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Technical Paper

Numerical Investigation of Wiper Drawback

2019-04-02
2019-01-0640
Windscreen wipers are an integral component of the windscreen cleaning systems of most vehicles, trains, cars, trucks, boats and some planes. Wipers are used to clear rain, snow, and dirt from the windscreen pushing the water from the wiped surface. Under certain conditions however, water which has been driven to the edge of the windscreen by the wiper can be drawn back into the driver’s field of view by aerodynamic forces introduced by the wiper motion. This is wiper drawback, an undesirable phenomenon as the water which is drawn back on to the windscreen can reduce driver’s vision and makes the wiper less effective. The phenomena of wiper drawback can be tested for in climatic tunnels using sprayer systems to wet the windscreen. However, these tests require a bespoke test property or prototype vehicle, which means that the tests are done fairly late in the development of the vehicle.
Technical Paper

Direct Aeroacoustics Predictions of Automotive HVAC Systems based on Lattice Boltzmann Method

2018-06-13
2018-01-1520
The demand for low noise level in vehicle cabin continues to rise lately. In particular, noise generated by eco-friendly cars such as hybrid and electric ones tends to become lower and lower. In this market environment, the noise contributions caused by HVAC systems are also increasing. Therefore, it becomes increasingly important to accurately predict noise generated by HVAC systems and analyze the noise sources and resolve the noise issue. In this study, direct acoustics prediction approach based on Lattice Boltzmann Method is applied to predict the flow-induced noise from HVAC systems including blower and ducts and find noise sources. In order to validate the simulation result, acoustics measurements are performed on HVAC systems in an anechoic room and the results are compared to each other. A new technique is applied to finding a noise source for a specific frequency and shows improved noise level through modifying the geometry related to noise sources detected by the simulation.
Technical Paper

Robust Optimization for Real World CO2 Reduction

2018-05-30
2018-37-0015
Ground transportation industry contributes to about 14% of the global CO2 emissions. Therefore, any effort in reducing global CO2 needs to include the design of cleaner and more energy efficient vehicles. Their design needs to be optimized for the real-world conditions. Using wind tunnels that can only reproduce idealized conditions quite often does not translate into real-world on-road CO2 reduction and improved energy efficiency. Several recent studies found that very rarely can the real-world environment be represented by turbulence-free conditions simulated in wind tunnels. The real-world conditions consist of both transversal flow velocity component (causing an oncoming yaw flow) as well as large-scale turbulent fluctuations, with length scales of up to many times the size of a vehicle. The study presented in this paper shows how the realistic wind affects the aerodynamics of the vehicle.
Technical Paper

Update on A-Pillar Overflow Simulation

2018-04-03
2018-01-0717
The management of surface water flows driven from the wind screen by the action of wipers and aerodynamic shear is a growing challenge for automotive manufacturers. Pressure to remove traditional vehicle features, such as A-Pillar steps for aesthetic, aeroacoustic and aerodynamic reasons increases the likelihood that surface water may be convected over the A-Pillar and onto the front side glass where it can compromise drivers’ vision. The ability to predict where and under which conditions the A-Pillar will be breached is important for making correct design decisions. The use of numerical simulation in this context is desirable, as experimental testing relies on the use of aerodynamics test properties which will not be fully representative, or late-stage prototypes, making it difficult and costly to correct issues. This paper provides an update on the ability of simulation to predict A-Pillar overflow, comparing physical and numerical results for a test vehicle.
Technical Paper

Evaluation and Improvement of Greenhouse Wind Noise of a SGMW SUV using Simulation Driven Design

2018-04-03
2018-01-0737
At SAIC-GM-Wuling (SGMW) the greenhouse wind noise performance of their vehicles has gained a lot of attention in the development process. In order to evaluate and improve the noise quality of a newly developed SUV a digital simulation based process has been employed during the early stage of the design. CFD simulation was used for obtaining the flow induced exterior noise sources. Performance metrics for the quality were based on interior noise levels which were calculated from the exterior sources using a SEA approach for the noise transmission through the glass panels and propagation to the driver’s or passenger’s head space. Detailed analysis of the CFD results allowed to identify noise sources and related flow structures. Based on this analysis, design modifications were then applied and tested in a sequential iterative process. As a result an improvement of more than 2 dB in overall sound pressure level could be achieved.
Technical Paper

