Refine Your Search

Topic

Author

Search Results

Technical Paper

Target Setting Process for Hybrid Electric Drives Using TPA, Jury Study, and Torque Management

2019-06-05
2019-01-1453
The idea of improved efficiency without compromising the “fun to drive” aspect has renewed the auto industry’s interest toward electrification and hybridization. Electric drives gain from having multiple gear ratios which can use advantageous operating set points thus increasing range. Furthermore, they benefit significantly from frequent decelerations and stopping as is experienced in city driving conditions. To recuperate as much energy as possible, deceleration is done at high torque. This presents an interesting but serious sound quality issue in the form of highly tonal whine harmonics of rapidly changing gears that do not track with vehicle speed thus being objectionable to the vehicle occupants. This paper presents an NVH target setting process for a hybrid electric transmission being integrated into two existing vehicles, one belonging to the premium segment and another aimed at enthusiasts with off-road applications.
Technical Paper

New Method for Decoupling the Powertrain Roll Mode to Improve Idle Vibration

2019-06-05
2019-01-1588
Modern engines have high torque outputs and have low RPM due to increased demand for fuel efficiency. Vibrations caused by such engines have to be mitigated. Decoupling the roll mode from the remaining five rigid body modes results in a response which is predominantly about the torque roll axis (TRA) and helps reduce vibrations. Therefore, placing the mounts on the TRA early in the design phase is crucial. Best NVH performance can be obtained by optimizing the powertrain mount parameters viz; Position, Orientation and Stiffness. Many times, packaging restricts the mounts to be placed about the TRA resulting in degradation in NVH performance. Assuming that the line through the engine mount (Body side) centers is the desired TRA, we propose a novel method of shifting the TRA by adding mass modifying the powertrain inertia such that the new TRA is parallel to and on top to the desired TRA. This in turn will decouple the roll mode and reduce vibrations.
Technical Paper

Use of Active Vibration Control to Improve Vehicle Refinement while Expanding the Usable Range of Cylinder Deactivation

2019-06-05
2019-01-1571
Cylinder deactivation has been in use for several years resulting in a sizable fuel economy advantage for V8-powered vehicles. The size of the fuel-economy benefit, compared to the full potential possible, is often limited due to the amount of usable torque available in four-cylinder-mode being capped by Noise, Vibration, and Harshness (NVH) sensitivities of various rear-wheel-drive vehicle architectures. This paper describes the application and optimization of active vibration absorbers as a system to attenuate vibration through several paths from the powertrain-driveline into the car body. The use of this strategy for attenuating vibration at strategic points is shown to diminish the need for reducing the powertrain source amplitude. This paper describes the process by which the strategic application of these devices is developed in order to achieve the increased usage of the most fuel efficient reduced-cylinder-count engine-operating-points.
Technical Paper

Notch Plasticity and Fatigue Modelling of AZ31B-H24 Magnesium Alloy Sheet

2019-04-02
2019-01-0530
Vehicle weight reduction through the use of components made of magnesium alloys is an effective way to reduce carbon dioxide emission and improve fuel economy. In the design of these components, which are mostly under cyclic loading, notches are inevitably present. In this study, surface strain distribution and crack initiation sites in the notch region of AZ31B-H24 magnesium alloy notched specimens under uniaxial load are measured via digital image correlation. Predicted strains from finite element analysis using Abaqus and LS-DYNA material types 124 and 233 are then compared against the experimental measurements during quasi-static and cyclic loading. It is concluded that MAT_233, when calibrated using cyclic tensile and compressive stress-strain curves, is capable of predicting strain at the notch root. Finally, employing Smith-Watson-Topper model together with MAT_233 results, fatigue lives of the notched specimens are estimated and compared with experimental results.
Technical Paper

Evaluation of Low Mileage GPF Filtration and Regeneration as Influenced by Soot Morphology, Reactivity, and GPF Loading

2019-04-02
2019-01-0975
As European and Chinese tailpipe emission regulations for gasoline light-duty vehicles impose particulate number limits, automotive manufacturers have begun equipping some vehicles with a gasoline particulate filter (GPF). Increased understanding of how soot morphology, reactivity, and GPF loading affect GPF filtration and regeneration characteristics is necessary for advancing GPF performance. This study investigates the impacts of morphology, reactivity, and filter soot loading on GPF filtration and regeneration. Soot morphology and reactivity are varied through changes in fuel injection parameters, known to affect soot formation conditions. Changes in morphology and reactivity are confirmed through analysis using a transmission electron microscope (TEM) and a thermogravimetric analyzer (TGA) respectively.
Technical Paper

