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Technical Paper

Super Ultra-Low NOX Emissions under Extended RDE Conditions - Evaluation of Light-Off Strategies of Advanced Diesel Exhaust Aftertreatment Systems

Super ultra-low NOX emission engine concepts are essential to comply with future emission legislations. To meet the future emission standards, application of advanced diesel exhaust aftertreatment systems (EATS), such as Diesel Oxidation Catalyst (DOC), Lean NOX Trap (LNT), Selective Catalytic Reduction coatings on Soot Filters (SCRF) and underfloor SCR, is required. Effective customized thermal management strategies are essential to ensure fast light-off of the EATS after engine cold start, and to avoid significant cooldown during part load operation. The authors describes the investigation of different exhaust gas heating measures, such as intake throttling, late fuel injection, exhaust throttling, advanced exhaust cam phasing, retarded intake cam phasing, cylinder deactivation, full turbine bypass, electric catalyst heating and electrically heated intake manifold strategies.
Technical Paper

Accurate Mean Value Process Models for Model-Based Engine Control Concepts by Means of Hybrid Modeling

Advanced powertrains for modern vehicles require the optimization of conventional combustion engines in combination with tailored electrification and vehicle connectivity strategies. The resulting systems and their control devices feature many degrees of freedom with a large number of available adjustment parameters. This obviously presents major challenges to the development of the corresponding powertrain control logics. Hence, the identification of an optimal system calibration is a non-trivial task. To address this situation, physics-based control approaches are evolving and successively replacing conventional map-based control strategies in order to handle more complex powertrain topologies. Physics-based control approaches enable a significant reduction in calibration effort, and also improve the control robustness.
Technical Paper

Bharat Stage-V Solutions for Agricultural Engines for India Market

The Bharat Stage (CEV/Tractor) IV & V emission legislations will come into force in Oct 2020 & Apr 2024 respectively, posing a major engineering challenge in terms of system complexity, reliability, costs and development time. Solutions for the EU Stage-V NRMM legislation in Europe, from which the BS-V limits are derived, have been developed and are ready for implementation. To a certain extent these European solutions can be transferred to the Indian market. However, certain market-specific challenges are yet to be defined and addressed. In addition, a challenging timeline has to be considered for application of advanced technologies and processes during the product development. In this presentation, the emission roadmap will be introduced in the beginning, followed by a discussion of potential technology solutions on the engine itself as well as on the after treatment components.
Technical Paper

In-Use Compliance Opportunity for Diesel Powertrains

In-use compliance under LEV III emission standards, GHG, and fuel economy targets beyond 2025 poses a great opportunity for all ICE-based propulsion systems, especially for light-duty diesel powertrain and aftertreatment enhancement. Though diesel powertrains feature excellent fuel-efficiency, robust and complete emissions controls covering any possible operational profiles and duty cycles has always been a challenge. Significant dependency on aftertreatment calibration and configuration has become a norm. With the onset of hybridization and downsizing, small steps of improvement in system stability have shown a promising avenue for enhancing fuel economy while continuously improving emissions robustness. In this paper, a study of current key technologies and associated emissions robustness will be discussed followed by engine and aftertreatment performance target derivations for LEV III compliant powertrains.
Technical Paper

Bharat Stage VI Solutions for Commercial Engines for the India Market

The Bharat Stage VI (BS-VI) emission legislation will come into force in 2020, posing a major engineering challenge in terms of system complexity, reliability, cost and development time. Solutions for the EURO VI on-road legislation in Europe, from which the BS-VI limits are derived, have been developed and have already been implemented. To a certain level these European solutions can be transferred to the Indian market. However, several market-specific challenges are yet to be defined and addressed. In addition, a very strict timeline has to be considered for application of advanced technologies and processes during the product development. In this paper, the emission roadmap will be introduced in the beginning, followed by a discussion of potential technology solutions on the engine itself as well as on the exhaust aftertreatment side. This includes boosting and fuel injection technologies as well as different exhaust gas recirculation methods.
Technical Paper

