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Technical Paper

New Half Shaft Bench Test Methodology for NVH Characterization

2019-06-05
2019-01-1558
The main purpose of this paper is to develop a reliable bench test to understand the vibratory behavior of the half shafts under applied torque comparable to an idle condition. In some cases, the half shaft path is a major factor influencing the idle vibration in the vehicle. At idle condition vehicle vibrations are caused by engine excitation and then they pass through different paths to the body structure. Half shaft manufacturers generally characterize shaft joints for their frictional behavior and typically there is no data for vibration characteristics of the half shaft under idle conditions. However, for predictive risk management, the vibratory behavior of the half shaft needs to be identified. This can be achieved from measured frequency response functions under preloaded test conditions.
Technical Paper

Notch Plasticity and Fatigue Modelling of AZ31B-H24 Magnesium Alloy Sheet

2019-04-02
2019-01-0530
Vehicle weight reduction through the use of components made of magnesium alloys is an effective way to reduce carbon dioxide emission and improve fuel economy. In the design of these components, which are mostly under cyclic loading, notches are inevitably present. In this study, surface strain distribution and crack initiation sites in the notch region of AZ31B-H24 magnesium alloy notched specimens under uniaxial load are measured via digital image correlation. Predicted strains from finite element analysis using Abaqus and LS-DYNA material types 124 and 233 are then compared against the experimental measurements during quasi-static and cyclic loading. It is concluded that MAT_233, when calibrated using cyclic tensile and compressive stress-strain curves, is capable of predicting strain at the notch root. Finally, employing Smith-Watson-Topper model together with MAT_233 results, fatigue lives of the notched specimens are estimated and compared with experimental results.
Technical Paper

A Comprehensive Study of Hole Punching Force for AHSS

2018-04-03
2018-01-0802
The elevated strength of advanced high strength steels (AHSS) leads to enormous challenges for the sheet metal processing, one of which is hole punching operation. The total tonnage must be estimated at each trimming stage to ensure successful cutting and protect the press machine. This paper presents the effects of hole punch configurations on the punching force with the consideration of punch shape, cutting clearance and material grade. The hole punching experiments were performed with DP590, DP980, DP1180 and one mild steel as a reference. The punching force coefficient is defined and presents a negative correlation with the material strength based on the experimental data. Surface quality was examined to analyze the damage accumulation during the punching process. The cutting mechanisms with various punch shapes were revealed through an extensive finite element simulation study.
Technical Paper

Study of Incremental Bending Test on Aluminum Sheets

2018-04-03
2018-01-0807
Bendability is one of the most important formability characteristics in sheet metal forming, so it has to be understood for robust aluminum stamping process designs. Crack is one of the major failure modes in aluminum sheet bending. In this study, a new “incremental bending” method is proposed to reduce the risk of bending failure. A novel laboratory test methodology is conducted to test the 5xxx series aluminum sheet bendability with 3D digital image correlation (DIC) measurement system. The designs of test apparatus and test procedure are introduced in this paper. Through the data processing and evaluation of a sequence image acquisition, the major strain histories within the zone of the through thickness crack of test samples are measured. Testing results show that incremental bending is capable of reducing peak strain on the outer surface obviously compared with traditional non-incremental bending. The more step, more movement, the more peak strain reduction.
Technical Paper

Field Fatigue Failure Prediction Using Multiple Regression with Random Variables

2018-04-03
2018-01-1106
The most common used warranty prediction method at component level (non-repairable system) is called Weibull analysis. In Weibull analysis, failure time is assumed to follow a certain distribution such as Weibull, and time is the only predictor in the model for predicting percentage of failures. However, other variables such as design variables, manufacturing parameters, and field use condition also affect warranty. These variables should be considered in the prediction. In this paper, a multiple regression approach is proposed to predict warranty failures of a solenoid switch by considering multiple factors that affect the warranty. A single failure mode caused by fatigue is studied. The failure is caused by out of GD&T (Geometric Dimension and Tolerance) specs. These GD&T variables together with component operation time are used as predictors in the model. The final model is established by integrating physics of failures with statistical analysis results.
Technical Paper