Efficiency Evaluation of Lower Viscosity ATF in a Planetary Automatic Transmission for Improved Fuel Economy

2019-04-02
2019-01-1296
With continued industry focus on reducing parasitic transmission and driveline losses, detailed studies are required to quantify potential enablers to improve vehicle fuel economy. Investigations were undertaken to understand the influence of lower viscosity Automatic Transmission Fluids (ATF) on transmission efficiency as compared with conventional fluids. The objectives of this study were to quantify the losses of lower viscosity ATF as compared with conventional ATF, and to understand the influence of ATF properties including viscosities, base oil types, and additive packages on fuel efficiency. The transmission efficiency investigations were conducted on a test bench following a vehicle-based break-in of the transmission using a prescribed drive cycle on a chassis dynamometer. At low temperature, the lower viscosity ATF showed a clear advantage over the conventional ATF in both spin loss and loaded efficiency evaluations.
Technical Paper

Total Thermal Management of Battery Electric Vehicles (BEVs)

2018-05-30
2018-37-0026
The key hurdles to achieving wide consumer acceptance of battery electric vehicles (BEVs) are weather-dependent drive range, higher cost, and limited battery life. These translate into a strong need to reduce a significant energy drain and resulting drive range loss due to auxiliary electrical loads the predominant of which is the cabin thermal management load. Studies have shown that thermal sub-system loads can reduce the drive range by as much as 45% under ambient temperatures below −10 °C. Often, cabin heating relies purely on positive temperature coefficient (PTC) resistive heating, contributing to a significant range loss. Reducing this range loss may improve consumer acceptance of BEVs. The authors present a unified thermal management system (UTEMPRA) that satisfies diverse thermal and design needs of the auxiliary loads in BEVs.
Technical Paper

Automatic Calibrations Generation for Powertrain Controllers Using MapleSim

2018-04-03
2018-01-1458
Modern powertrains are highly complex systems whose development requires careful tuning of hundreds of parameters, called calibrations. These calibrations determine essential vehicle attributes such as performance, dynamics, fuel consumption, emissions, noise, vibrations, harshness, etc. This paper presents a methodology for automatic generation of calibrations for a powertrain-abstraction software module within the powertrain software of hybrid electric vehicles. This module hides the underlying powertrain architecture from the remaining powertrain software. The module encodes the powertrain’s torque-speed equations as calibrations. The methodology commences with modeling the powertrain in MapleSim, a multi-domain modeling and simulation tool. Then, the underlying mathematical representation of the modeled powertrain is generated from the MapleSim model using Maple, MapleSim’s symbolic engine.
Technical Paper

eFlite Dedicated Hybrid Transmission for Chrysler Pacifica

2018-04-03
2018-01-0396
Electrified powertrains will play a growing role in meeting global fuel consumption and CO2 requirements. In support of this, FCA US has developed its first dedicated hybrid transmission (the eFlite® transmission), used in the Chrysler Pacifica Hybrid. The Chrysler Pacifica is the industry’s first electrified minivan. [2] The new eFlite hybrid transmission architecture optimizes performance, fuel economy, mass, packaging and NVH. The transmission is an electrically variable FWD transaxle with an input split configuration and incorporates two electric motors, both capable of driving in EV mode. The lubrication and cooling system makes use of two pumps, one electrically operated and one mechanically driven. The Chrysler Pacifica has a 16kWh lithium ion battery and a 3.6-liter Pentastar® engine which offers total system power of 260 hp with 84 MPGe, 33 miles of all electric range and 566 miles total driving range. [2] This paper’s focus is on the eFlite transmission.
Technical Paper

A Physics Based Thermal Management Model for PHEV Battery Systems

2018-04-03
2018-01-0080
The demand for vehicles with electrified powertrain systems is increasing due to government regulations on fuel economy. The battery systems in a PHEV (Plug-in Hybrid-electric Vehicle) have achieved tremendous efficiency over past few years. The system has become more delicate and complex in architecture which requires sophisticated thermal management. Primary reason behind this is to ensure effective cooling of the cells. Hence the current work has emphasized on developing a “Physics based” thermal management modeling framework for a typical battery system. In this work the thermal energy conservation has been analyzed thoroughly in order to develop necessary governing equations for the system. Since cooling is merely a complex process in HEV battery systems, the underlying mechanics has been investigated using the current model. The framework was kept generic so that it can be applied with various architectures. In this paper the process has been standardized in this context.
Technical Paper

