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Technical Paper

Super Ultra-Low NOX Emissions under Extended RDE Conditions - Evaluation of Light-Off Strategies of Advanced Diesel Exhaust Aftertreatment Systems

2019-04-02
2019-01-0742
Super ultra-low NOX emission engine concepts are essential to comply with future emission legislations. To meet the future emission standards, application of advanced diesel exhaust aftertreatment systems (EATS), such as Diesel Oxidation Catalyst (DOC), Lean NOX Trap (LNT), Selective Catalytic Reduction coatings on Soot Filters (SCRF) and underfloor SCR, is required. Effective customized thermal management strategies are essential to ensure fast light-off of the EATS after engine cold start, and to avoid significant cooldown during part load operation. The authors describes the investigation of different exhaust gas heating measures, such as intake throttling, late fuel injection, exhaust throttling, advanced exhaust cam phasing, retarded intake cam phasing, cylinder deactivation, full turbine bypass, electric catalyst heating and electrically heated intake manifold strategies.
Technical Paper

Accurate Mean Value Process Models for Model-Based Engine Control Concepts by Means of Hybrid Modeling

2019-04-02
2019-01-1178
Advanced powertrains for modern vehicles require the optimization of conventional combustion engines in combination with tailored electrification and vehicle connectivity strategies. The resulting systems and their control devices feature many degrees of freedom with a large number of available adjustment parameters. This obviously presents major challenges to the development of the corresponding powertrain control logics. Hence, the identification of an optimal system calibration is a non-trivial task. To address this situation, physics-based control approaches are evolving and successively replacing conventional map-based control strategies in order to handle more complex powertrain topologies. Physics-based control approaches enable a significant reduction in calibration effort, and also improve the control robustness.
Technical Paper

Bharat Stage-V Solutions for Agricultural Engines for India Market

2019-01-09
2019-26-0148
The Bharat Stage (CEV/Tractor) IV & V emission legislations will come into force in Oct 2020 & Apr 2024 respectively, posing a major engineering challenge in terms of system complexity, reliability, costs and development time. Solutions for the EU Stage-V NRMM legislation in Europe, from which the BS-V limits are derived, have been developed and are ready for implementation. To a certain extent these European solutions can be transferred to the Indian market. However, certain market-specific challenges are yet to be defined and addressed. In addition, a challenging timeline has to be considered for application of advanced technologies and processes during the product development. In this presentation, the emission roadmap will be introduced in the beginning, followed by a discussion of potential technology solutions on the engine itself as well as on the after treatment components.
Technical Paper

In-Use Compliance Opportunity for Diesel Powertrains

2018-04-03
2018-01-0877
In-use compliance under LEV III emission standards, GHG, and fuel economy targets beyond 2025 poses a great opportunity for all ICE-based propulsion systems, especially for light-duty diesel powertrain and aftertreatment enhancement. Though diesel powertrains feature excellent fuel-efficiency, robust and complete emissions controls covering any possible operational profiles and duty cycles has always been a challenge. Significant dependency on aftertreatment calibration and configuration has become a norm. With the onset of hybridization and downsizing, small steps of improvement in system stability have shown a promising avenue for enhancing fuel economy while continuously improving emissions robustness. In this paper, a study of current key technologies and associated emissions robustness will be discussed followed by engine and aftertreatment performance target derivations for LEV III compliant powertrains.
Technical Paper

Meeting 2025 CAFE Standards for LDT with Fuel-Efficient Diesel Powertrains - Approaches and Solutions

2017-03-28
2017-01-0698
In view of changing climatic conditions all over the world, Green House Gas (GHG) saving related initiatives such as reducing the CO2 emissions from the mobility and transportation sectors have gained in importance. Therefore, with respect to the large U.S. market, the corresponding legal authorities have defined aggressive and challenging targets for the upcoming time frame. Due to several aspects and conditions, like hesitantly acting clients regarding electrically powered vehicles or low prices for fossil fuels, convincing and attractive products have to be developed to merge legal requirements with market constraints. This is especially valid for the market segment of Light-Duty vehicles, like SUV’S and Pick-Up trucks, which are in high demand.
Journal Article

Optimization of Exhaust After-Treatment System (EATS) to BS 6 Emission Level for a Light Commercial Vehicle (LCV) Using Existing BS 4 Engine Results and 1-D Simulation Approach

