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Technical Paper

NVH Aspects of Electric Drive Unit Development and Vehicle Integration

2019-06-05
2019-01-1454
The automotive industry continues to develop new powertrain and vehicle technologies aimed at reducing overall vehicle-level fuel consumption. Specifically, the use of electrified propulsion systems is expected to play an increasingly important role in helping OEM’s meet fleet CO2 reduction targets for 2025 and beyond. This will also include a strong growth in the global demand for electric drive units (EDUs). The change from conventional vehicles to vehicles propelled by EDUs leads to a reduction in overall vehicle exterior and interior noise levels, especially during low-speed vehicle operation. Despite the overall noise levels being low, the NVH behavior of such vehicles can be objectionable due to the presence of tonal noise coming from electric machines and geartrain components as well as relatively high shares of road/wind noise. In order to ensure customer acceptance of electrically propelled vehicles, it is imperative that these NVH challenges are understood and solved.
Technical Paper

New Method for Decoupling the Powertrain Roll Mode to Improve Idle Vibration

2019-06-05
2019-01-1588
Modern engines have high torque outputs and have low RPM due to increased demand for fuel efficiency. Vibrations caused by such engines have to be mitigated. Decoupling the roll mode from the remaining five rigid body modes results in a response which is predominantly about the torque roll axis (TRA) and helps reduce vibrations. Therefore, placing the mounts on the TRA early in the design phase is crucial. Best NVH performance can be obtained by optimizing the powertrain mount parameters viz; Position, Orientation and Stiffness. Many times, packaging restricts the mounts to be placed about the TRA resulting in degradation in NVH performance. Assuming that the line through the engine mount (Body side) centers is the desired TRA, we propose a novel method of shifting the TRA by adding mass modifying the powertrain inertia such that the new TRA is parallel to and on top to the desired TRA. This in turn will decouple the roll mode and reduce vibrations.
Technical Paper

Use of Active Vibration Control to Improve Vehicle Refinement while Expanding the Usable Range of Cylinder Deactivation

2019-06-05
2019-01-1571
Cylinder deactivation has been in use for several years resulting in a sizable fuel economy advantage for V8-powered vehicles. The size of the fuel-economy benefit, compared to the full potential possible, is often limited due to the amount of usable torque available in four-cylinder-mode being capped by Noise, Vibration, and Harshness (NVH) sensitivities of various rear-wheel-drive vehicle architectures. This paper describes the application and optimization of active vibration absorbers as a system to attenuate vibration through several paths from the powertrain-driveline into the car body. The use of this strategy for attenuating vibration at strategic points is shown to diminish the need for reducing the powertrain source amplitude. This paper describes the process by which the strategic application of these devices is developed in order to achieve the increased usage of the most fuel efficient reduced-cylinder-count engine-operating-points.
Technical Paper

Integration of an ORC Waste Heat Recovery with Electrification and Supercharging through Use of a Planetary Gear System for a Class 8 Tractor Application

2019-04-02
2019-01-0229
A novel approach to the Integration of Turbocompounding/WHR, Electrification and Supercharging technologies (ITES) to reduce fuel consumption in a medium heavy-duty diesel engine was previously published by FEV. This paper describes a modified approach to ITES to reduce fuel consumption on a heavy-duty diesel engine applied in a Class 8 tractor. The original implementation of the ITES incorporated a turbocompound turbine as the means for waste heat recovery. In this new approach, the turbocompound unit connected to the sun gear of the planetary gear set has been replaced by an organic Rankine cycle (ORC) turbine expander. The secondary compressor and the electric motor-generator are connected to the ring gear and the carrier gear respectively. The ITES unit is equipped with dry clutch and band brake allowing flexibility in mechanical and electrical integration of the ORC expander, secondary compressor and electric motor-generator to the engine.
Technical Paper

Notch Plasticity and Fatigue Modelling of AZ31B-H24 Magnesium Alloy Sheet

2019-04-02
2019-01-0530
Vehicle weight reduction through the use of components made of magnesium alloys is an effective way to reduce carbon dioxide emission and improve fuel economy. In the design of these components, which are mostly under cyclic loading, notches are inevitably present. In this study, surface strain distribution and crack initiation sites in the notch region of AZ31B-H24 magnesium alloy notched specimens under uniaxial load are measured via digital image correlation. Predicted strains from finite element analysis using Abaqus and LS-DYNA material types 124 and 233 are then compared against the experimental measurements during quasi-static and cyclic loading. It is concluded that MAT_233, when calibrated using cyclic tensile and compressive stress-strain curves, is capable of predicting strain at the notch root. Finally, employing Smith-Watson-Topper model together with MAT_233 results, fatigue lives of the notched specimens are estimated and compared with experimental results.
Technical Paper

