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Technical Paper

Validation of Advanced Combustion Models Applied to Two-Stage Combustion in a Heavy Duty Diesel Engine

2009-04-20
2009-01-0714
Two advanced combustion models have been validated with the KIVA-3V Release 2 code in the context of two-stage combustion in a heavy duty diesel engine. The first model uses CHEMKIN to directly integrate chemistry in each computational cell. The second model accounts for flame propagation with the G-equation, and CHEMKIN predicts autoignition and handles chemistry ahead of and behind the flame front. A Damköhler number criterion was used in flame containing cells to characterize the local mixing status and determine whether heat release and species change should be a result of flame propagation or volumetric heat release. The purpose of this criterion is to make use of physical and chemical time scales to determine the most appropriate chemistry model, depending on the mixture composition and thermodynamic properties of the gas in each computational cell.
Technical Paper

Heavy-Duty Diesel Combustion Optimization Using Multi-Objective Genetic Algorithm and Multi-Dimensional Modeling

2009-04-20
2009-01-0716
A multi-objective genetic algorithm methodology was applied to a heavy-duty diesel engine at three different operating conditions of interest. Separate optimizations were performed over various fuel injection nozzle parameters, piston bowl geometries and swirl ratios (SR). Different beginning of injection (BOI) timings were considered in all optimizations. The objective of the optimizations was to find the best possible fuel economy, NOx, and soot emissions tradeoffs. The input parameter ranges were determined using design of experiment methodology. A non-dominated sorting genetic algorithm II (NSGA II) was used for the optimization. For the optimization of piston bowl geometry, an automated grid generator was used for efficient mesh generation with variable geometry parameters. The KIVA3V release 2 code with improved ERC sub-models was used. The characteristic time combustion (CTC) model was employed to improve computational efficiency.
Technical Paper

Investigation of Transient Emissions and Mixed Mode Combustion for a Light Duty Diesel Engine

2009-04-20
2009-01-1347
The use of low temperature combustion (LTC) modes has demonstrated abilities to lower diesel engine emissions while maintaining good fuel consumption. LTC is assumed to be a viable solution to assist in meeting stringent upcoming diesel engine emissions targets, particularly nitric oxides (NOx) and particulate matter (PM). However, LTC is currently limited to low engine loads and is not a feasible solution at higher loads on production engines. A mixed mode combustion strategy must be implemented to take advantage of the benefits offered from LTC at the low loads and speeds while switching to a conventional diesel combustion strategy at higher loads and speeds and thus allowing full range use of the engine under realistic driving conditions. Experiments were performed to characterize engine out emissions during transient engine operating conditions involving LTC combustion strategies.
Technical Paper

Discussion of the Role of Fuel-Oil Diffusion in the Hydrocarbon Emissions from a Small Engine

2008-09-09
2008-32-0014
The contribution of fuel adsorption in engine oil and its subsequent desorption following combustion to the engine-out hydrocarbon (HC) emissions of a spark-ignited, air-cooled, V-twin utility engine was studied by comparing steady state and cycle-resolved HC emission measurements from operation with a standard full-blend gasoline, and with propane, which has a low solubility in oil. Experiments were performed at two speeds and three loads, and for different mean crankcase pressures. The crankcase pressure was found to impact the HC emissions, presumably through the ringpack mechanism, which was largely unaltered by the different fuels. The average and cycle-resolved HC emissions were found to be in good agreement, both qualitatively and quantitatively, for the two fuels. Further, the two fuels showed the same response to changes in the crankcase pressure. The solubility of propane in the oil is approximately an order of magnitude lower than for gasoline.
Technical Paper

Adaptive Injection Strategies (AIS) for Ultra-Low Emissions Diesel Engines

2008-04-14
2008-01-0058
Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) combustion is being considered as a practical solution for diesel engines due to its high efficiency and low NOx and PM emissions. However, for diesel HCCI operation, there are still several problems that need to be solved. One is the spay-wall impingement issue associated with early injection, and a further problem is the extension of HCCI operation from low load to higher engine loads. In this study, a combination of Adaptive Injection Strategies (AIS) and a Two-Stage Combustion (TSC) strategy are proposed to solve the aforementioned problems. A multi-dimensional Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) code with detailed chemistry, the KIVA-CHEMKIN-GA code, was employed in this study, where Genetic Algorithms (GA) were used to optimize heavy-duty diesel engine operating parameters. The TSC concept was applied to optimize the combustion process at high speed (1737 rev/min) and medium load (57% load).
Technical Paper