HVAC System Bench Test Analysis for TXV Tuning

2018-04-03
2018-01-0070
In today’s automotive industry, the A/C (Air-conditioning) system is emerging into a high level of technological growth to provide quick cooling, warm up and maintaining the air quality of the cabin during all-weather conditions. In HVAC system, TXV plays vital role by separating high side to low side of vapor compression refrigeration system. It also regulates the amount of refrigerant flow to the evaporator based on A/C system load. The HVAC system bench laboratory conducts the test at different system load conditions to evaluate the outputs from tests during initial development stage to select the right TXV in terms of capacity and Superheat set point for a given system. This process is critical in HVAC developmental activity, since mule cars will be equipped with selected TXV for initial assessment of the system performance.
Technical Paper

Test of Inclined Double Beads on Aluminum Sheets

2018-04-03
2018-01-1221
Draw beads are widely used in the binder of a draw die for regulating the restraining force and control the draw-in of a metal blank. Different sheet materials and local panel geometry request different local draw bead configurations. Even the majority of draw bead is single draw bead, the alternative double draw bead does have its advantages, such as less bending damage may be brought to the sheet material and more bead geometry features available to work on. In this paper, to measure the pulling force when a piece of sheet metal passing through a draw bead on an inclined binder, the AA5XXX and AA6XXX materials were tested and its strain were measured with a digital image correlation (DIC) system. Five different types of double bead configurations were tested. The beads are installed in a Stretch-Bend-Draw-System (SBDS) test device. The clearance between a male and a female bead is 10% thicker than the sheet material. A tensile machine was used to record the pulling force.
Technical Paper

Numerical Study of Twist Spring-back Control with an Unbalanced Post-stretching Approach for Advanced High Strength Steel

2018-04-03
2018-01-0806
Twist spring-back would interfere with stamping or assembling procedures for advanced high strength steel. A “homeopathic” resolution for controlling the twist spring-back is proposed using unbalanced post-stretching configuration. Finite element forming simulation is applied to evaluate and compare the performance for each set of unbalanced post-stretching setup. The post-stretching is effectuated by stake bead application. The beads are separated into multiple independent segments, the height and radii of which can be adjusted individually and asymmetrically. Simulation results indicate that the twist spring-back can be effectively controlled by reducing the post-stretching proximate to the asymmetric part area. Its mechanism is qualitatively revealed by stress analyses, that an additional but acceptable cross-sectional spring-back re-balances the sprung asymmetrical geometry to counter the twist effect.
Technical Paper

Aluminum Sheet Springback (Side-Wall-Curl) Study

2017-03-28
2017-01-0396
Vehicle weight reduction is a significant challenge for the modern automotive industry. In recent years, the amount of vehicular components constructed from aluminum alloy has increased due to its light weighting capabilities. Automotive manufacturing processes, predominantly those utilizing various stamping applications, require a thorough understanding of aluminum fracture predictions methods, in order to accurately simulate the process using Finite Element Method (FEM) software or use it in automotive engineering manufacture. This paper presents the strain distribution of A5182 aluminum samples after punch impact under various conditions by Digital Image Correlation (DIC) system, its software also measured the complete strain history, in addition to sample curvature after it was impacted; therefore obtaining the data required to determine the amount of side-wall-curl (Aluminum sheet springback) present after formation.
Technical Paper

Static Loading Analysis of Third Row Floor Duct System Using Finite Element Method

2017-03-28
2017-01-0168
In current scenario, there is an increasing need to have faster product development and achieve the optimum design quickly. In an automobile air conditioning system, the main function of HVAC third row floor duct is to get the sufficient airflow from the rear heating ventilating and air-conditioning (HVAC) system and to provide the sufficient airflow within the leg locations of passenger. Apart from airflow and temperature, fatigue strength of the duct is one of the important factors that need to be considered while designing and optimizing the duct. The challenging task is to package the duct below the carpet within the constrained space and the duct should withstand the load applied by the passenger leg and the luggage. Finite element analysis (FEA) has been used extensively to validate the stress and deformation of the duct under different loading conditions applied over the duct system.
Technical Paper

