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Journal Article

Advanced Fuel Formulation Approach using Blends of Paraffinic and Oxygenated Biofuels: Analysis of Emission Reduction Potential in a High Efficiency Diesel Combustion System

This work is a continuation of earlier results presented by the authors. In the current investigations the biofuels hydrogenated vegetable oil (HVO) and 1-octanol are investigated as pure components and compared to EN 590 Diesel. In a final step both biofuels are blended together in an appropriate ratio to tailor the fuels properties in order to obtain an optimal fuel for a clean combustion. The results of pure HVO indicate a significant reduction in CO-, HC- and combustion noise emissions at constant NOX levels. With regard to soot emissions, at higher part loads, the aromatic free, paraffinic composition of HVO showed a significant reduction compared to EN 590 petroleum Diesel fuel. But at lower loads the high cetane number leads to shorter ignition delays and therefore, ignition under richer conditions.
Technical Paper

Experimental Investigation of a RCCI Combustion Concept with In-Cylinder Blending of Gasoline and Diesel in a Light Duty Engine

Within this study a dual-fuel concept was experimentally investigated. The utilized fuels were conventional EN228 RON95E10 and EN590 Diesel B7 pump fuels. The engine was a single cylinder Diesel research engine for passenger car application. Except for the installation of the port fuel injection valve, the engine was not modified. The investigated engine load range covered low part load operation of IMEP = 4.3 bar up to IMEP = 14.8 bar at different engine speeds. Investigations with Diesel pilot injection showed that the dual-fuel approach can significantly reduce the soot/NOx-trade-off, but typically increases the HC- and CO-emissions. At high engine load and gasoline mass fraction, the premixed gasoline/air self-ignited before Diesel fuel was injected. Reactivity Controlled Compression Ignition (RCCI) was subsequently investigated in a medium load point at IMEP = 6.8 bar.
Journal Article

An Experimental Investigation of Dual-Fuel Combustion in a Light Duty Diesel Engine by In-Cylinder Blending of Ethanol and Diesel

This study investigated dual-fuel operation with a light duty Diesel engine over a wide engine load range. Ethanol was hereby injected into the intake duct, while Diesel was injected directly into the cylinder. At low loads, high ethanol shares are critical in terms of combustion stability and emissions of unburnt hydrocarbons. As the load increases, the rates of heat release become problematic with regard to noise and mechanical stress. At higher loads, an advanced injection of Diesel was found to be beneficial in terms of combustion noise and emissions. For all tests, engine-out NOx emissions were kept within the EU-6.1 limit.
Journal Article

The Oxidation Potential Number: An Index to Evaluate Inherent Soot Reduction in D.I. Diesel Spray Plumes

A new index to evaluate the inherent soot reduction in a diesel-like spray plume is proposed in this study. The index is named “Oxidation Potential Number” and was derived with the help of a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) software. C8 - C16 n-alkanes, 1-alcohols and di-n-ethers were studied with the help of this index over four part load engine operating conditions, representative of a C-class diesel vehicle. The CFD modelling results have shown that C8 molecules feature a higher potentiality to reduce the soot. Thus, C8 molecules were tested in a single cylinder diesel engine over the same operating conditions. In conclusion, the proposed index is compared with the soot engine out emission.
Journal Article

Crude Tall Oil-Based Renewable Diesel as a Blending Component in Passenger Car Diesel Engines

The residue and waste streams of existing industry offer feasible and sustainable raw materials for biofuel production. All kind of biomass contains carbon and hydrogen which can be turned into liquid form with suitable processes. Using hydrotreatment or Biomass-to-Liquid technologies (BTL) the liquid oil can be further converted into transportation biofuels. Hydrotreatment technology can be used to convert bio-oils and fats in to high quality diesel fuels that have superior fuel properties (e.g. low aromatic content and high cetane number) compared to regular diesel fuel and first generation ester-type diesel fuel. UPM has developed a new innovative technology based on hydrotreatment that can be used to convert Crude Tall Oil (CTO) into high quality renewable diesel fuel. This study concentrated on determining the functionality and possible effects of CTO based renewable diesel as a blending component on engine emissions and engine performance.
Journal Article

Vehicle Demonstration of Naphtha Fuel Achieving Both High Efficiency and Drivability with EURO6 Engine-Out NOx Emission

Demand for transport energy is growing but this growth is skewed heavily toward commercial transport, such as, heavy road, aviation, marine and rail which uses heavier fuels like diesel and kerosene. This is likely to lead to an abundance and easy availability of lighter fractions like naphtha, which is the product of the initial distillation of crude oil. Naphtha will also require lower energy to produce and hence will have a lower CO₂ impact compared to diesel or gasoline. It would be desirable to develop engine combustion systems that could run on naphtha. Many recent studies have shown that running compression ignition engines on very low Cetane fuels, which are very similar to naphtha in their auto-ignition behavior, offers the prospect of developing very efficient, clean, simple and cheap engine combustion systems. Significant development work would be required before such systems could power practical vehicles.