2017-01-10
2017-26-0119
The emission legislations are becoming increasingly strict all over the world and India too has taken a big leap in this direction by signaling the migration from Bharat Stage 4 (BS 4) to BS 6 in the year 2020. This decision by the Indian government has provided the Indian automotive industry a new challenge to find the most optimal solution for this migration, with the existing BS 4 engines available in their portfolio. Indian market for the LCV segment is highly competitive and cost sensitive where the overall vehicle operation cost (vehicle cost + fluid consumption cost) is the most critical factor. The engine and after-treatment technology for BS 6 emission levels should consider the factors of minimizing the additional hardware cost as well as improving the fuel efficiency. Often both of which are inversely proportional. The presented study involves the optimization of after treatment component size, layout and various systems for NOx and PM reduction.
Technical Paper

Bharat Stage VI Solutions for Commercial Engines for the India Market

2017-01-10
2017-26-0043
The Bharat Stage VI (BS-VI) emission legislation will come into force in 2020, posing a major engineering challenge in terms of system complexity, reliability, cost and development time. Solutions for the EURO VI on-road legislation in Europe, from which the BS-VI limits are derived, have been developed and have already been implemented. To a certain level these European solutions can be transferred to the Indian market. However, several market-specific challenges are yet to be defined and addressed. In addition, a very strict timeline has to be considered for application of advanced technologies and processes during the product development. In this paper, the emission roadmap will be introduced in the beginning, followed by a discussion of potential technology solutions on the engine itself as well as on the exhaust aftertreatment side. This includes boosting and fuel injection technologies as well as different exhaust gas recirculation methods.
Technical Paper

On-Board Diagnostic Related Challenges on Two-Wheelers Related to the Upcoming Bharat Stage VI Emission Standards

2017-01-10
2017-26-0147
The decision to leapfrog from the Bharat Stage (BS) IV emission standards directly to the BS VI standards not only effects passenger and commercial vehicles but also India’s by far largest vehicle class, with regards to sales and production, the two-wheelers. The BS VI norm will not only tighten the emission standards, but it will also increase the required emission mileage level and upgrade the On-Board Diagnostic (OBD) requirements, also by introducing In-Use Monitor Performance Ratio (IUMPR) standards. While OBD was already introduced for passenger and commercial vehicles with BS IV in 2010, OBD will be then newly introduced for two-wheelers. The OBD system monitors the vehicle’s in-use emission performance, informs the driver via the malfunction indication light (MIL) on the dashboard in case of an emission relevant failure, standardises the diagnostic code handling and regulates a standardised access to the electronic control units (ECUs) for maintenance and inspection purposes.
Technical Paper

Comparative Study to Assess the Potential of Different Exhaust Gas Aftertreatment Concepts for Diesel Powered Ultra-Light Commercial Vehicle Applications in View of Meeting BS VI Legislation

2017-01-10
2017-26-0128
Despite the trend in increased prosperity, the Indian automotive market, which is traditionally dominated by highly cost-oriented producion, is very sensitive to the price of fuels and vehicles. Due to these very specific market demands, the U-LCV (ultra-light commercial vehicle) segment with single cylinder natural aspirated Diesel engines (typical sub 650 cc displacement) is gaining immense popularity in the recent years. By moving to 2016, with the announcement of leapfrogging directly to Bharat Stage VI (BS VI) emission legislation in India, and in addition to the mandatory application of Diesel particle filters (DPF), there will be a need to implement effective NOx aftertreament systems. Due to the very low power-to-weight ratio of these particular applications, the engine operation takes place under full load conditions in a significant portion of the test cycle.
Technical Paper

Investigation of Insulated Exhaust Manifolds and Turbine Housings in Modern Diesel Engines for Emissions and Fuel Consumption Reduction

2016-04-05
2016-01-1003
Improvements in the efficiency of internal combustion engines has led to a reduction in exhaust gas temperatures. The simultaneous tightening of exhaust emission limits requires ever more complex emission control methods, including aftertreatment whose efficiency is crucially dependent upon the exhaust gas temperature. Double-walled (also called air-gap) exhaust manifold and turbine housing modules made from sheet metal have been used in gasoline engines since 2009. They offer the potential in modern Diesel engines to reduce both the emissions of pollutants and fuel consumption. They also offer advantages in terms of component weight and surface temperatures in comparison to cast iron components. A detailed analysis was conducted to investigate the potential advantages of insulated exhaust systems for modern diesel engines equipped with DOC and SCR coated DPF (SDPF).
Technical Paper

