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Technical Paper

In-Use Compliance Opportunity for Diesel Powertrains

In-use compliance under LEV III emission standards, GHG, and fuel economy targets beyond 2025 poses a great opportunity for all ICE-based propulsion systems, especially for light-duty diesel powertrain and aftertreatment enhancement. Though diesel powertrains feature excellent fuel-efficiency, robust and complete emissions controls covering any possible operational profiles and duty cycles has always been a challenge. Significant dependency on aftertreatment calibration and configuration has become a norm. With the onset of hybridization and downsizing, small steps of improvement in system stability have shown a promising avenue for enhancing fuel economy while continuously improving emissions robustness. In this paper, a study of current key technologies and associated emissions robustness will be discussed followed by engine and aftertreatment performance target derivations for LEV III compliant powertrains.
Technical Paper

Meeting 2025 CAFE Standards for LDT with Fuel-Efficient Diesel Powertrains - Approaches and Solutions

In view of changing climatic conditions all over the world, Green House Gas (GHG) saving related initiatives such as reducing the CO2 emissions from the mobility and transportation sectors have gained in importance. Therefore, with respect to the large U.S. market, the corresponding legal authorities have defined aggressive and challenging targets for the upcoming time frame. Due to several aspects and conditions, like hesitantly acting clients regarding electrically powered vehicles or low prices for fossil fuels, convincing and attractive products have to be developed to merge legal requirements with market constraints. This is especially valid for the market segment of Light-Duty vehicles, like SUV’S and Pick-Up trucks, which are in high demand.
Journal Article

OBD Diagnostic Strategies for LEVIII Exhaust Gas Aftertreatment Concepts

Upcoming motor vehicle emission regulations, such as California's LEVIII, continue to tighten emission limitations in diesel vehicles. These increasingly challenging emission requirements will be met by improving the combustion process (reducing engine-out emissions), as well as improving the exhaust gas aftertreatment efficiency. Furthermore, intricate On-Board Diagnostics (OBD) systems are required to properly diagnose and meet OBD regulation requirements for complex aftertreatment systems. Under these conditions, current monitoring strategies are unable to guarantee reliable detection of partially failed systems. Additionally, new OBD regulations require aftertreatment systems to be diagnosed as a whole. This paper covers potential OBD strategies for LEVIII aftertreatment concepts with regard to regulation compliance and robustness, while striving to use existing sensor concepts.
Technical Paper

Developing Drivetrain Robustness for Small Engine Testing

The increased demand in fuel economy and the reduction of CO₂ emissions results in continued efforts to downsize engines. The downsizing efforts result in engines with lower displacement as well as lower number of cylinders. In addition to cylinder and displacement downsizing the development community embarks on continued efforts toward down-speeding. The combination of the aforementioned factors results in engines which can have high levels of torsional vibrations. Such behavior can have detrimental effects on the drivetrain particularly during the development phase of these. Driveshafts, couplings, and dynamometers are exposed to these torsional forces and depending on their frequency costly damages in these components can occur. To account for these effects, FEV employs a multi-body-system modeling approach through which base engine information is used to determine optimized drivetrain setups. All mechanical elements in the setup are analyzed based on their torsional behavior.
Technical Paper

Increasing Efficiency in Gasoline Powertrains with a Two-Stage Variable Compression Ratio (VCR) System

Downsizing in combination with turbocharging currently represents the main technology trend for meeting CO2 emissions with gasoline engines. Besides the well-known advantages of downsizing the compression ratio has to be reduced in order to mitigate knock at higher engine loads along with increased turbocharging demand to compensate for the reduction in power. Another disadvantage occurs at part load with increasing boost pressure levels causing the part load efficiencies to deteriorate. The application of a variable compression ratio (VCR) system can help to mitigate these disadvantages. The 2-stage VCR system with variable kinetic lengths entails variable powertrain components which can be used instead of the conventional components and thus only require minor modifications for existing engine architectures. The presented variable length connecting rod system has been continuously developed over the past years.
Technical Paper

A Low NVH Range-Extender Application with a Small V-2 Engine - Based on a New Vibration Compensation System

The interest in electric propulsion of vehicles has increased in recent years and is being discussed extensively by experts as well as the public. Up to now the driving range and the utilization of pure electric vehicles are still limited in comparison to conventional vehicles due to the limited capacity and the long charging times of today's batteries. This is a challenge to customer acceptance of a pure electric vehicle, even for a city car application. A Range Extender concept could achieve the desired customer acceptance, but should not impact the “electric driving” experience, and should not cause further significant increases in the manufacturing and purchasing cost. The V2 engine concept presented in this paper is particularly suited to a low cost, modular vehicle concept. Advantages regarding packaging can be realized with the use of two generators in combination with the V2 engine.
Technical Paper

Exhaust-Aftertreatment Integrated, DoE-based Calibration

For on- and off-highway applications in 2012/2014 new legislative emissions requirements will be applied for both European (EURO 6/stage 4) and US (US 2010/Tier4 final) standards. Specifically the NOX-emission limit will be lowered down to 0.46 g/kWh (net power ≻ 56 kW (EU)/130 kW (US) - 560 kW). While for the previous emissions legislation various ways could be used to stay within the emissions limits (engine internal and aftertreatment measures), DeNOX-aftertreatment systems will be mandatory to reach future limits. In these kinds of applications fuel consumption of the engines is a very decisive selling argument for customers. Total cost of ownership needs to be as low as possible. The trade-off between fuel consumption and NOX emissions forces manufacturers to find an optimal solution, especially with regard to increasing fuel prices. In state-of-the-art calibration processes the aftertreatment system is considered separately from the calibration of the thermodynamics.