Failure Modeling of Adhesive Bonded Joints with Cohesive Elements

2017-03-28
2017-01-0351
Advanced high strength steels (AHSS) have been extensively used in the automotive industry for vehicle weight reduction. Although AHSS show better parent metal fatigue performance, the influence of material strength on spot weld fatigue is insignificant. To overcome this drawback, structural adhesive can been used along with spot weld to form weld-bond joints. These joints significantly improve spot weld fatigue performance and provide high joint stiffness enabling down-gauge of AHSS structures. However, modeling the adhesive joints using finite element methods is a challenge due to the nonlinear behavior of the material. In this study, the formulation of cohesive element based on the traction-separation constitutive law was applied to predict the initiation and propagation of the failure mode in the adhesively bonded joints for lap shear and coach peel specimens subjected to quasi-static loadings. The predicted load versus displacement relations correlated well with the test results.
Journal Article

Warranty Forecasting of Repairable Systems for Different Production Patterns

2017-03-28
2017-01-0209
Warranty forecasting of repairable systems is very important for manufacturers of mass produced systems. It is desired to predict the Expected Number of Failures (ENF) after a censoring time using collected failure data before the censoring time. Moreover, systems may be produced with a defective component resulting in extensive warranty costs even after the defective component is detected and replaced with a new design. In this paper, we present a forecasting method to predict the ENF of a repairable system using observed data which is used to calibrate a Generalized Renewal Processes (GRP) model. Manufacturing of products may exhibit different production patterns with different failure statistics through time. For example, vehicles produced in different months may have different failure intensities because of supply chain differences or different skills of production workers, for example.
Journal Article

Degradation Analysis of Flexible Film Cables in an Automotive Environment

2017-03-28
2017-01-0317
Automobiles have a high degree of mechanical and electrical complexity. However, product complexity has the accompanying effect of requiring high levels of design and process oversight. The net result is a product creation process which is prone to creating failures. These failures typically have their origin in an overall lack of complete understanding of the system in terms of materials, geometries and energy flows. Despite all of the engineering intentions, failures are inevitable, common, and must be dealt with accordingly. In the worst case, if a failure manifests itself into an observable failure the customer may have a negative experience. Therefore, it is imperative that design engineers, suppliers along with reliability professionals be able to assess the design risk. One approach to assess risk is the use of degradation analysis. Degradation analysis often provides more information than failure time data for assessing reliability and predicting the remnant life of a system.
Journal Article

A Stress-Based Non-Proportionality Parameter for Considering the Resistance of Slip Systems of Shear Failure Mode Materials

2016-04-11
2016-01-9081
Multiaxial loading on mechanical products is very common in the automotive industry, and how to design and analyze these products for durability becomes an important, urgent task for the engineering community. Due to the complex nature of the fatigue damage mechanism for a product under multiaxial state of stresses/strains which are dependent upon the modes of loading, materials, and life, modeling this behavior has always been a challenging task for fatigue scientists and engineers around the world. As a result, many multiaxial fatigue theories have been developed. Among all the theories, an existing equivalent stress theory is considered for use for the automotive components that are typically designed to prevent Case B cracks in the high cycle fatigue regime.
Technical Paper

Probabilistic Prediction and Validation of Vehicle Dynamic Performance by Concurrent Modeling Approach

2016-04-05
2016-01-0482
This paper presents the latest development of using an integrated modeling approach to estimate the statistical ranges of key vehicle dynamics performance in the early design phase. The virtual analytical tools predict the statistical confidence interval for specified ride and handling (R&H) metrics to enable a robust design by concurrently simulating the dimensional tolerance of the structural parts as well as the compliance variation. The compliance variation can be defined as load deflection properties of bushings as well as vehicle weight effects on preload. The model can then be used to better represent real world customer experience, allowing prediction of performance ranges relative to targets. In order to better predict these targets, measurements of physical vehicles were made and compared to the model to reveal the actual interactions relative to the theoretical.
Technical Paper

An Investigation of Body Inertance Response for Occupant Safety Control Module Attachment Regions

