Future Specification of Automotive LPG Fuels for Modern Turbocharged DI SI Engines with Today’s High Pressure Fuel Pumps
Liquefied Petroleum Gas direct injection (LPG DI) is believed to be the key enabler for the adaption of modern downsized gasoline engines to the usage of LPG, since LPG DI avoids the significant low end torque drop, which goes along with the application of conventional LPG port fuel injection systems to downsized gasoline DI engines, and provides higher combustion efficiencies. However, especially the high vapor pressure of C3 hydrocarbons can result in hot fuel handling issues as evaporation or even in reaching the supercritical state of LPG upstream or inside the high pressure pump (HPP). This is particularly critical under hot soak conditions. As a result of a rapid fuel density drop close to the supercritical point, the HPP is not able to keep the rail pressure constant and the engine stalls.