueled HCCI Engine

2007-04-16
2007-01-0219
A single cylinder Yamaha research engine was operated with gasoline HCCI combustion using negative valve overlap (NVO). The injection strategy for this study involved using fuel injected directly into the cylinder during the NVO period (pre-DI) along with a secondary injection either in the intake port (PI) or directly into the cylinder (DI). The effects of timing of the pre-DI injection along with the percent of fuel injected during the pre-DI injection were studied in two sets of experiments using secondary PI and DI injections in separate experiments. Results have shown that by varying the pre-DI timing and pre-DI percent the main HCCI combustion timing can be influenced as a result of varied heat release during the negative valve overlap period along with hypothesized varied degrees of reformation of the pre-DI injected fuel. In addition to varying the main combustion timing the ISFC, emissions and combustion stability are all influenced by changes in pre-DI timing and percent.
Technical Paper

19-Color H2O Absorption Spectrometer Applied for Real-Time In-Cylinder Gas Thermometry in an HCCI Engine

2007-04-16
2007-01-0188
1 An all fiber-optic sensor has been developed to measure H2O mole fraction and gas temperature in an HCCI engine. This absorption-spectroscopy-based sensor utilizes a broad wavelength (1320 to 1380 nm) source (supercontinua generated by a microchip laser) and a series of fiber Bragg gratings (19 gratings centered on unique water absorption peaks) to track the formation and temperature of combustion water vapor. The spectral coverage of the system promises improved measurement accuracy over two-line diode-laser based systems. Meanwhile, the simplicity of the fiber Bragg grating chromatic dispersion approach significantly reduces the data reduction time and cost relative to previous supercontinuum-based sensors. The data provided by the system is expected to enhance studies of the chemical kinetics which govern HCCI ignition as well as HCCI modeling efforts.
Technical Paper

The Effects of Exhaust Gas Recirculation in Utility Engines

2006-11-13
2006-32-0116
The effects of residual gas mixing were studied in a single-cylinder, air-cooled utility engine using both external exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) and internal residual retention. EGR was introduced far upstream of the throttle to ensure proper mixing. Internal residual was changed by varying the length of the valve overlap period. EGR was measured in the intake system; the total in-cylinder diluent was directly measured using a skip-fire, cylinder dumping technique. A sweep of diluent fraction was performed at different engine speeds, engine loads, fuel mixture preparation systems, and ignition timings. An optimum level of diluent, where the combined hydrocarbon and NOx emissions were minimal, was found to exist for each operating condition. Higher levels of diluent, either through internal retention or external recirculation, caused the combined emissions to increase.
Technical Paper

Effects of Piston Crevice Flows and Lubricant Oil Vaporization on Diesel Engine Deposits

2006-04-03
2006-01-1149
The effect of piston ring pack crevice flow and lubricant oil vaporization on heavy-duty diesel engine deposits is investigated numerically using a multidimensional CFD code, KIVA3V, coupled with Chemkin II, and computational grids that resolve part of the crevice region appropriately. Improvements have been made to the code to be able to deal with the complex geometry of the ring pack, and sub-models for the crevice flow dynamics, lubricating oil vaporization and combustion, soot formation and deposition were also added to the code. Eight parametric cases were simulated under reacting conditions using detailed chemical kinetics to determine the effects of variations of lube-oil film thickness, distribution of the oil film thickness, number of injection pulses, and the main injection timing on engine soot deposition. The results show that crevice-borne hydrocarbon species play an important role in deposit formation on crevice surfaces.
Technical Paper

Modeling Combustion and Emissions of HSDI Diesel Engines Using Injectors with Different Included Spray Angles

2006-04-03
2006-01-1150
Combustion in an HSDI diesel engine using different injectors to realize low emissions is modeled using detailed chemical kinetics in this study. Emission characteristics of the engine are investigated using injectors that have different included spray angles, ranging from 50 to 130 degrees. The engine was operated under PCCI conditions featuring early injection times, high EGR levels and high intake temperatures. The Representative Interactive Flamelet (RIF) model was used with the KIVA code for combustion and emission modeling. Modeling results show that spray targeting plays an important role in determining the in-cylinder mixture distributions, which in turn affect the resulting pollutant emissions. High soot emissions are observed for injection conditions that result in locally fuel rich regions due to spray impingement normal to the piston surface.
Technical Paper

Use of a Pressure Reactive Piston to Control Diesel PCCI Operation - A Modeling Study

2006-04-03
2006-01-0921
The heavy-duty diesel engine industry is required to meet stringent emission standards. There is also the demand for more fuel efficient engines by the customer. In a previous study on an engine with variable intake valve closure timing, the authors found that an early single injection and accompanying premixed charge compression ignition (PCCI) combustion provides advantages in emissions and fuel economy; however, unacceptably high peak pressures and rates of pressure-rise impose a severe operating constraint. The use of a Pressure Reactive Piston assembly (PRP) as a means to limit peak pressures is explored in the present work. The concept is applied to a heavy-duty diesel engine and genetic algorithms (GA) are used in conjunction with the multi-dimensional engine simulation code KIVA-3V to provide an optimized set of operating variables.
Technical Paper

A Modeling Investigation of Combustion Control Variables During DI-Diesel HCCI Engine Transients

2006-04-03
2006-01-1084
A comprehensive system level modeling approach is used to understand the effects of the various physical actuators during diesel HCCI transients. Control concepts during transient operations are simulated using a set of actuators suitable for combustion control in diesel HCCI engines (intake valve actuation, injection timing, cooled EGR, intake boost pressure and droplet size). The impact of these actuating techniques on the overall engine performance is quantified by investigating the amount of actuation required, timing of actuation and the use of a combination of actuators. Combined actuation improved actuation space that can be used to phase combustion timing better and in extending the operating range. The results from transient simulations indicate that diesel HCCI operation would benefit from the combined actuation of intake valve closure, injection timing, boost and cooled EGR.
Technical Paper

Modeling Diesel Engine NOx and Soot Reduction with Optimized Two-Stage Combustion

2006-04-03
2006-01-0027
A multi-dimensional Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) code with detailed chemistry, the KIVA-CHEMKIN-GA code, was employed in this study, where Genetic Algorithms (GA) were used to optimize heavy-duty diesel engine operating parameters. A two-stage combustion (TSC) concept was explored to optimize the combustion process at high speed (1737 rev/min) and medium load (57% load). Two combustion modes were combined in this concept. The first stage is ideally Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) combustion and the second stage is diffusion combustion under high temperature and low oxygen concentration conditions. This can be achieved for example by optimization of two-stage combustion using multiple injection or sprays from two different injectors.
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