Exhaust and Muffler Aeroacoustics Predictions using Lattice Boltzmann Method

2018-04-03
2018-01-1287
Exhaust systems are a necessary solution to reduce combustion engine noise originating from flow fluctuations released at each firing cycle. However, exhaust systems also generate a back pressure detrimental for the engine efficiency. This back pressure must be controlled to guarantee optimal operating conditions for the engine. To satisfy both optimal operating conditions and optimal noise levels, the internal design of exhaust systems has become complex, often leading to the emergence of undesired noise generated by turbulent flow circulating inside a muffler. Associated details needed for the manufacturing process, such as brackets for the connection between parts, can interact with the flow, generating additional flow noise or whistles. To minimize the risks of undesirable noise, multiple exhaust designs must be assessed early to prevent the late detection of issues, when design and manufacturing process are frozen. However, designing via an experimental approach is challenging.
Technical Paper

Experimental and Numerical Study of the DrivAer Model Aerodynamics

2018-04-03
2018-01-0741
The DrivAer model, a detailed generic open source vehicle geometry, was introduced a few years ago and accepted widely from industry and academia for research in the field of automotive aerodynamics. This paper presents the evaluation of the aerodynamic properties of the 25% scale DrivAer model in both, CFD and in wind tunnel experiment. The results not only include aerodynamic drag and lift but also provide detailed investigations of the flow field around the vehicle. In addition to the available geometries of the DrivAer model, individual changes were introduced created by morphing the geometry of the baseline model. A good correlation between CFD and experiment could be achieved by using a CFD setup including the geometry of the wind tunnel test section. The results give insight into the aerodynamics of the DrivAer model and lead to a better understanding of the flow around the vehicle.
Technical Paper

Prediction of Charge Air Cooler Performance in a Racing Drive Cycle by 1D-3D Coupling

2018-04-03
2018-01-0781
Charge air temperature needs to be kept low for optimum engine operation. If charge air temperature is too high, engine performance reduction strategies are invoked to protect engines by limiting torque available to drivers. A 1D-3D coupling simulation methodology is developed to accurately predict internal air temperature after charge air cooler (CAC) during a racing drive cycle. The 3D flow simulation is used to characterize external air flow before CAC in steady-state cases. Then, interpolated 3D simulation results between steady operating points are used as transient external air boundary conditions in front of CAC in a 1D system model. 3D flow simulation is also used to predict internal flow rate ratio between CAC tubes. Finally, an 1D system model is used to predict time-trace of charge air temperature at CAC internal outlet during the racing drive cycle. The simulation results show that prediction errors are within 5 degrees for charge air temperature at internal outlets.
Technical Paper

Validation Studies for an Advanced Aerodynamic Development Process of Cab-Over Type Heavy Trucks

2017-10-25
2017-01-7009
The implementation of an advanced process for the aerodynamic development of cab-over type heavy trucks at China FAW Group Corporation (FAW) requires a rigorous validation of the tools employed in this process. The final objective of the aerodynamic optimization of a heavy truck is the reduction of the fuel consumption. The aerodynamic drag of a heavy truck contributes up to 50% of the overall resistance and thus fuel consumption. An accurate prediction of the aerodynamic drag under real world driving conditions is therefore very important. Tools used for the aerodynamic development of heavy trucks include Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD), wind tunnels and track and road testing methods. CFD and wind tunnels are of particular importance in the early phase development.
Technical Paper

Digital Aeroacoustics Design Method of Climate Systems for Improved Cabin Comfort

2017-06-05
2017-01-1787
Over the past decades, interior noise from wind noise or engine noise have been significantly reduced by leveraging improvements of both the overall vehicle design and of sound package. Consequently, noise sources originating from HVAC systems (Heat Ventilation and Air Conditioning), fans or exhaust systems are becoming more relevant for perceived quality and passenger comfort. This study focuses on HVAC systems and discusses a Flow-Induced Noise Detection Contributions (FIND Contributions) numerical method enabling the identification of the flow-induced noise sources inside and around HVAC systems. This methodology is based on the post-processing of unsteady flow results obtained using Lattice Boltzmann based Method (LBM) Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) simulations combined with LBM-simulated Acoustic Transfer Functions (ATF) between the position of the sources inside the system and the passenger’s ears.
Journal Article