Integrated Engine, Emissions, and Exhaust Aftertreatment System Level Models to Simulate DPF Regeneration

2007-10-29
2007-01-3970
An integrated system model containing sub-models for diesel engine, emissions, and aftertreatment devices has been developed. The objective is to study engine-device and device-device interactions. The emissions sub-models used are for NOx and PM (particulate matter) prediction. The aftertreatment sub-models used include a diesel oxidation catalyst (DOC) and a diesel particulate filter (DPF). Controllers have also been developed to allow for transient simulations, active DPF regeneration, and prevention/control of runaway DPF regenerations. The integrated system-level model has been used to simulate DPF regeneration via exhaust fuel injection ahead of the DOC. In addition, the controller model can use intake throttling to assist in active DPF regeneration if needed. Regeneration studies have been done for both steady engine load and with load transients. High to low engine load transients are of particular interest because they can lead to runaway DPF regeneration.
Technical Paper

The Effects of Exhaust Gas Recirculation in Utility Engines

2006-11-13
2006-32-0116
The effects of residual gas mixing were studied in a single-cylinder, air-cooled utility engine using both external exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) and internal residual retention. EGR was introduced far upstream of the throttle to ensure proper mixing. Internal residual was changed by varying the length of the valve overlap period. EGR was measured in the intake system; the total in-cylinder diluent was directly measured using a skip-fire, cylinder dumping technique. A sweep of diluent fraction was performed at different engine speeds, engine loads, fuel mixture preparation systems, and ignition timings. An optimum level of diluent, where the combined hydrocarbon and NOx emissions were minimal, was found to exist for each operating condition. Higher levels of diluent, either through internal retention or external recirculation, caused the combined emissions to increase.
Technical Paper

MIXPC Turbocharging System for Diesel Engines

2006-10-16
2006-01-3390
A newly developed turbocharging system, named MIXPC, is proposed and the performance of the proposed system applied to diesel engines is evaluated. The aim of this proposed system is to reduce the scavenging interference between cylinders, and to lower the pumping loss in cylinders and the brake specific fuel consumption. In addition, exhaust manifolds of simplified design can be constructed with small dimensions, low weight and a single turbine entry. A simulation code based on a second-order FVM+TVD (finite volume method + total variation diminishing) is developed and used to simulate engines with MIXPC. By simulating a 16V280ZJG diesel engine using the MPC turbocharging system and MIXPC, it is found that not only the average scavenging coefficient of MIXPC is larger than that of MPC, but also cylinders of MIXPC have more homogeneous scavenging coefficients than that of MPC, and the pumping loss and BSFC of MIXPC are lower than those of MPC.
Technical Paper

Modeling Diesel Engine NOx and Soot Reduction with Optimized Two-Stage Combustion

2006-04-03
2006-01-0027
A multi-dimensional Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) code with detailed chemistry, the KIVA-CHEMKIN-GA code, was employed in this study, where Genetic Algorithms (GA) were used to optimize heavy-duty diesel engine operating parameters. A two-stage combustion (TSC) concept was explored to optimize the combustion process at high speed (1737 rev/min) and medium load (57% load). Two combustion modes were combined in this concept. The first stage is ideally Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) combustion and the second stage is diffusion combustion under high temperature and low oxygen concentration conditions. This can be achieved for example by optimization of two-stage combustion using multiple injection or sprays from two different injectors.
Technical Paper

A Modeling Investigation of Combustion Control Variables During DI-Diesel HCCI Engine Transients

2006-04-03
2006-01-1084
A comprehensive system level modeling approach is used to understand the effects of the various physical actuators during diesel HCCI transients. Control concepts during transient operations are simulated using a set of actuators suitable for combustion control in diesel HCCI engines (intake valve actuation, injection timing, cooled EGR, intake boost pressure and droplet size). The impact of these actuating techniques on the overall engine performance is quantified by investigating the amount of actuation required, timing of actuation and the use of a combination of actuators. Combined actuation improved actuation space that can be used to phase combustion timing better and in extending the operating range. The results from transient simulations indicate that diesel HCCI operation would benefit from the combined actuation of intake valve closure, injection timing, boost and cooled EGR.
Technical Paper

