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Technical Paper

Development of a New 1.8L Down-Speeding Turbocharged Gasoline Engine with Miller Cycle

Upcoming China 4th stage of fuel consumption regulation and China 6a emission legislation require improvement of many existing engines. This paper summarizes an upgrade of combustion system and mechanical layout for a four-cylinder engine family. Based on an existing production process for a naturally aspirated 2.0-liter gasoline engine, a 1.8-liter down-speeded and turbocharged gasoline engine is derived. Starting development by analysis of engine base geometry, a layout for a Miller-Cycle gas exchange with early closing of intake valves is chosen. Requirements on turbocharger configuration are investigated with one-dimensional gas exchange simulation and combustion process will be analyzed by means of 3D-CFD simulation. Challenging boundary conditions of a very moderate long-stroke layout with a stroke/bore-ratio of only 1.037 in combination with a cost efficient port fuel injection system and fixed valve lift profiles are considered.
Technical Paper

1D Engine Simulation Approach for Optimizing Engine and Exhaust Aftertreatment Thermal Management for Passenger Car Diesel Engines by Means of Variable Valve Train (VVT) Applications

Using a holistic 1D engine simulation approach for the modelling of full-transient engine operation, allows analyzing future engine concepts, including its exhaust gas aftertreatment technology, early in the development process. Thus, this approach enables the investigation of both important fields - the thermodynamic engine process and the aftertreatment system, together with their interaction in a single simulation environment. Regarding the aftertreatment system, the kinetic reaction behavior of state-of-the-art and advanced components, such as Diesel Oxidation Catalysts (DOC) or Selective Catalytic Reduction Soot Filters (SCRF), is being modelled. Furthermore, the authors present the use of the 1D engine and exhaust gas aftertreatment model on use cases of variable valve train (VVT) applications on passenger car (PC) diesel engines.
Technical Paper

λDSF: Dynamic Skip Fire with Homogeneous Lean Burn for Improved Fuel Consumption, Emissions and Drivability

Dynamic skip fire (DSF) has shown significant fuel economy improvement potential via reduction of pumping losses that generally affect throttled spark-ignition (SI) engines. In DSF operation, individual cylinders are fired on-demand near peak efficiency to satisfy driver torque demand. For vehicles with a downsized-boosted 4-cylinder engine, DSF can reduce fuel consumption by 8% in the WLTC (Class 3) drive cycle. The relatively low cost of cylinder deactivation hardware further improves the production value of DSF. Lean burn strategies in gasoline engines have also demonstrated significant fuel efficiency gains resulting from reduced pumping losses and improved thermodynamic characteristics, such as higher specific heat ratio and lower heat losses. Fuel-air mixture stratification is generally required to achieve stable combustion at low loads.
Technical Paper

Development of Combustion System for a 1-Liter Advanced Turbocharged Gasoline Direct Injection 3-Cylinder Engine

In recent years, more attention has been focused on environment pollution and energy source issues. As a result, increasingly stringent fuel consumption and emission legislations have been implemented all over the world. For automakers, enhancing engine’s efficiency as a must contributes to lower vehicle fuel consumption. To reach this goal, Geely auto started the development of a 3-cylinder 1.0L turbocharged direct injection (TGDI) gasoline engine to achieve a challenging fuel economy target while maintaining fun-to-drive and NVH performance. Demanding development targets for performance (specific torque 205Nm/L and specific power 100kW/L) and excellent part-load BSFC were defined, which lead to a major challenge for the design of the combustion system. Considering air/fuel mixture, fuel wall impingement and even future potential for lean burn combustion, a symmetrical layout and a central position for the injector with 200bar injection pressure was determined.
Journal Article