Evaluation of Low Mileage GPF Filtration and Regeneration as Influenced by Soot Morphology, Reactivity, and GPF Loading

2019-04-02
2019-01-0975
As European and Chinese tailpipe emission regulations for gasoline light-duty vehicles impose particulate number limits, automotive manufacturers have begun equipping some vehicles with a gasoline particulate filter (GPF). Increased understanding of how soot morphology, reactivity, and GPF loading affect GPF filtration and regeneration characteristics is necessary for advancing GPF performance. This study investigates the impacts of morphology, reactivity, and filter soot loading on GPF filtration and regeneration. Soot morphology and reactivity are varied through changes in fuel injection parameters, known to affect soot formation conditions. Changes in morphology and reactivity are confirmed through analysis using a transmission electron microscope (TEM) and a thermogravimetric analyzer (TGA) respectively.
Technical Paper

Efficiency Evaluation of Lower Viscosity ATF in a Planetary Automatic Transmission for Improved Fuel Economy

2019-04-02
2019-01-1296
With continued industry focus on reducing parasitic transmission and driveline losses, detailed studies are required to quantify potential enablers to improve vehicle fuel economy. Investigations were undertaken to understand the influence of lower viscosity Automatic Transmission Fluids (ATF) on transmission efficiency as compared with conventional fluids. The objectives of this study were to quantify the losses of lower viscosity ATF as compared with conventional ATF, and to understand the influence of ATF properties including viscosities, base oil types, and additive packages on fuel efficiency. The transmission efficiency investigations were conducted on a test bench following a vehicle-based break-in of the transmission using a prescribed drive cycle on a chassis dynamometer. At low temperature, the lower viscosity ATF showed a clear advantage over the conventional ATF in both spin loss and loaded efficiency evaluations.
Technical Paper

Development of a New 1.8L Down-Speeding Turbocharged Gasoline Engine with Miller Cycle

2018-09-10
2018-01-1712
Upcoming China 4th stage of fuel consumption regulation and China 6a emission legislation require improvement of many existing engines. This paper summarizes an upgrade of combustion system and mechanical layout for a four-cylinder engine family. Based on an existing production process for a naturally aspirated 2.0-liter gasoline engine, a 1.8-liter down-speeded and turbocharged gasoline engine is derived. Starting development by analysis of engine base geometry, a layout for a Miller-Cycle gas exchange with early closing of intake valves is chosen. Requirements on turbocharger configuration are investigated with one-dimensional gas exchange simulation and combustion process will be analyzed by means of 3D-CFD simulation. Challenging boundary conditions of a very moderate long-stroke layout with a stroke/bore-ratio of only 1.037 in combination with a cost efficient port fuel injection system and fixed valve lift profiles are considered.
Technical Paper

Total Thermal Management of Battery Electric Vehicles (BEVs)

2018-05-30
2018-37-0026
The key hurdles to achieving wide consumer acceptance of battery electric vehicles (BEVs) are weather-dependent drive range, higher cost, and limited battery life. These translate into a strong need to reduce a significant energy drain and resulting drive range loss due to auxiliary electrical loads the predominant of which is the cabin thermal management load. Studies have shown that thermal sub-system loads can reduce the drive range by as much as 45% under ambient temperatures below −10 °C. Often, cabin heating relies purely on positive temperature coefficient (PTC) resistive heating, contributing to a significant range loss. Reducing this range loss may improve consumer acceptance of BEVs. The authors present a unified thermal management system (UTEMPRA) that satisfies diverse thermal and design needs of the auxiliary loads in BEVs.
Technical Paper