Investigation of the Effect of DPF Loading and Passive Regeneration on Engine Performance and Emissions Using an Integrated System Simulation

2006-04-03
2006-01-0263
An integrated system model containing sub-models for a diesel engine, NOx and soot emissions, and a diesel particulate filter (DPF) has been used to simulate stead-state engine operating conditions. The simulation results have been used to investigate the effect of DPF loading and passive regeneration on engine performance and emissions. This work is the continuation of previous work done to create an overall diesel engine/exhaust system integrated model. As in the previous work, a diesel engine, exhaust system, engine soot emissions, and diesel particulate filter (DPF) sub-models have been integrated into an overall model using Matlab Simulink. For the current work new sub-models have been added for engine-out NOx emissions and an engine feedback controller. The integrated model is intended for use in simulating the interaction of the engine and exhaust aftertreatment components.
Technical Paper

Use of a Pressure Reactive Piston to Control Diesel PCCI Operation - A Modeling Study

2006-04-03
2006-01-0921
The heavy-duty diesel engine industry is required to meet stringent emission standards. There is also the demand for more fuel efficient engines by the customer. In a previous study on an engine with variable intake valve closure timing, the authors found that an early single injection and accompanying premixed charge compression ignition (PCCI) combustion provides advantages in emissions and fuel economy; however, unacceptably high peak pressures and rates of pressure-rise impose a severe operating constraint. The use of a Pressure Reactive Piston assembly (PRP) as a means to limit peak pressures is explored in the present work. The concept is applied to a heavy-duty diesel engine and genetic algorithms (GA) are used in conjunction with the multi-dimensional engine simulation code KIVA-3V to provide an optimized set of operating variables.
Technical Paper

Experimental Investigation of Transient Emissions (HC and NOx) in a High Speed Direct Injection (HSDI) Diesel Engine

2005-10-24
2005-01-3883
Transient engine tests were performed to investigate behavior of transient emissions--hydrocarbon (HC) and oxides of Nitrogen (NOx)--in a 2.4L turbocharged four cylinder High Speed Direct Injection (HSDI) diesel engine which is coupled to a hydrostatic transient dynamometer. Emissions were measured from one exhaust port 5 cm downstream of the exhaust valve and from the exhaust pipe 14 cm below the wastegate of the turbocharger. These measurements were made with fast response HC and NOx measurement analyzers. The experiments were conducted by increasing torque at constant speed and by increasing speed at constant torque, in conventional diesel combustion regions. The emissions from the two locations are compared. The transient effects of Exhaust Gas Recirculation (EGR) rates and injection timing on HC and NOx are described and the effects of linear and step load change on emissions are compared.
Technical Paper

Application of Micro-Genetic Algorithms for the Optimization of Injection Strategies in a Heavy-Duty Diesel Engine

2005-04-11
2005-01-0219
In this paper, optimized single and double injection schemes were found using multi-dimensional engine simulation software (KIVA-3V) and a micro-genetic algorithm for a heavy duty diesel engine. The engine operating condition considered was at 1737 rev/min and 57 % load. The engine simulation code was validated using an engine equipped with a hydraulic-electronically controlled unit injector (HEUI) system. Five important parameters were used for the optimization - boost pressure, EGR rate, start-of-injection timing, fraction of fuel in the first pulse and dwell angle between first and second pulses. The optimum results for the single injection scheme showed significant improvements for the soot and NOx emissions. The start of injection timing was found to be very early, which suggests HCCI-like combustion. Optimized soot and NOx emissions were reduced to 0.005 g/kW-hr and 1.33 g/kW-hr, respectively, for the single injection scheme.
Technical Paper

Performance Optimization of Diesel Engines with Variable Intake Valve Timing Via Genetic Algorithms

2005-04-11
2005-01-0374
The strategy of variable Intake Valve Closure (IVC) timing, as a means to improve performance and emission characteristics, has gained much acceptance in gasoline engines; yet, it has not been explored extensively in diesel engines. In this study, genetic algorithms are used in conjunction with the multi-dimensional engine simulation code KIVA-3V to investigate the optimum operating variables for a typical heavy-duty diesel engine working with late IVC. The effects of start-of-injection timing, injection duration and exhaust gas recirculation were investigated along with the intake valve closure timing. The results show that appreciable reductions in NOx+HC (∼82%), soot (∼48%) and BSFC (∼7.4%) are possible through this strategy, as compared to a baseline diesel case of (NOx+HC) = 9.48g/kW-hr, soot = 0.17 g/kW-hr and BSFC = 204 g-f/kW-hr. The additional consideration of double injections helps to reduce the high rates of pressure rise observed in a single injection scheme.
Technical Paper