Investigation of Insulated Exhaust Manifolds and Turbine Housings in Modern Diesel Engines for Emissions and Fuel Consumption Reduction

Improvements in the efficiency of internal combustion engines has led to a reduction in exhaust gas temperatures. The simultaneous tightening of exhaust emission limits requires ever more complex emission control methods, including aftertreatment whose efficiency is crucially dependent upon the exhaust gas temperature. Double-walled (also called air-gap) exhaust manifold and turbine housing modules made from sheet metal have been used in gasoline engines since 2009. They offer the potential in modern Diesel engines to reduce both the emissions of pollutants and fuel consumption. They also offer advantages in terms of component weight and surface temperatures in comparison to cast iron components. A detailed analysis was conducted to investigate the potential advantages of insulated exhaust systems for modern diesel engines equipped with DOC and SCR coated DPF (SDPF).
Technical Paper

Internal and External Measures for Catalyst Light-Off Support

Within a project of the Research Association for Combustion Engines e.V., different measures for rising the temperature of exhaust gas aftertreatment components of both a passenger car and an industrial/commercial vehicle engine were investigated on a test bench as well as in simulation. With the passenger car diesel engine and different catalyst configurations, the potential of internal and external heating measures was evaluated. The configuration consisting of a NOx storage catalyst (NSC) and a diesel particulate filter (DPF) illustrates the potential of an electrically heated NSC. The exhaust aftertreatment system consisting of a diesel oxidation catalyst (DOC) and a DPF shows in simulation how variable valve timing in combination with electric heated DOC can be used to increase the exhaust gas temperature and thus fulfill the EU6 emission limits.
Technical Paper

Experimental Investigation of a RCCI Combustion Concept with In-Cylinder Blending of Gasoline and Diesel in a Light Duty Engine

Within this study a dual-fuel concept was experimentally investigated. The utilized fuels were conventional EN228 RON95E10 and EN590 Diesel B7 pump fuels. The engine was a single cylinder Diesel research engine for passenger car application. Except for the installation of the port fuel injection valve, the engine was not modified. The investigated engine load range covered low part load operation of IMEP = 4.3 bar up to IMEP = 14.8 bar at different engine speeds. Investigations with Diesel pilot injection showed that the dual-fuel approach can significantly reduce the soot/NOx-trade-off, but typically increases the HC- and CO-emissions. At high engine load and gasoline mass fraction, the premixed gasoline/air self-ignited before Diesel fuel was injected. Reactivity Controlled Compression Ignition (RCCI) was subsequently investigated in a medium load point at IMEP = 6.8 bar.
Technical Paper

Robust Emission Compliance and Reduction of System Cost by advanced emission-based Diesel engine air management

The continuously strengthened requirements regarding air quality and pollutant reduction as well as GHG emissions further complicate the compliance with legal standards. Especially in view of cost-sensitive applications this demand strongly collides with the EMS set-up and the sensor requirements with still increasing overall system complexity. The paper in hand describes a novel air path control approach, which offers the potential for a flexible use of multiple EGR routes to meet upcoming legislations more robustly, while providing a significant reduction of calibration effort and sensor content at the same time. By using a direct emission based cylinder charge control, also alterations in operational ambient conditions are covered with system reactions according to physical-based rules to enhance the engine-out emission performance without need for tuning of corrections of any air path set point.
Journal Article

Development Trends for Commercial and Industrial Engines

Exhaust emission reduction and improvements in energy consumption will continuously determine future developments of on-road and off-road engines. Fuel flexibility by substituting Diesel with Natural Gas is becoming increasingly important. To meet these future requirements engines will get more complex. Additional and more advanced accessory systems for waste heat recovery (WHR), gaseous fuel supply, exhaust after-treatment and controls will be added to the base engine. This additional complexity will increase package size, weight and cost of the complete powertrain. Another critical element in future engine development is the optimization of the base engine. Fundamental questions are how much the base engine can contribute to meet the future exhaust emission standards, including CO2 and how much of the incremental size, weight and cost of the additional accessories can be compensated by optimizing the base engine.
Journal Article