Generic Control Software Architecture for Battery Management Systems

2015-09-29
2015-01-2849
Electrification is a key enabler to reduce emissions levels and noise in commercial vehicles. With electrification, Batteries are being used in commercial hybrid vehicles like city buses and trucks for kinetic energy recovery, boosting and electric driving. A battery management system monitors and controls multiple components of a battery system like cells, relays, sensors, actuators and high voltage loads to optimize the performance of a battery system. This paper deals with the development of modular control architecture for battery management systems in commercial vehicles. The key technical challenges for software development in commercial vehicles are growing complexity, rising number of functional requirements, safety, variant diversity, software quality requirements and reduced development costs. Software architecture is critical to handle some of these challenges early in the development process.
Journal Article

Fuel Economy Benefits for Commercial Diesel Engines with Waste Heat Recovery

2015-09-29
2015-01-2807
In the near future engine emitted carbon dioxides (CO2) are going to be limited for all vehicle categories with respect to the Green House Gases (GHG) norms. To tackle this challenge, new concepts need to be developed. For this reason waste heat recovery (WHR) is a promising research field. For commercial vehicles the first phase of CO2 emission legislation will be introduced in the USA in 2014 and will be further tightened towards 2030. Besides the US, CO2 emission legislation for commercial engines will also be introduced in Europe in the near future. The demanded CO2 reduction calls for a better fuel economy which is also of interest for the end user, specifically for the owners of heavy duty diesel vehicles with high mileages. To meet these future legislation objectives, a waste heat recovery system is a beneficial solution of recovering wasted energies from different heat sources in the engine.
Technical Paper

Internal and External Measures for Catalyst Light-Off Support

2015-09-06
2015-24-2501
Within a project of the Research Association for Combustion Engines e.V., different measures for rising the temperature of exhaust gas aftertreatment components of both a passenger car and an industrial/commercial vehicle engine were investigated on a test bench as well as in simulation. With the passenger car diesel engine and different catalyst configurations, the potential of internal and external heating measures was evaluated. The configuration consisting of a NOx storage catalyst (NSC) and a diesel particulate filter (DPF) illustrates the potential of an electrically heated NSC. The exhaust aftertreatment system consisting of a diesel oxidation catalyst (DOC) and a DPF shows in simulation how variable valve timing in combination with electric heated DOC can be used to increase the exhaust gas temperature and thus fulfill the EU6 emission limits.
Technical Paper

Modeling of Transport and Mixing Phenomena in Turbulent Flows in Closed Domains

2015-04-14
2015-01-0399
In this work, a transport and mixing model that calculates mixing in thermodynamic phase space was derived and validated. The mixing in thermodynamic multizone space is consistent to the one in the spatially resolved physical space. The model is developed using a turbulent channel flow as simplified domain. This physical domain of a direct numerical simulation (DNS) is divided into zones based on the quantitative value of transported scalars. Fluxes between the zones are introduced to describe mixing from the transport equation of the probability density function based on the mixing process in physical space. The mixing process of further scalars can then be carried out with these fluxes instead of solving additional transport equations. The relationship between the exchange flux in phase space and the concept of scalar dissipation are shown and validated by comparison to DNS results.
Technical Paper

Robust Emission Compliance and Reduction of System Cost by advanced emission-based Diesel engine air management

2015-01-14
2015-26-0089
The continuously strengthened requirements regarding air quality and pollutant reduction as well as GHG emissions further complicate the compliance with legal standards. Especially in view of cost-sensitive applications this demand strongly collides with the EMS set-up and the sensor requirements with still increasing overall system complexity. The paper in hand describes a novel air path control approach, which offers the potential for a flexible use of multiple EGR routes to meet upcoming legislations more robustly, while providing a significant reduction of calibration effort and sensor content at the same time. By using a direct emission based cylinder charge control, also alterations in operational ambient conditions are covered with system reactions according to physical-based rules to enhance the engine-out emission performance without need for tuning of corrections of any air path set point.
Journal Article