Integration of Diesel Engine, Exhaust System, Engine Emissions and Aftertreatment Device Models

2005-04-11
2005-01-0947
An overall diesel engine and aftertreatment system model has been created that integrates diesel engine, exhaust system, engine emissions, and diesel particulate filter (DPF) models using MATLAB Simulink. The 1-D engine and exhaust system models were developed using WAVE. The engine emissions model combines a phenomenological soot model with artificial neural networks to predict engine out soot emissions. Experimental data from a light-duty diesel engine was used to calibrate both the engine and engine emissions models. The DPF model predicts the behavior of a clean and particulate-loaded catalyzed wall-flow filter. Experimental data was used to validate this sub-model individually. Several model integration issues were identified and addressed. These included time-step selection, continuous vs. limited triggering of sub-models, and code structuring for simulation speed. Required time-steps for different sub models varied by orders of magnitude.
Technical Paper

Thermal Studies in the Exhaust System of a Diesel-Powered Light-Duty Vehicle

2004-03-08
2004-01-0050
This paper is a continuation of an earlier paper, which examined the steady-state internal heat transfer in the exhaust system of a diesel powered, light-duty vehicle. The present paper deals with the heat transfer of the exhaust system during two types of transient testing, as well as, the estimation of the exhaust systems external heat transfer. Transient heat transfer was evaluated using: a simple fuel-step transient under constant speed and the New European Driving Cycle (NEDC). The thermal response of the external walls varied considerably for the various components of the exhaust system. The largest percent difference between the measured temperatures and the corresponding quasi-steady estimates were about 10%, which is attributed to thermal storage. Allowing for thermal storage resulted in an excellent agreement between measurements and analysis.
Technical Paper

Optimization of Injection Rate Shape Using Active Control of Fuel Injection

2004-03-08
2004-01-0530
The effect of injection rate shape on spray evolution and emission characteristics is investigated and a methodology for active control of fuel injection is proposed. Extensive validation of advanced vaporization and primary jet breakup models was performed with experimental data before studying the effects of systematic changes of injection rate shape. Excellent agreement with the experiments was obtained for liquid and vapor penetration lengths, over a broad range of gas densities and temperatures. Also the predicted flame lift-off lengths of reacting diesel fuel sprays were in good agreement with the experiments. After the validation of the models, well-defined rate shapes were used to study the effect of injection rate shape on liquid and vapor penetration, flame lift-off lengths and emission characteristics.
Technical Paper

Scavenging Measurements in a Direct-Injection Two-Stroke Engine

2003-09-16
2003-32-0081
The scavenging process in a direct-injection two-stroke research engine was examined by using an electromagnetically controlled poppet valve to sample the trapped charge. A physical model was developed to characterize the scavenging based solely on the measured trapped gas composition. This method obviates the need to measure the post-combustion composition of the trapped charge, which significantly eases the sampling valve requirements. The valve that was developed proved to be very robust and was able to sample over 30% of the trapped mass at 3000 rpm. The measured scavenging efficiency was found to agree well with the non-isothermal two-zone perfect mixing limit of scavenging. The scavenging efficiency was found to increase with delivery ratio, and was nearly independent of speed.
Technical Paper

Split-Spray Piston Geometry Optimized for HSDI Diesel Engine Combustion

2003-03-03
2003-01-0348
A combustion chamber geometry design optimization study has been performed on a high-speed direct-injection (HSDI) automotive diesel engine at a part-load medium-speed operating condition using both modeling and experiments. A model-based optimization was performed using the KIVA-GA code. This work utilized a newly developed 6-parameter automated grid generation technique that allowed a vast number of piston geometries to be considered during the optimization. Other salient parameters were included that are known to have an interaction with the chamber geometry. They included the start of injection (SOI) timing, swirl ratio (SR), exhaust gas recirculation percentage (EGR), injection pressure, and the compression ratio (CR). The measure of design fitness used included NOx, soot, unburned hydrocarbon (HC), and CO emissions, as well as the fuel consumption. Subsequently, an experimental parametric study was performed using the piston geometry found by the numerical optimization.
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