Flow Noise Predictions for Single Cylinder Engine-Mounted Muffler Using a Lattice Boltzmann Based Method

2017-06-05
2017-01-1797
Exhaust systems including mufflers are commonly mounted on engines to reduce the firing cycle noise originating from the combustion process. However, mufflers also produce flow-induced self-noise, originating from the complex flow path throughout the muffler. As an engine prototype is not available in the early stages of a development program, it is challenging to assess the acoustic performance of the full system when only experiment is available. It is also difficult to pinpoint the design features of a muffler generating noise, as a portion of the noise is generated internally. Numerical approaches are a possible alternative. However, capturing non-linear dissipation mechanisms and thermal fluctuations of exhaust flows is challenging, while necessary to accurately predict flow noise.
Technical Paper

Simulation-Driven Process to Evaluate Vehicle Integration Aspects in Brake Thermal Design

2017-05-24
2017-36-0011
Thermal performance of a brake system is one of the key attributes in a new vehicle development process. Adequate brake cooling characteristics are part of the vehicle performance and safety requirements. The design of a new brake system, however, can be a complex task from a thermal engineering perspective, particularly because of complex interactions between the brake component and the rest of the vehicle. Frequently, the vehicle integration issues are the most serious challenges for brake engineers. There are considerations on how much heat should be dissipated from a single and/or consecutive braking events vs. how much cooling can be provided to the brake corner. Design issues such as where to direct the cooling air to how much flexibility is allowed while complying with other requirements from the studio and aero teams. For a brake engineer, the priority is to maximize cooling to the brake corner and prevent system failure.
Journal Article

Further Analyses on Prediction of Automotive Spinning Wheel Flowfield with Full Width Moving Belt Wind Tunnel Results

2017-03-28
2017-01-1519
Pickup trucks are designed with a taller ride height and a larger tire envelope compared to other vehicle types given the duty cycle and environment they operate in. These differences play an important role in the flow field around spinning wheels and tires and their interactions with the vehicle body. From an aerodynamics perspective, understanding and managing this flow field are critical for drag reduction, wheel design, and brake cooling. Furthermore, the validation of numerical simulation methodology is essential for a systematic approach to aerodynamically efficient wheel design as a standard practice of vehicle design. This paper presents a correlation the near-wheel flow field for both front and rear spinning wheels with two different wheel designs for a Ram Quad Cab pick-up truck with moving ground. Twelve-hole probe experimental data obtained in a wind tunnel with a full width belt system are compared to the predictions of numerical simulations.
Journal Article

Validation of Aerodynamic Simulation and Wind Tunnel Test of the New Buick Excelle GT

2017-03-28
2017-01-1512
The validation of vehicle aerodynamic simulation results to wind tunnel test results and simulation accuracy improvement attract considerable attention of many automotive manufacturers. In order to improve the simulation accuracy, a simulation model of the ground effects simulation system of the aerodynamic wind tunnel of the Shanghai Automotive Wind Tunnel Center was built. The model includes the scoop, the distributed suction, the tangential blowing, the moving belt and the wheel belts. The simulated boundary layer profile and the pressure distribution agree well with test results. The baseline model and multiple design changes of the new Buick Excelle GT are simulated. The simulation results agree very well with test results.
Journal Article

Accurate Fuel Economy Prediction via a Realistic Wind Averaged Drag Coefficient

2017-03-28
2017-01-1535
The ultimate goal for vehicle aerodynamicists is to develop vehicles that perform well on the road under real-world conditions. One of the most important metrics to evaluate vehicle performance is the drag coefficient. However, vehicle development today is performed mostly under controlled settings using wind tunnels and computational fluid dynamics (CFD) with artificially uniform upstream conditions, neglecting real-world effects due to road turbulence from wind and other vehicles. Thus, the drag coefficients computed with these methods might not be representative of the real performance of the car on the road. This might ultimately lead engineers to develop design solutions and aerodynamic devices which, while performing well in idealized conditions, do not perform well on the road. For this reason, it is important to assess the vehicle’s drag as seen in real-world environments. An effort in this direction is represented by using the wind-averaged drag.
Journal Article