Influence of Advanced Technology for Thermal Management on SUV

Reducing fuel consumption is a major challenge for vehicle, especially for SUV. Cooling loss is about 30% in total energy loss under NEDC (New European Driving Cycle) cycle. It is necessary to optimize vehicle thermal management system to improve fuel economy. Otherwise, rapid warm-up is beneficial for friction reduction and passenger comfort in cold-start. Vehicle thermal behavior is influenced by cooling system layout, new technology and control strategy. Thermal management simulation is effective to show the energy flow and fuel consumption under the influence of new technology under NEDC cycle. So 1D thermal management simulation model is created, including vehicle, cooling system, lubrication system and detailed engine model with all friction components. And the interrelations between all the components are considered in the model. For model calibration, large amount of data is obtained from vehicle tests such as transient fuel consumption and transient coolant temperature.
Technical Paper

A Study on In-Cycle Combustion Control for Gasoline Controlled Autoignition

Gasoline Controlled Auto Ignition offers a high CO2 emission reduction potential, which is comparable to state-of-the-art, lean stratified operated gasoline engines. Contrary to the latter, GCAI low temperature combustion avoids NOX emissions, thereby trying to avoid extensive exhaust aftertreatment. The challenges remain in a restricted operation range due to combustion instabilities and a high sensitivity towards changing boundary conditions like ambient temperature, intake pressure or fuel properties. Once combustion shows instability, cyclic fluctuations are observed. These appear to have near-chaotic behavior but are characterized by a superposition of clearly deterministic and stochastic effects. Previous works show that the fluctuations can be predicted precisely when taking cycle-tocycle correlations into account. This work extends current approaches by focusing on additional dependencies within one single combustion cycle.
Technical Paper

Optimization of Engine Efficiency and Diesel Aftertreatment System Architecture Using an Integrated System Simulation Approach

As emission regulations are becoming increasingly stringent worldwide, multiple exhaust aftertreatment devices are considered in order to minimize diesel engine tailpipe emissions. For the typical diesel applications in developing markets like India, the fuel consumption is a very decisive selling argument for customers. The total cost of ownership needs to be as low as possible. To meet these competing requirements, the aftertreatment and engines must be optimized at the same time as the performance of the one system affects the other. In state-of-the-art calibration processes, the aftertreatment systems are considered separately from the calibration of the thermodynamics. This conventional approach makes it more challenging to achieve a simultaneous optimization of the fuel consumption and tailpipe emissions under transient operating conditions.
Technical Paper

Hybrid Dynamic Analysis of Crankshaft-Crankcase for Off-Road Engine Application

This work presents the results and methodology of a dynamic durability analysis considering the interaction between crankcase and crankshaft. The approach is based on a robust mathematical model that couples the dynamic characteristics of the crankshaft and crankcase, representing the actual interaction between both components. Dynamic loadings generated by the crankshaft are transferred to the crankcase through flexible 3D hydrodynamic bearings. This methodology is referred to as hybrid simulation, which consists in the solution of the dynamics of an Elastic Multi-Body System (E-MBS) coupled with the Finite Element Methodology (FEM). For this study, it was considered an in-line 6-cylinder diesel engine used in off-road applications. The crankcase design must withstand higher loads due to new calibration targets stipulated for PROCONVE (MAR-I) emission regulations.
Journal Article

An Experimental Investigation of Dual-Fuel Combustion in a Light Duty Diesel Engine by In-Cylinder Blending of Ethanol and Diesel

This study investigated dual-fuel operation with a light duty Diesel engine over a wide engine load range. Ethanol was hereby injected into the intake duct, while Diesel was injected directly into the cylinder. At low loads, high ethanol shares are critical in terms of combustion stability and emissions of unburnt hydrocarbons. As the load increases, the rates of heat release become problematic with regard to noise and mechanical stress. At higher loads, an advanced injection of Diesel was found to be beneficial in terms of combustion noise and emissions. For all tests, engine-out NOx emissions were kept within the EU-6.1 limit.
Technical Paper

Robust Emission Compliance and Reduction of System Cost by advanced emission-based Diesel engine air management