Optimal Parameter Calibration for Physics Based Multi-Mass Engine Model

2017-03-28
2017-01-0214
Designing an efficient transient thermal system model has become a very important task in improving fuel economy. As opposed to steady-state thermal models, part of the difficulty in designing a transient model is optimizing a set of input parameters. The first objective in this work is to develop an engine compatible physics-based 1D thermal model for fuel economy and robust control. In order to capture and study the intrinsic thermo-physical nature, both generic “Three Mass” and “Eight Mass” engine models are developed. The models have been correlated heuristically using Simulink. This correlation and calibration process is challenging and time consuming, especially in the case of the 8-mass model. Hence, in this work a Particle Swarm Optimizer (PSO) method has been introduced and implemented on a simple 3-mass and more complex 8-mass engine thermal model in order to optimize the input parameters.
Journal Article

Model-Based Wheel Torque and Backlash Estimation for Drivability Control

2017-03-28
2017-01-1111
To improve torque management algorithms for drivability, the powertrain controller must be able to compensate for the nonlinear dynamics of the driveline. In particular, the presence of backlash in the transmission and drive shafts excites sharp torque fluctuations during tip-in or tip-out transients, leading to a deterioration of the vehicle drivability and NVH. This paper proposes a model-based estimator that predicts the wheel torque in an automotive drivetrain, accounting for the effects of backlash and drive shaft flexibility. The starting point of this work is a control-oriented model of the transmission and vehicle drivetrain dynamics that predicts the wheel torque during tip-in and tip-out transients at fixed gear. The estimator is based upon a switching structure that combines a Kalman Filter and an open-loop prediction based on the developed model.
Journal Article

Further Analyses on Prediction of Automotive Spinning Wheel Flowfield with Full Width Moving Belt Wind Tunnel Results

2017-03-28
2017-01-1519
Pickup trucks are designed with a taller ride height and a larger tire envelope compared to other vehicle types given the duty cycle and environment they operate in. These differences play an important role in the flow field around spinning wheels and tires and their interactions with the vehicle body. From an aerodynamics perspective, understanding and managing this flow field are critical for drag reduction, wheel design, and brake cooling. Furthermore, the validation of numerical simulation methodology is essential for a systematic approach to aerodynamically efficient wheel design as a standard practice of vehicle design. This paper presents a correlation the near-wheel flow field for both front and rear spinning wheels with two different wheel designs for a Ram Quad Cab pick-up truck with moving ground. Twelve-hole probe experimental data obtained in a wind tunnel with a full width belt system are compared to the predictions of numerical simulations.
Journal Article

A Nonlinear Model Predictive Control Strategy with a Disturbance Observer for Spark Ignition Engines with External EGR

2017-03-28
2017-01-0608
This research proposes a control system for Spark Ignition (SI) engines with external Exhaust Gas Recirculation (EGR) based on model predictive control and a disturbance observer. The proposed Economic Nonlinear Model Predictive Controller (E-NMPC) tries to minimize fuel consumption for a number of engine cycles into the future given an Indicated Mean Effective Pressure (IMEP) tracking reference and abnormal combustion constraints like knock and combustion variability. A nonlinear optimization problem is formulated and solved in real time using Sequential Quadratic Programming (SQP) to obtain the desired control actuator set-points. An Extended Kalman Filter (EKF) based observer is applied to estimate engine states, combining both air path and cylinder dynamics. The EKF engine state(s) observer is augmented with disturbance estimation to account for modeling errors and/or sensor/actuator offset.
Journal Article

Comparison of Direct-Injection Spray Development of E10 Gasoline to a Single and Multi-Component E10 Gasoline Surrogate

2017-03-28
2017-01-0833
Optical and laser diagnostics enable in-depth spray characterization in regards to macroscopic spray characteristics and in-situ fuel mixture quality information, which are needed in understanding the spray injection process and for spray model development, validation and calibration. Use of fuel surrogates in spray researches is beneficial in controlling fuel parameters, developing spray and combustion kinetic models, and performing laser diagnostics with known fluorescence characteristics. This study quantifies and evaluates the macroscopic spray characteristics of a single and multi-component surrogate in comparison to a gasoline with 10% ethanol under gasoline direct injection (GDI) engine conditions. In addition, the effect of fuel tracers on spray evolution and vaporization is also investigated. Both diethyl-methyl-amine/fluorobenzene as a laser-induced exciplex (LIEF) fluorescence tracer pair and 3-pentanone as a laser-induced fluorescence (LIF) tracer are examined.
Technical Paper