Development and Demonstration of LNT+SCR System for Passenger Car Diesel Applications

The regulations for mobile applications will become stricter in Euro 6 and further emission levels and require the use of active aftertreatment methods for NOX and particulate matter. SCR and LNT have been both used commercially for mobile NOX removal. An alternative system is based on the combination of these two technologies. Developments of catalysts and whole systems as well as final vehicle demonstrations are discussed in this study. The small and full-size catalyst development experiments resulted in PtRh/LNT with optimized noble metal loadings and Cu-SCR catalyst having a high durability and ammonia adsorption capacity. For this study, an aftertreatment system consisting of LNT plus exhaust bypass, passive SCR and engine independent reductant supply by on-board exhaust fuel reforming was developed and investigated. The concept definition considers NOX conversion, CO2 drawback and system complexity.
Technical Paper

Potential of Advanced, Combined Aftertreatment Systems for Light-Duty Diesel Engines to Meet Upcoming EU and US Emission Regulation

The modern DI-diesel engine represents a valuable platform to achieve worldwide tightened CO2 standards while meeting future strengthened emission regulations in the EU and the US. Due to the simultaneous, partially contrary legal demands, new integrated and combined systems are required to allow best overall performance within the upcoming legal frames concerning pollutant emission reduction and minimization of CO2 output. As extended emission relevant areas in the engine map have to be respected in view of RDE and PEMS scenarios in EU, but also facing the LEVIII standards in the US, comprehensive and synchronized technical solutions have to be engineered. Based on furthermore optimized combustion systems with improved combustion efficiency, meaning also lowered exhaust gas temperatures, especially refined and tailored emission control systems are demanded.
Technical Paper

Exploring a Gasoline Compression Ignition (GCI) Engine Concept

Future vehicles will increasingly be required to improve their efficiency, reduce both regulated and CO₂ emissions, and maintain acceptable levels of driving, safety, and noise performance. To achieve this high level of performance, they will be configured with more advanced hardware, sensors, and control technologies that will also enable their operation on a broader range of fuel properties. These capabilities offer the potential to design future vehicles to operate on the most widely available and GHG-reducing fuels. In previous studies, fuel flexibility has been demonstrated on a compression ignition bench engine and vehicle equipped with an advanced engine management system, closed-loop combustion control, and air-path control strategies. An unresolved question is whether engines of this sort can operate routinely on market gasoline while achieving diesel-like efficiency and acceptable emissions and noise levels.
Technical Paper

Parametric Analysis of Piston Bowl Geometry and Injection Nozzle Configuration using 3D CFD and DoE

In meeting the stringent emission norms with internal engine measures, the design of the piston bowl and the nozzle configuration perform a defining role. Through 3D CFD simulations, this article shall parametrically investigate the influence of piston bowl geometry and nozzle characteristics on the performance of the combustion system. After validation of the 3D simulation model with experimental results, a Design of Experiment (DoE) method shall be applied to analyze a matrix of piston bowls with parametric variations in geometry. Further, the influence of the nozzle cone angle, hydraulic flow rate, number of holes and their combination shall be determined using systematic parameter variations with selected piston bowl designs. The performance of the various hardware configurations would be evaluated based on the exhaust emissions and fuel consumption values.
Journal Article

Thermal Shock Protection for Diesel Particulate Filters

During a thermal regeneration of a Diesel particulate filter (DPF) the temperature inside the DPF may raise above critical thresholds in an uncontrolled way (thermal shock). Especially driving conditions with a comparable low exhaust gas mass flow and high oxygen content like idle speed may create a thermal shock. This paper presents a concept for an ECU software structure to prevent the DPF from reaching improper temperatures and the methodology in order to calibrate this ECU structure. The concept deals in general with a closed-loop control of the exhaust gas air-fuel-ratio during the critical engine operation phases. Those critical operation phases are identified at the engine test bench during “Drop-to-Idle” and “Drop-to-Overrun” experiments. The experiments show that those phases are critical having on the one hand a low exhaust gas mass flow and on the other hand a high oxygen percentage in the exhaust gas.