Automatic Calibrations Generation for Powertrain Controllers Using MapleSim

2018-04-03
2018-01-1458
Modern powertrains are highly complex systems whose development requires careful tuning of hundreds of parameters, called calibrations. These calibrations determine essential vehicle attributes such as performance, dynamics, fuel consumption, emissions, noise, vibrations, harshness, etc. This paper presents a methodology for automatic generation of calibrations for a powertrain-abstraction software module within the powertrain software of hybrid electric vehicles. This module hides the underlying powertrain architecture from the remaining powertrain software. The module encodes the powertrain’s torque-speed equations as calibrations. The methodology commences with modeling the powertrain in MapleSim, a multi-domain modeling and simulation tool. Then, the underlying mathematical representation of the modeled powertrain is generated from the MapleSim model using Maple, MapleSim’s symbolic engine.
Technical Paper

eFlite Dedicated Hybrid Transmission for Chrysler Pacifica

2018-04-03
2018-01-0396
Electrified powertrains will play a growing role in meeting global fuel consumption and CO2 requirements. In support of this, FCA US has developed its first dedicated hybrid transmission (the eFlite® transmission), used in the Chrysler Pacifica Hybrid. The Chrysler Pacifica is the industry’s first electrified minivan. [2] The new eFlite hybrid transmission architecture optimizes performance, fuel economy, mass, packaging and NVH. The transmission is an electrically variable FWD transaxle with an input split configuration and incorporates two electric motors, both capable of driving in EV mode. The lubrication and cooling system makes use of two pumps, one electrically operated and one mechanically driven. The Chrysler Pacifica has a 16kWh lithium ion battery and a 3.6-liter Pentastar® engine which offers total system power of 260 hp with 84 MPGe, 33 miles of all electric range and 566 miles total driving range. [2] This paper’s focus is on the eFlite transmission.
Technical Paper

A Physics Based Thermal Management Model for PHEV Battery Systems

2018-04-03
2018-01-0080
The demand for vehicles with electrified powertrain systems is increasing due to government regulations on fuel economy. The battery systems in a PHEV (Plug-in Hybrid-electric Vehicle) have achieved tremendous efficiency over past few years. The system has become more delicate and complex in architecture which requires sophisticated thermal management. Primary reason behind this is to ensure effective cooling of the cells. Hence the current work has emphasized on developing a “Physics based” thermal management modeling framework for a typical battery system. In this work the thermal energy conservation has been analyzed thoroughly in order to develop necessary governing equations for the system. Since cooling is merely a complex process in HEV battery systems, the underlying mechanics has been investigated using the current model. The framework was kept generic so that it can be applied with various architectures. In this paper the process has been standardized in this context.
Technical Paper

λDSF: Dynamic Skip Fire with Homogeneous Lean Burn for Improved Fuel Consumption, Emissions and Drivability

2018-04-03
2018-01-0891
Dynamic skip fire (DSF) has shown significant fuel economy improvement potential via reduction of pumping losses that generally affect throttled spark-ignition (SI) engines. In DSF operation, individual cylinders are fired on-demand near peak efficiency to satisfy driver torque demand. For vehicles with a downsized-boosted 4-cylinder engine, DSF can reduce fuel consumption by 8% in the WLTC (Class 3) drive cycle. The relatively low cost of cylinder deactivation hardware further improves the production value of DSF. Lean burn strategies in gasoline engines have also demonstrated significant fuel efficiency gains resulting from reduced pumping losses and improved thermodynamic characteristics, such as higher specific heat ratio and lower heat losses. Fuel-air mixture stratification is generally required to achieve stable combustion at low loads.
Technical Paper

In-Use Compliance Opportunity for Diesel Powertrains

2018-04-03
2018-01-0877
In-use compliance under LEV III emission standards, GHG, and fuel economy targets beyond 2025 poses a great opportunity for all ICE-based propulsion systems, especially for light-duty diesel powertrain and aftertreatment enhancement. Though diesel powertrains feature excellent fuel-efficiency, robust and complete emissions controls covering any possible operational profiles and duty cycles has always been a challenge. Significant dependency on aftertreatment calibration and configuration has become a norm. With the onset of hybridization and downsizing, small steps of improvement in system stability have shown a promising avenue for enhancing fuel economy while continuously improving emissions robustness. In this paper, a study of current key technologies and associated emissions robustness will be discussed followed by engine and aftertreatment performance target derivations for LEV III compliant powertrains.
Journal Article

Impact of the Future Fuel Economy Targets on Powertrain, Driveline and Vehicle NVH Development

2017-06-05
2017-01-1777
The automotive industry continues to develop new technologies aimed at reducing overall vehicle level fuel consumption. Powertrain and driveline related technologies will play a key role in helping OEM’s meet fleet CO2 reduction targets for 2025 and beyond. Specifically, use of technologies such as downsized engines, idle start-stop systems, aggressive torque converter lock-up schedules, wide-ratio spread transmissions, and electrified propulsion systems are vital towards meeting aggressive fuel economy targets. Judicious combinations of such powertrain and driveline technology packages in conjunction with measures such as the use of low rolling resistance tires and vehicle lightweighting will be required to meet future OEM fleet CO2 targets. Many of the technologies needed for meeting the fuel economy and CO2 targets come with unique NVH challenges. In order to ensure customer acceptance of new vehicles, it is imperative that these NVH challenges be understood and solved.
Technical Paper