Aerodynamic Drag of a Vehicle and Trailer Combination in Yaw

2017-03-28
2017-01-1540
Typical production vehicle development includes road testing of a vehicle towing a trailer to evaluate powertrain thermal performance. In order to correlate tests with simulations, the aerodynamic effects of pulling a trailer behind a vehicle must be estimated. During real world operation a vehicle often encounters cross winds. Therefore, the effects of cross winds on the drag of a vehicle–trailer combination should be taken into account. Improving the accuracy of aerodynamic load prediction for a vehicle-trailer combination should in turn lead to improved simulations and better thermal performance. In order to best simulate conditions for real world trailer towing, a study was performed using reduced scale models of a Sport Utility Vehicle (SUV) and a Pickup Truck (PT) towing a medium size cargo trailer. The scale model vehicle and trailer combinations were tested in a full scale wind tunnel.
Journal Article

A Stress-Based Non-Proportionality Parameter for Considering the Resistance of Slip Systems of Shear Failure Mode Materials

2016-04-11
2016-01-9081
Multiaxial loading on mechanical products is very common in the automotive industry, and how to design and analyze these products for durability becomes an important, urgent task for the engineering community. Due to the complex nature of the fatigue damage mechanism for a product under multiaxial state of stresses/strains which are dependent upon the modes of loading, materials, and life, modeling this behavior has always been a challenging task for fatigue scientists and engineers around the world. As a result, many multiaxial fatigue theories have been developed. Among all the theories, an existing equivalent stress theory is considered for use for the automotive components that are typically designed to prevent Case B cracks in the high cycle fatigue regime.
Technical Paper

Methodology to Determine the Effective Volume of Gasoline Particulate Filter Technology on Criteria Emissions

2016-04-05
2016-01-0936
New Particulate Matter (PM) and Particulate Number (PN) regulations throughout the world have created a need for aftertreatment solutions that include particulate control as an option to comply with the legislation. However, limitations in other criteria emissions cannot be sacrificed to accomplish the reduction of PM/PN. For this work, three-way washcoat catalyzed wall-flow Gasoline Particulate Filters (GPF) and similarly catalyzed flow-through catalysts of common defined volume were tested. Their catalytic performance was determined by measuring NOx, CO and HC conversion efficiencies and CO2 levels over the U.S. Federal Test Procedure 75 (FTP-75) and US06 Supplemental Federal Test Procedure (US06) cycles. Analysis of the impact on CO2 emissions was also evaluated in relation to backpressure from 1-D modeling analysis. All exhaust systems used the same loading and ratio of Platinum Group Metals (PGM), but employed different cell structures in their substrates.
Journal Article

A Real-Time Model for Spark Ignition Engine Combustion Phasing Prediction

2016-04-05
2016-01-0819
As engines are equipped with an increased number of control actuators to meet fuel economy targets they become more difficult to control and calibrate. The large number of control actuators encourages the investigation of physics-based control strategies to reduce calibration time and complexity. Of particular interest is spark timing control and calibration since it has a significant influence on engine efficiency, emissions, vibration and durability. Spark timing determination to achieve a desired combustion phasing is currently an empirical process that occurs during the calibration phase of engine development. This process utilizes a large number of stored surfaces and corrections to account for the wide range of operating environments and conditions that a given engine will experience. An obstacle to realizing feedforward physics-based combustion phasing control is the requirement for an accurate and fast combustion model.
Journal Article

Performance, Efficiency and Emissions Assessment of Natural Gas Direct Injection compared to Gasoline and Natural Gas Port-Fuel Injection in an Automotive Engine

2016-04-05
2016-01-0806
Interest in natural gas as a fuel for light-duty transportation has increased due to its domestic availability and lower cost relative to gasoline. Natural gas, comprised mainly of methane, has a higher knock resistance than gasoline making it advantageous for high load operation. However, the lower flame speeds of natural gas can cause ignitability issues at part-load operation leading to an increase in the initial flame development process. While port-fuel injection of natural gas can lead to a loss in power density due to the displacement of intake air, injecting natural gas directly into the cylinder can reduce such losses. A study was designed and performed to evaluate the potential of natural gas for use as a light-duty fuel. Steady-state baseline tests were performed on a single-cylinder research engine equipped for port-fuel injection of gasoline and natural gas, as well as centrally mounted direct injection of natural gas.
X