Numerical Investigation of Features Affecting Rear and Side Body Soiling

2017-03-28
2017-01-1543
Vehicle rear and side body soiling has been a concern since the earliest cars. Traditionally, soiling has been seen to be less importance than vehicle aerodynamics and acoustics. However, increased reliance on sensors and cameras to assist the driver means that there are more surfaces of the vehicle that must be kept clean. Failure to take this into consideration means risking low customer satisfaction with new features. This is because they are likely to fail under normal operating conditions and require constant cleaning. This paper numerically investigates features known to have an influence on side and rear face soiling with a demonstration vehicle. These changes include rim design, diffuser strakes and diffuser sharpening. While an exhaustive investigation of these features is beyond the scope of this study, examples of each feature will be considered.
Technical Paper

Aerodynamic Simulation of a Standalone Rotating Treaded Tire

2017-03-28
2017-01-1551
The aerodynamics of a rotating tire can contribute up to a third of the overall aerodynamic force on the vehicle. The flow around a rotating tire is very complex and is often affected by smallest tire features. Accurate prediction of vehicle aerodynamics therefore requires modeling of tire rotation including all geometry details. Increased simulation accuracy is motivated by the needs emanating from stricter new regulations. For example, the upcoming Worldwide harmonized Light vehicles Test Procedures (WLTP) will place more emphasis on vehicle performance at higher speeds. The reason for this is to bring the certified vehicle characteristics closer to the real-world performance. In addition, WLTP will require reporting of CO2 emissions for all vehicle derivatives, including all possible wheel and tire variants. Since the number of possible derivatives can run into the hundreds for most models, their evaluation in wind tunnels might not be practically possible.
Technical Paper

CFD Water Management Design for a Passenger Coach with Correlation

2016-09-27
2016-01-8155
Side window clarity and its effect on side mirror visibility plays a major role in driver comfort. Driving in inclement weather conditions such as rain can be stressful, and having optimal visibility under these conditions is ideal. However, extreme conditions can overwhelm exterior water management devices, resulting in rivulets of water flowing over the a-pillar and onto the vehicle’s side glass. Once on the side glass, these rivulets and the pooling of water they feed, can significantly impair the driver’s ability to see the side mirror and to see outwardly when in situations such as changing lanes. Designing exterior water management features of a vehicle is a challenging exercise, as traditionally, physical testing methods first require a full-scale vehicle for evaluations to be possible. Additionally, common water management devices such as grooves and channels often have undesirable aesthetic, drag, and wind noise implications.
Technical Paper

CFD Comparison with Wind-Tunnel for a Class 8 Tractor-Trailer

2016-09-27
2016-01-8140
Recent regulations on greenhouse gas (GHG) emission standards for heavy-duty vehicles have prompted government agencies to standardize procedures assessing the aerodynamic performance of Class 8 tractor-trailers. The coastdown test procedure is the primary reference method employed to assess vehicle drag currently, while other valid alternatives include constant speed testing, computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations, and wind tunnel testing. The main purpose of this paper is to compare CFD simulations with a corresponding 1/8th scale wind tunnel test. Additionally, this paper will highlight the impacts of wind tunnel testing on the total drag coefficient performance as compared to full scale open road analysis with and without real world, upstream turbulence wind conditions. All scale model testing and CFD simulations were performed on a class 8 tractor with a standard 53-foot dry-box trailer. The wind tunnel testing was performed in the Auto Research Center (ARC) wind tunnel.
Journal Article

Characterization of Aerodynamic Design Spaces for Adjustable Tractor Surfaces

2016-09-27
2016-01-8147
Trailer positioning plays a significant role in the overall aerodynamics of a tractor-trailer combination and varies widely depending on configuration and intended use. In order to minimize aerodynamic drag over a range of trailer positions, adjustable aerodynamic devices may be utilized. For maximum benefit, it is necessary to determine the optimal position of the aerodynamic device for each trailer position. This may be achieved by characterizing a two-dimensional design space consisting of trailer height and tractor-trailer gap length, with aerodynamic drag as the response. CFD simulations carried out using a Lattice-Boltzmann based method were coupled with modeFRONTIER for the creation of multiple Kriging Response Surfaces. Simulations were carried out in multiple phases, allowing for the generation of intermediate response surfaces to estimate predictive error and track response surface convergence.
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