2016-04-05
2016-01-0473
Current generation passenger vehicles are built with several electronic sensors and modules which are required for the functioning of passive safety systems. These sensors and modules are mounted on the vehicle body at locations chosen to meet safety functionality requirements. They are mounted on pillars or even directly on panels based on specific packaging requirements. The body panel or pillar poses local structural resonances and its dynamic behavior can directly affect the functioning of these sensors and modules. Hence a specific inertance performance level at the mounting locations is required for the proper functioning of those sensors and modules. Drive point modal frequency response function (FRF) analysis, at full vehicle model for the frequency range up to 1000 Hz, is performed using finite element method (FEM) and verified against the target level along with test correlation.
Technical Paper

Assessment of Critical Plane Models Using Non-Proportional Low Cycle Fatigue Test Data of 304 Stainless Steel

2016-04-05
2016-01-0380
Two popular critical plane models developed by Fatemi-Socie and Smith-Watson-Topper were derived from the experimental observations of the nucleation and growth of cracks during loading. The Fatemi-Socie critical plane model is applicable for the life prediction of materials for which the dominant failure mechanism is shear crack nucleation and growth, while the Smith-Watson-Topper model, for materials that fail predominantly by crack growth on planes perpendicular to the planes of maximum tensile strain or stress. The two critical plane models have been validated primarily by in-phase and 90° out-of-phase loading, and few, on the complex, non-proportional loading paths. A successful critical plane model should be able to predict both the fatigue life and the dominant failure planes. However, some experimental studies indicate the 304 stainless steel has the two possible failure modes, shear and tensile failure dominant, depending on the loading mode and stress and strain states.
Technical Paper

3D Simulation Models Simplified to 2D Planar/Axisymmetric Problems in Automotive Structures

2016-04-05
2016-01-0397
In automotive FEA analysis, there are many components or assemblies which can be simplified to two-dimensional (2D) plane or axisymmetric analytical problems instead of three-dimensional (3D) simulation models for quick modeling and efficient analysis to meet the timing in the design development process, especially in the advanced design phase and iteration studies. Even though some situations are not perfectly planar or axisymmetric problems, they may still be approximated in 2D planar or axisymmetric models, achieving results accurate enough to meet engineering requirements. In this paper, the authors have presented and summarized several complex 3D analytical situations which can be replaced by simplified plane axisymmetric models or 2D plane strain analytical models.
Technical Paper

Fatigue Life Prediction for Adaptable Insert Welds between Sheet Steel and Cast Magnesium Alloy

2016-04-05
2016-01-0392
Joining technology is a key factor to utilize dissimilar materials in vehicle structures. Adaptable insert weld (AIW) technology is developed to join sheet steel (HSLA350) to cast magnesium alloy (AM60) and is constructed by combining riveting technology and electrical resistance spot welding technology. In this project, the AIW joint technology is applied to construct front shock tower structures composed with HSLA350, AM60, and Al6082 and a method is developed to predict the fatigue life of the AIW joints. Lap-shear and cross-tension specimens were constructed and tested to develop the fatigue parameters (load-life curves) of AIW joint. Two FEA modeling techniques for AIW joints were used to model the specimen geometry. These modeling approaches are area contact method (ACM) and TIE contact method.
Technical Paper

Hybrid FEA-SEA Modeling Approach for Vehicle Transfer Function

2015-06-15
2015-01-2236
Finite element analysis (FEA) is commonly used in the automotive industry to predict low frequency NVH behavior (<150 Hz) of structures. Also, statistical energy analysis (SEA) framework is used to predict high frequency (>400 Hz) noise transmission from the source space to the receiver space. A comprehensive approach addressing the entire spectrum (>20 Hz) by taking into account structure-borne and air-borne paths is not commonplace. In the works leading up to this paper a hybrid methodology was employed to predict structure-borne and air-borne transfer functions up to 1000 Hz by combining FEA and SEA. The dash panel was represented by FE structural subsystems and the noise control treatments (NCTs) and the pass-throughs were characterized via testing to limit uncertainty in modeling. The rest of the structure and the fluid spaces were characterized as SEA subsystems.
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