Optimization of Electric Vehicle Exterior Noise for Pedestrian Safety and Sound Quality

2017-06-05
2017-01-1889
The automotive industry continues to develop new powertrain and vehicle technologies aimed at reducing overall vehicle-level fuel consumption. Specifically, the use of electrified propulsion systems is expected to play an increasingly important role in helping OEM’s meet fleet CO2 reduction targets for 2025 and beyond. Electric and hybrid electric vehicles do not typically utilize IC engines for low-speed operation. Under these low-speed operating conditions, the vehicles are much quieter than conventional IC engine-powered vehicles, making their approach difficult to detect by pedestrians. To mitigate this safety concern, many manufacturers have synthesized noise (using exterior speakers) to increase detection distance. Further, the US National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) has provided recommendations pursuant to the Pedestrian Safety Enhancement Act (PSEA) of 2010 for such exterior noise signatures to ensure detectability.
Technical Paper

Assessment of Lightweight Automotive Glass Solutions on Interior Noise Levels & Sound Quality

2017-06-05
2017-01-1814
The automotive industry continues to develop technologies for reducing vehicle fuel consumption. Specifically, vehicle lightweighting is expected to be a key enabler for achieving fleet CO2 reduction targets for 2025 and beyond. Hybrid glass laminates that incorporate fusion draw and ion exchange innovations are thinner and thereby, offer more than 30% weight reduction compared to conventional automotive laminates. These lightweight hybrid laminates provide additional benefits, including improved toughness and superior optics. However, glazing weight reduction leads to an increase in transmission of sound through the laminates for certain frequencies. This paper documents a study that uses a systematic test-based approach to understand the sensitivity of interior vehicle noise behavior to changes in acoustic attenuation driven by installation of lightweight glass.
Technical Paper

Optimal Parameter Calibration for Physics Based Multi-Mass Engine Model

2017-03-28
2017-01-0214
Designing an efficient transient thermal system model has become a very important task in improving fuel economy. As opposed to steady-state thermal models, part of the difficulty in designing a transient model is optimizing a set of input parameters. The first objective in this work is to develop an engine compatible physics-based 1D thermal model for fuel economy and robust control. In order to capture and study the intrinsic thermo-physical nature, both generic “Three Mass” and “Eight Mass” engine models are developed. The models have been correlated heuristically using Simulink. This correlation and calibration process is challenging and time consuming, especially in the case of the 8-mass model. Hence, in this work a Particle Swarm Optimizer (PSO) method has been introduced and implemented on a simple 3-mass and more complex 8-mass engine thermal model in order to optimize the input parameters.
Technical Paper

Meeting 2025 CAFE Standards for LDT with Fuel-Efficient Diesel Powertrains - Approaches and Solutions

2017-03-28
2017-01-0698
In view of changing climatic conditions all over the world, Green House Gas (GHG) saving related initiatives such as reducing the CO2 emissions from the mobility and transportation sectors have gained in importance. Therefore, with respect to the large U.S. market, the corresponding legal authorities have defined aggressive and challenging targets for the upcoming time frame. Due to several aspects and conditions, like hesitantly acting clients regarding electrically powered vehicles or low prices for fossil fuels, convincing and attractive products have to be developed to merge legal requirements with market constraints. This is especially valid for the market segment of Light-Duty vehicles, like SUV’S and Pick-Up trucks, which are in high demand.
Journal Article

Next-Generation Low-Voltage Power Nets Impacts of Advanced Stop/Start and Sailing Functionalities

2017-03-28
2017-01-0896
The range of tasks in automotive electrical system development has clearly grown and now includes goals such as achieving efficiency requirements and complying with continuously reducing CO2 limits. Improvements in the vehicle electrical system, hereinafter referred to as the power net, are mandatory to face the challenges of increasing electrical energy consumption, new comfort and assistance functions, and further electrification. Novel power net topologies with dual batteries and dual voltages promise a significant increase in efficiency with moderate technological and financial effort. Depending on the vehicle segment, either an extension of established 12 V micro-hybrid technologies or 48 V mild hybridization is possible. Both technologies have the potential to reduce fuel consumption by implementing advanced stop/start and sailing functionalities.
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