The continuously strengthened requirements regarding air quality and pollutant reduction as well as GHG emissions further complicate the compliance with legal standards. Especially in view of cost-sensitive applications this demand strongly collides with the EMS set-up and the sensor requirements with still increasing overall system complexity. The paper in hand describes a novel air path control approach, which offers the potential for a flexible use of multiple EGR routes to meet upcoming legislations more robustly, while providing a significant reduction of calibration effort and sensor content at the same time. By using a direct emission based cylinder charge control, also alterations in operational ambient conditions are covered with system reactions according to physical-based rules to enhance the engine-out emission performance without need for tuning of corrections of any air path set point.
Technical Paper

15 Years of Transfer Path Analysis VINS in the Vehicle NVH Development - Selected Results

Transfer path analysis is a powerful tool to support the vehicle NVH development. On the one hand it is a fast method to gain an overview of the complex interplay in the vehicle noise generation process. On the other hand it can be used to identify critical noise paths and vehicle components responsible for specific noise phenomena. FEV has developed several tools, which are adapted to the considered noise phenomena: Powertrain induced interior noise and vibration is analyzed by VINS (Vehicle Interior Noise Simulation), which allows the deduction of improvement measures fast enough for application in the accelerated vehicle development process. Further on vehicle/powertrain combinations not realized in hardware can be evaluated by virtual installation of the powertrain in the vehicle, which is especially interesting in the context of engine downsizing from four to three or six to four cylinders.
Technical Paper

Modelling a Gasoline Compression Ignition (GCI) Engine Concept

Future engines and vehicles will be required to reduce both regulated and CO2 emissions. To achieve this performance, they will be configured with advanced hardware and engine control technology that will enable their operation on a broader range of fuel properties than today. Previous work has shown that an advanced compression ignition bench engine can operate successfully on a European market gasoline over a range of speed/load conditions while achieving diesel-like engine efficiency and acceptable regulated emissions and noise levels. Stable Gasoline CI (GCI) combustion using a European market gasoline was achieved at high to medium engine loads but combustion at lower loads was very sensitive to EGR rates, leading to longer ignition delays and a steep cylinder pressure rise.
Technical Paper

Achieving Optimum Crankshaft Design - I

The increasing pressure on the engine development process via tighter legislations and increasing competition lead to search for the best possible design for each engine component. Especially the dynamic parts, which contribute to total engine friction at most, are under extreme focus. The search for the optimum layout of crankshafts considering the design aims, such as low friction, low weight and high durability, is usually a manual variation process with limited number of design loops. Within this study computer aided (CA) automated optimization methodologies are integrated into the design procedure to achieve the best possible design solution according to the objectives under consideration of the predefined constraints. An extensive crankshaft optimization study is performed and resulted in many novel and patented design features. A case study for a modern in-line four-cylinder crankshaft is performed to show the potentials.
Journal Article

Development and Demonstration of LNT+SCR System for Passenger Car Diesel Applications

The regulations for mobile applications will become stricter in Euro 6 and further emission levels and require the use of active aftertreatment methods for NOX and particulate matter. SCR and LNT have been both used commercially for mobile NOX removal. An alternative system is based on the combination of these two technologies. Developments of catalysts and whole systems as well as final vehicle demonstrations are discussed in this study. The small and full-size catalyst development experiments resulted in PtRh/LNT with optimized noble metal loadings and Cu-SCR catalyst having a high durability and ammonia adsorption capacity. For this study, an aftertreatment system consisting of LNT plus exhaust bypass, passive SCR and engine independent reductant supply by on-board exhaust fuel reforming was developed and investigated. The concept definition considers NOX conversion, CO2 drawback and system complexity.
Journal Article

Crankcase and Crankshaft Coupled Structural Analysis Based on Hybrid Dynamic Simulation

This paper presents the comparison of two different approaches for crankcase structural analysis. The first approach is a conventional quasi-static simulation, which will not be detailed in this work and the second approach involves determining the dynamic loading generated by the crankshaft torsional, flexural and axial vibrations on the crankcase. The accuracy of this approach consists in the development of a robust mathematical model that can couple the dynamic characteristics of the crankshaft and the crankcase, representing realistically the interaction between both components. The methodology to evaluate these dynamic responses is referred to as hybrid simulation, which consists of the solution of the dynamics of an E-MBS (Elastic Multi Body System) coupled with consecutive FEA (Finite Element Analysis).
Technical Paper