Development and Demonstration of LNT+SCR System for Passenger Car Diesel Applications

2014-04-01
2014-01-1537
The regulations for mobile applications will become stricter in Euro 6 and further emission levels and require the use of active aftertreatment methods for NOX and particulate matter. SCR and LNT have been both used commercially for mobile NOX removal. An alternative system is based on the combination of these two technologies. Developments of catalysts and whole systems as well as final vehicle demonstrations are discussed in this study. The small and full-size catalyst development experiments resulted in PtRh/LNT with optimized noble metal loadings and Cu-SCR catalyst having a high durability and ammonia adsorption capacity. For this study, an aftertreatment system consisting of LNT plus exhaust bypass, passive SCR and engine independent reductant supply by on-board exhaust fuel reforming was developed and investigated. The concept definition considers NOX conversion, CO2 drawback and system complexity.
Technical Paper

Potential of Advanced, Combined Aftertreatment Systems for Light-Duty Diesel Engines to Meet Upcoming EU and US Emission Regulation

2013-09-08
2013-24-0163
The modern DI-diesel engine represents a valuable platform to achieve worldwide tightened CO2 standards while meeting future strengthened emission regulations in the EU and the US. Due to the simultaneous, partially contrary legal demands, new integrated and combined systems are required to allow best overall performance within the upcoming legal frames concerning pollutant emission reduction and minimization of CO2 output. As extended emission relevant areas in the engine map have to be respected in view of RDE and PEMS scenarios in EU, but also facing the LEVIII standards in the US, comprehensive and synchronized technical solutions have to be engineered. Based on furthermore optimized combustion systems with improved combustion efficiency, meaning also lowered exhaust gas temperatures, especially refined and tailored emission control systems are demanded.
Technical Paper

The NVH Behavior of Internal Combustion Engines used in Range Extended Electric Vehicles

2013-05-13
2013-01-2002
The electrification of vehicle propulsion has changed the landscape of vehicle NVH. Pure electric vehicles (EV) are almost always quieter than those powered by internal combustion engines. However, one of the key challenges with the development of range extended electric vehicles (ReEV) is the NVH behavior of the vehicle. Specifically, the transition from the EV mode to one where the range extender engine is operational can cause significant NVH issues. In addition, the operation of the range extender engine relative to various driving conditions can also pose significant NVH concerns. In this paper internal combustion engines are examined in terms of their acoustic behavior when used as range extenders. This is done by simulating the vibrations at the engine mounting positions as well as the intake and exhaust orifice noise. By using a transfer path synthesis, interior noise components of the range extenders are calculated from these excitations.
Journal Article

Performance Plus Range: Combined Battery Concept for Plug‑In Hybrid Vehicles

2013-04-08
2013-01-1525
PlugIn Hybrid Electric Vehicles (PHEV) offer the opportunity to experience electric driving without the risk of vehicle break-down due to a low battery charge state. Thus, PHEV's represent an attractive means of meeting future CO2-legislation. PHEV batteries must fulfill a divergent list of requirements: on the one hand, the battery must supply sufficient energy to ensure it can be driven an appropriate distance in EV-mode. On the other hand, even with a low state-of-charge (SOC), the battery must supply sufficient power to assist the engine in vehicle acceleration or to recuperate on deceleration. This leads to a compromise in terms of cell selection. Fundamentally, high energy cells cannot provide high charge and discharge rates and high power cells cannot provide sufficient energy.
Technical Paper

A Low NVH Range-Extender Application with a Small V-2 Engine - Based on a New Vibration Compensation System

2012-10-23
2012-32-0081
The interest in electric propulsion of vehicles has increased in recent years and is being discussed extensively by experts as well as the public. Up to now the driving range and the utilization of pure electric vehicles are still limited in comparison to conventional vehicles due to the limited capacity and the long charging times of today's batteries. This is a challenge to customer acceptance of a pure electric vehicle, even for a city car application. A Range Extender concept could achieve the desired customer acceptance, but should not impact the “electric driving” experience, and should not cause further significant increases in the manufacturing and purchasing cost. The V2 engine concept presented in this paper is particularly suited to a low cost, modular vehicle concept. Advantages regarding packaging can be realized with the use of two generators in combination with the V2 engine.
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