Lamborghini Approach to Engine Downsizing Engine Friction Modeling

Downsizing, down speeding and hybridization are becoming a standard in the automotive industry. This paper was initiated to answer Automobili Lamborghini R&D's question: what does downsizing mean In technical literature downsizing is often referred to as reducing displacement and, sometimes, cylinders. Through a methodological approach, analysis and experimental activities Automobili Lamborghini, with FEV's support, shows that downsizing in terms of engine friction reduction means only reduction of displacement. Using the Aventador V12 6.5 liter engine as a baseline, two 4.3 liter engines were designed, a V8 and a V12. The engine friction losses of these two engines were calculated all over the engine speed range and during the NEDC cycle utilizing a simulation tool and verified through FEV's “Strip-Method” database. This approach gives us the holistic understanding on engine components design and which technologies should be introduced for the next Lamborghini engine generation.
Journal Article

Validation of a 1D Compressor Model for Performance Prediction

In the present paper, a recently developed centrifugal compressor model is briefly summarized. It provides a refined geometrical schematization of the device, especially of the impeller, starting from a reduced set of linear and angular dimensions. A geometrical module reproduces the 3D geometry of the impeller and furnishes the data employed to solve the 1D flow equations inside the rotating and stationary ducts constituting the complete device. The 1D compressor model allows to predict the performance maps (pressure ratio and efficiency) with good accuracy, once the tuning of a number of parameters is realized to characterize various flow losses and heat exchange. To overcome the limitations related to the model tuning, unknown parameters are selected with reference to 5 different devices employing an optimization procedure (modeFRONTIER™).
Journal Article

Advanced Numerical and Experimental Techniques for the Extension of a Turbine Mapping

1D codes are nowadays commonly used to investigate a turbocharged ICE performance, turbo-matching and transient response. The turbocharger is usually described in terms of experimentally derived characteristic maps. The latter are commonly measured using the compressor as a brake for the turbine, under steady “hot gas” tests. This approach causes some drawbacks: each iso-speed is commonly limited to a narrow pressure ratio and mass flow rate range, while a wider operating domain is experienced on the engine; the turbine thermal conditions realized on the test rig may strongly differ from the coupled-to-engine operation; a “conventional” net turbine efficiency is really measured, since it includes the effects of the heat exchange on the compressor side, together with bearing friction and windage losses.
Technical Paper

The NVH Behavior of Internal Combustion Engines used in Range Extended Electric Vehicles

The electrification of vehicle propulsion has changed the landscape of vehicle NVH. Pure electric vehicles (EV) are almost always quieter than those powered by internal combustion engines. However, one of the key challenges with the development of range extended electric vehicles (ReEV) is the NVH behavior of the vehicle. Specifically, the transition from the EV mode to one where the range extender engine is operational can cause significant NVH issues. In addition, the operation of the range extender engine relative to various driving conditions can also pose significant NVH concerns. In this paper internal combustion engines are examined in terms of their acoustic behavior when used as range extenders. This is done by simulating the vibrations at the engine mounting positions as well as the intake and exhaust orifice noise. By using a transfer path synthesis, interior noise components of the range extenders are calculated from these excitations.
Technical Paper

Developing Drivetrain Robustness for Small Engine Testing

The increased demand in fuel economy and the reduction of CO₂ emissions results in continued efforts to downsize engines. The downsizing efforts result in engines with lower displacement as well as lower number of cylinders. In addition to cylinder and displacement downsizing the development community embarks on continued efforts toward down-speeding. The combination of the aforementioned factors results in engines which can have high levels of torsional vibrations. Such behavior can have detrimental effects on the drivetrain particularly during the development phase of these. Driveshafts, couplings, and dynamometers are exposed to these torsional forces and depending on their frequency costly damages in these components can occur. To account for these effects, FEV employs a multi-body-system modeling approach through which base engine information is used to determine optimized drivetrain setups. All mechanical elements in the setup are analyzed based on their torsional behavior.